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S./6. 



HISTORY 



BBRW^IOKSHIRB 



NATURALISTS' CLUB. 



INSTITUTED SEPTEMBER 23, 1831. 



"MARE ET TELLUS, ET, QUOD TEGIT OMNIA, (JCELUM.' 



1879— 188L 



ALNWICK : 
PRINTED FOR THE CLUB 

BY HENEY HUNTER BLAIR, MARKET PLACE. 

188 2. 









r 



\ 



PROCEEDINGS 



BERWICKSHIRE NATURALISTS' CLUB, 



Address delivered to the Berivichshire Naturalists' Club, at 
Berwick, October 15th, 1879. By John Paxton, Esq., 
President. 

Gentlemen, 

My first duty is to thank you most sincerely for having 
chosen me as your President for the year now about to ex- 
pire. That you should have elected me, who am only a 
smatterer in Natural Science, knowing a little of many 
things and not much of anything, to succeed such an 
eminent veteran as Professor Balfour, astonished no one so 
much as myself; and now standing here, I feel my position 
most keenly, as I am conscious how far my humble en- 
deavours must fall short of his eloquent and instructive 
address. On that occasion he was accompanied by his wife 
and son. I am sure the deep sympathies of the members 
are with Dr Balfour in the painful bereavement he has since 
then sustained in the death of Mrs Balfour. 

Soon after I commenced my medical studies, fifty-three 

years ago, in this town, under the late Dr Cahill, I had the 

good fortune to make the acquaintance of Dr Johnston, one 

of the original founders of this Club, and its first President. 

B.N.C. — VOL. IX. NO. I. A 



2 Anniversary Address. 

He was at that time preparing his " Flora of Berwick-upon- 
Tweed," and had two pupils — John Barnes and William Lilly, 
both of whom became my most intimate friends. They, be- 
sides their other professional duties, assisted him in collecting 
and arranging his plants, and I frequently helped them, and 
so had with and through them the benefit of his example 
and instructions. This was my first introduction to Botany, 
and, for all I know of it, as well as for a great deal more 
that I am sorry to say I have forgotten, I am indebted 
directly or indirectly to Dr Johnston. It is now fi^ty years 
since his first volume on Botany was published, and in it 
one can see how much his mind was imbued with a love of 
nature, and how he was qualified to impress upon others his 
own zeal and enthusiasm in the pursuit of natural science. 
In it also we can see how often the names of the men, who 
afterwards became the first members of the Club, are quoted 
as either finding new plants, or new habitats of known ones. 
We can thus discover that they were all of one mind and 
working together in one common cause, and how naturally 
the Club arose out of their intimate scientific and social re- 
lations. I can speak from personal experience of Dr John- 
ston's charming social qualities, and to give you a clearer 
idea of the extent of his general reading and of the taste and 
elegance of his mental endowments, I would refer you to 
passages from the poets Milton, Crabbe, Akenside, Southey, 
Wordsworth, Cowper, and Byron, as weU as from Dr John- 
son and other prose writers, with which he graces the heads 
of his chapters. That the enthusiasm of Dr Johnston, and 
the easy and liberal constitution of the Club as originally 
formed, struck a chord which harmonised with the disposi- 
tion of numerous minds, its extensive progeny of Field 
Clubs throughout the country, as well as the present wonder- 
ful increase of the Club, continue to shew. No doubt, since 
the parent members have mostly been taken from among 
us, we have been indebted to the same qualities in many 
others like minded, especially in our past presidents, and 
our honorary secretaries past and present. 



Anniversary Address. 3 

Witla reference to our meetings of this year, I shall say 
very little, as Mr Hardy has made copious notes, some of 
which he will read to us to-day ; and these in a more ex- 
tended form, you will be able to peruse in our next number. 
I will only mention that although the summer was so exces- 
sively wet, we were fortunate enough to encounter on one 
day only rain enough to hinder us from carrying out our 
programme. 

I cannot omit referring to the courteous reception of the 
members of the Club at the different places visited. 
Especially ought we to send a vote of thanks to Canon 
Green well, the President, and Captain White, the Secretary 
of the Northumberland and Durham Archaeological Society, 
for all their kind endeavours to entertain us; to Canon 
Greenwell also for his lecture, and Mr Longstaffe for his 
paper on Durham Castle, which we were sorry he could not 
read to us himself, as well as to his capital substitute. Canon 
Ornsby, who came forward at a moment's notice, that we 
should not be disappointed. I am sure the Durham meeting 
will remain with those of us who had the good fortune to 
be there, as a pleasant memory to the last day of our lives. 

It was in September, 1831, that this Club held its first 
meeting at Grant's House. As 1881 will be its jubilee year, 
I would suggest that the September meeting of that year 
should be held at the same place, and that we should en- 
deavour to have one of our oldest members as President. It 
would be very interesting to hear from the lips of such a 
one, his reminiscences of the early meetings and some of the 
unwritten traditions of the Club. 

In the Scotsman of Friday, the 12th September, appeared 
a notice of our last number, evidently written by one who 
has a thorough taste for our pursuits, and who seems to be 
well acquainted with Roxburghshire. There are two 
passages in that article I should like to quote to you. In 
the first he says, " is anything in this world better than m- 
nocent enjoyment in a loved companionship ? Some men 
gravely concerned in helping the world from running ofi" the 



4 Anniversary Address. 

rails, or eternally building up ambitious schemes that a 
single gust of ill fortune may wreck, as the storm tears to 
atoms the glittering silken web of the spider, cannot under- 
stand all the much ado of naturalists about nothing. May 
this not be chiefly because they have never personally 
dipped into such pursuits, have never thrown themselves 
into contact with the living power of nature speaking 
through the green ferns, the waving boughs, the varied hues 
and forms of the vegetable world, the humming insects with 
all their curious organisms, the singing birds with multiform 
methods of attack and defence, the habits of the animated 
tribes, and the wonderful mental endowment which enables 
them to maintain existence in their world, which seems to 
have no law but individual will. Along with all these the 
naturalist enjoys the music of the life around him, the gush 
and gurgle and dash of the running stream, the contrast of 
green woodland with the grey moorland, the calm repose of 
the stable hills, filling eye and ear and other unnamed 
senses with exquisite enjoyment, calling forth new sympa- 
thies with the life around him, disenthralling his spirit from 
antiquated bondage and giving him continual sips of that 
fine freedom of spirit which comes from looking into nature 
with one's own eyes and reason." Here is fine writing, 
much finer than anything I could possibly say in praise of 
our pursuits. The other passage is about Geology. He 
says, " Geology is the only science that seems to be over- 
looked by those ardent explorers, and this we may be 
allowed to regret, as the Old Red and most of the Silurian 
in the counties of Berwick, Roxburgli, and Selkirk are 
fossiliferous, but the extent to which they are so, and the 
stratigraphical relations of the respective stages of these 
formations are yet to be worked out by patient investiga- 
tion of resident observers. The valley of the Jed from 
Dovesford upwards, and that portion of the Slitrig, south of 
Stobs Castle, and up to the Cheviots, as well as Silurian 
areas south-west and north-east of these lines, contain 
numerous bands of upper Silurian Shales, crammed with 



Anniversary Address. 5 

fossils, waiting to be disinterred. What the Llandoveries of 
Berwickshire, Lauderdale, and Tweeddale above Melrose 
contain is better known, but the fossil treasures in these 
rocks have, as yet, been but partially explored ; and the dis- 
covery of fossils in the rocks between the Ettrick and 
Teviot, would be hailed by many geologists as at present 
the most important geological work which could be under- 
taken in Scotland." Now, I would wish to bring the last 
passage under the notice of our western members ; I do not 
know that part of the country at all myself, but I am sure 
it would be an excellent work for any of our members 
resident in that neighbourhood, especially younger members, 
to investigate its Geology and Paleontology. 

Although there happens to be no geological article in our 
last number, yet we have by no means neglected that 
science, for there are many excellent and important articles 
on the subject in many of our former volumes ; and at our 
Alnmouth meeting, Mr Topley gave us a very interesting 
account of some of his explorations and discoveries on the 
south side of the Cheviots, and both he and Professor 
Lebour have promised to enrich our next volume with con- 
tributions on this topic. 

At Durham, Canon Greenwell gave us advice, which 
must not be lost sight of, viz., to endeavour by all means in 
our power, to induce the owners of interesting ruins to take 
steps to preserve them as far as possible in their present 
state, without attempting to restore them in the way by 
which so much mischief has been done to many of our old 
historic buildings. I am glad to say that Mr Jerningham, the 
owner of Norham Castle, has done a great deal within the 
last year or two to prevent as far as possible the further 
ravages of time on that very fine ruin. 

I must conclude by thanking those numerous members 
who have supported me by attending our meetings, and also 
by doing a great share of the speaking for me ; and I now 
call upon Mr Hardy, our indefatigable and hard-worked 
honorary secretary, to read some of his notes of our meet- 
ings which he may think most interesting. 



6 

Report of the Meetings of the Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Club for the year 1879. By James Haedy. 

The last meeting for 1878 was held at Berwick, on Wednes- 
day, 16tli October. Among others who took part in the day's 
proceedings, there were — the President, Professor Balfour ; the 
two Secretaries ; Sir Walter Elliot, K.C.S.I., &c., &c. ; Captain 
Milne Home, M.P., Paxton House ; Eevs. J. F. Bigge, Stam- 
fordham ; William Darnell, Bamhurgh ; William Dobie, Lady- 
kirk; Hugh Evans, Scremerston ; James Henderson, Ancroft; 
John George Eowe, Berwick ; Evan Eutter, Spittal ; Joshua 
Hill Scott, Kelso ; E. Hopper Williamson, Whickham ; Capt. J, 
A. Forbes, E.N., Berwick; Capt. F. M. Norman, E.N., Ber- 
wick ; Dr Isaac Bayley Balfour, Edinburgh ; Dr Barrie, Dum- 
fries ; Dr Colville Brown, Berwick ; Dr Alexander Dewar, Mel- 
rose ; Dr Eobert Carr Fluker, Berwick ; Dr John Paxton, 
Norham ; Dr Henry Eichardson, E.N., Berwick ; Messrs E. Gr. 
Bolam and Greorge Bolam, Berwick ; William B Boyd, Ormiston ; 
Andrew Brotherston, Kelso ; William Chartres, Ayton ; John 
Clay, Berwick ; William Crawford, Dunse ; William Cunning- 
ham, Coldstream ; Thomas Darling, Berwick ; Ealph Forster of 
Castlehills, Berwick ; James B. Kerr, Kelso ; James Nicholson, 
Murton, Berwick ; A. T. Eobertson, Berwick ; Stanley Hill 
Scott, Kelso ; William Stevenson, Dunse ; John Thomson, 
Kelso ; Charles Watson, Dunse ; William Weatherhead, Ber- 
wick ; William Wilson, Berwick ; Matthew Young, Berwick. 

The members assembled in the Billiard-room of the King's 
Arms Hotel, where Professor Balfour delivered his Address. 
Those who attended were gratified to see that the venerable Pro- 
fessor had so far rallied from a severe illness, as to be enabled 
to speak a few words in season, and to shew by his presence the 
great interest he felt in the welfare of the Club. The remem- 
brance of this event is the more touching now, that he has lost 
since then his amiable partner in life, who, as well as his son, 
accompanied him to Berwick on this occasion, The Eeport of 
the Proceedings at the different meetings for the season, was 
read, after which Dr Paxton of Norham was elected as President 
for the ensuing year. 

On this, as on previous anniversaries, the house, once Dr 
Johnston's, was opened by Mrs Barwell Carter, to members, most 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 7 

of whom availed themselves of her invitation, and it gave them 
all sincere pleasure that the associations and memories connected 
with this interesting house were still kept bright. 

The following were proposed as members : — Mr John Watson 
Laidley, F.S.A., Scot., Seacliffe, North Berwick; Mr J. K. 
Weatherhead, Berwick ; Mr Stanley Hill Scott, Kelso ; and 
were, along with the others nominated at the country meetings, 
admitted to the membership of the Club. The meetings for 
1879 were fixed upon, as afterwards carried out. 

Mr Scott, of the Corporation Academy, brought to this meet- 
ing two copper coins, dissimilar to any with which we are usually 
familiar. They had been dug up during the formation of Mr 
Oswald's Auction Mart, on the line of the old wall round Ber- 
wick, quite near to the turnpike road as it passes over the rail- 
way. Since then Mr Scott has allowed me to examine them, 
and I have come to the conclusion that they are of Spanish 
origin, and, as the antique lettering indicates, referable to an 
early period. The coins are thin, about the size of silver pennies 
of Edward I. ; well executed, but not struck fair on the metal ; 
and the legend is imperfect from friction. On the obverse with- 
in a triple circle, a hand grasps, as if to hold together, three 
bands stretched archwise across the disc ; the middle one of 
which is strongest. The legend is -f lACOBVS DEI OEACIA 
EEX. : James by the Q-race of God King. On the disc of the 
reverse is a passion cross, bordured by a quadrifoil, the lunate 
segments of which are of double arches fastened at the tips by 
trefoils. The legend is + CRVX PELLIT OE CEVO. : the 
cross drives away every cross. Minute crosses are placed as 
pauses betwixt several of the words. The marks of its being 
Spanish, are: — 1. The use of the word Q-EAOIA. instead of 
GEATIA. 2. The cross on the disc is the old arms of the king- 
dom of Aragon ; azure, a cross argent.'^' 3. The three combined 
bands are emblematical of circumstances distinguishing the 
reigns of James I. and II., kings of Aragon. James or Jayme 
I., reigned from 1213 to 1256. He conquered Majorca in 1228, 
and Valencia in 1238, both from the Moors, and united them to 
his native realm. He was thus justly entitled to bear aloft ''the 
strange device," of a triple cord. His exploits secured for him 
the epithet of El Conquistador. 

* Heylyn's Cosmography by Bohun, p. 233. 



8 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

' ' James he is called, and he shall be 
King- James the Conqueror ! 
Now shall the Orescent wane 
The Cross be set on high — 
Valencia shall be subdued ; 
Majorca shall be won ; 
The Moors be routed everywhere ; 
Joy, joy to Aragon." 

SOUTHEY. 

Equally applicable is another triple combination, decreed by 
Jay me II., who reigned from 1271 to 1308, in a general assem- 
bly of estates, viz., that Aragon, Valencia, and Catalonia should 
never afterwards be separated.^-' This hieroglyph then is appro- 
priate to either. The coin may have reached Berwick through 
the medium of Gascon troops in the service of the first three 
Edwards, in their attempts to subdue Scotland. Gascony in 
those ages was conterminous with Aragon, except for the inter- 
vention of the Pyrenees. In June, 1298, Edward I. made a 
great efi'ort to crush the Scots, and was successful in winning the 
battle of Falkirk, July 22. There arrived to his support, a 
strong body of Gascons, about five hundred of whom were men- 
at-arms, mounted on excellent horses, and clad in brilliant 
armour; of these a detachment garrisoned Berwick, and re- 
mained there until after the king's victory.f While at Berwick 
some of these foreign troops may have aided in the repairs of 
the fortifications of Berwick in 1297-8. J Again, about 1316, we 
have Gascons in Berwick, with a brave knight at their head, in 
command of the town, whom Sir James Douglas encountered 
and slew at Skaithmuir, near Coldstream, after he and his garri- 
son had made a successful raid into Teviotdale. 
" That tym in Berwik wes duelland 

Edmound de Cailow, a Gascoune, 

That wes a kycht of gret renoune ; 

And in till Gascoune, his contre, 

Lord off gret senyowry wes he. 

He had Berwik in keping."§ 
In this skirmish " many Gascons were slain. "|| 

The first meeting for 1879 was held at Reston, on Wednesday, 

* Moreri Diet. Hist., Tome iii. 

f Chronicon Walteri de Hemingburgh, ii., p. 174. 

+ Documents Illustrative of the Hist, of Scotland, ii., p. 160. 

6 Barbour's Bruce, Book x. 1. 878, etc, || Scala Chronica. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 9 

The first meeting for 1 879 was held at Eeston, on Wednesday, 
May 14. There were present — Dr Paxton, President ; Mr 
Hardy, 'Secretary ; Sheriff Eussell, Jedbank ; Eevs. Adam 
Spence, Houndwood ; William Stobbs, Gordon ; Capt. F. M. 
Norman, E.N., Berwick ; Messrs William Currie of Linthill ; 
John Dunlop, Berwick ; James Greenfield, Eeston ; John James 
Horsley, Alnwick ; Peter Loney, Marchmont ; George Muirhead, 
Paxton ; John Thomson, Kelso ; Charles Watson, Dunse ; Wm. 
Wilson, Berwick ; and James Wood, Galashiels. 

The morning was misty and raw, but the fog eventually dissi- 
pated, and a dry and pleasant walk was enjoyed among the 
woods, and along the winding roadways on the banks of the 
Eye. The grounds of Coveyheugh House, through the permis- 
sion of the proprietor, Mr James S. Mack, S.S.O., were first 
visited. The mansion is perched on a crag that rises in succes- 
sive tiers of broken strata, which give it more the contour of a 
basaltic than a greywacke rock. It is modern, but the situation 
is not unlike the aerie of a border chieftain, and the lady. Miss 
Isobell Hall, for whom it was built, had evidently a good eye 
for the picturesque. It is not without a considerable covering of 
native oaks, and other planted trees ; but the present occupier is 
making other improvements, which will conduce greatly to its 
amenity. It is as romantic a situation for a residence as can be 
found on the course of the Eye water. Though confined, it has 
a commanding outlook, and affords a sweet view of the stream 
gliding down a level haugh, past a tile-roofed mill, and away 
round behind Eeston. Fxamples of the severity of the bypast 
winter were here apparent ; which were more marked in shrubs 
planted two years ago, and not yet perfectly established. Ivy 
was extremely withered, and so were the Boxwood edgings. 
Laurus nohlis was almost killed to the ground ; Prunus lauro- 
cerasus was blighted ; and Lauristinus was considerably scorched. 
A Wellingtonia, of considerable size, twelve years old, was quite 
singed brown ; while on the other hand a Cednis deodora was not 
perceptibly affected. Aucuha Japonica, which has stood the late 
extreme winter well, was only slightly touched ; the Ehododen- 
drons were unimpaired, and some of them were in full blossom. 
Of wild spring flowers, pile-worts, golden saxifrages, and wood 
anemones had come into blossom. Among the crags, and by the 
wayside, grew much bishop-weed, Herb Mercury, the great 

B 



10 Beport of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

wood-rush, a quantity of London Pride witli most luxuriant 
foliage, Saxifraga granulata among the dry rocks, and some plants 
of Campanula latifolia. A small crag of greywacke slate on the 
opposite bank of the Eye shews the native tendency of the rock 
here to become clothed with the glossy moss, LesTcea sericea, as 
well as the obscure greenery of Madotheca platyphylla, and with 
Lecanora parella, which spreads a coating of white-wash over the 
stones that it affects. Tufts of Asplenium Trichomanes and 
clusters of the common Polypody issue from the dry chinks and 
ledges, along with a crop of granulated saxifrage. 

A detached field that was passed after crossing the Eye has a 
story attached to it, worthy of preservation, as a picture of the 
habits of bypast times. Originally it was a pendicle of Hillend, 
the next property. The laird of Hillend wanted a horse, but 
had not the means to purchase it ; and the laird of Houndwood 
possessed a horse that exactly suited his neighbour's require- 
ments, but he was not willing to part with it on trust. To obtain 
the horse, Hillend conveyed this field to Houndwood ; and it is 
now incorporated with the Houndwood lands. 

Crossing the public road near a bridge, the company entered 
Lamington dean. The under portion belongs to Hillend, and 
is the only part of it worthy of a visit. The name Lamington 
dean is a pleonasm. The word as written in documents is 
Lamendene (1620), Lambdene (1621), Lamenden (1632), 
Lamendean (1751), and Lamenden (1755). It having pro- 
bably afforded a sheltered situation, where ewes were placed 
in the lambing season, it was from that circumstance called the 
Lambing dean, which name was subsequently communicated to 
the farm-steading situated on its brink. 

At the entrance to the dean a Tree-pipit was heard in full 
song ; and the warble of the Black-cap saluted us when within 
its precincts. Willow- wrens were numerous and vocal. The 
lower end of the dean is planted. It then becomes more open, 
and there a great quantity of drift, mostly gravel, has accu- 
mulated in an ancient fissure that formed the primordial dean. 
A section shews that this drift consisted chiefly of rolled grey- 
wacke, mixed with sandstones, greenstones, porphyries, and a 
dark shale coloured clay, along with sand-beds. Some of these 
materials have their nearest home in the Lothians ; and some 
even of the Silurian constituents may be derived from the old 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 11 

conglomerates tliat flank the East Lothian Lammermoors. Here 
a pair of recently-arrived Grey Wagtails disported themselves in 
lively attitudes by the side of the burn. Where the water had 
cut down to the rock, and little waterfalls were formed, there 
grew among the mosses many pretty shell-shaped tufts of the 
pale-green Jungermanni serpyllifolia, a rarish species ; and 
farther up beneath the trees a green state of J. albicans, and 
abundance of J. harhata, and also of Madotheca platyphjUa. The 
greywacke and its accompanying slate here, as Avell as at Covey- 
heugh, have a red ground tint. The soil, besides being full of 
stones, is in general poor and yellow-hued, being that produced 
by a super-abundance of decayed slate. The predominance of 
slate is shewn wherever sections of the rock are exposed in the 
ravines. The furze bushes which were passed had been much 
compressed by the heavy loads of winter's snow that they had 
had to sustain, and many of the twigs had been severely frost 
bitten. It was a trying season for furze fences. 

Houndwood House is a fine old building standing by a little 
dean, in which grow fine old trees ; and of these there are many 
in other parts of the ground. A rookery is established near the 
house. On the eastern side, the house and private grounds are 
sheltered by lines of well-grown aged hollies, protected by an 
outer belt of trees. The hollies were well worth seeing. Along 
with the other shrubs they had been so well screened, as to be 
quite uninjured by the winter's inclemency ; and the Deodars, 
Wellingtonias, and Auracarias had likewise escaped the ordeal. 
A very fine series of Ehododendrons is cultivated here, to which 
the situation appears to be adapted ; as nothing could be gayer 
than the show of blossom, when it had attained its perfection, 
some weeks afterwards. The following sorts are grown here : — 
Queen Victoria, Minnie, Mr John Waterer, Mrs John Waterer, 
the Grand Arab, the Gem, Hugh Eraser ; delicatum, purjmreum, 
andfastuosum. There are said to be few other places in Berwick- 
shire that can rival the display here. In the grounds there is 
much bishopweed, a prevalent concomitant of old gardens, in- 
troduced in some evil hour. Arum maculatum,, Doronicum JParda- 
Uanches, oxlips, coloured primroses, daffodils and other Narcissi, 
the Lily of the Valley, and some fine plots of Solomon's Seal 
grew in a half -wild state ; and there are several Liliums planted 
out. The birds sow Daphne Laureola all about the place. There 



12 Rejwrt of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

is a good liorse-cliestmit in the inner grounds ; and a stUl finer 
one below the post-road ; both this season most profuse in blos- 
som. The old garden was in front of the house, and was much 
nicer than the present, which has a tenacious damp soil, in con- 
sequence of which the fruit trees were full of lichens. There 
were some good old perennials in the borders, which are said to 
have enjoyed a long tenancy. Among others noticed were 
Solomon's Seal ; Pulmonaria virginica then in lively blossom ; the 
Crown Imperial in flower; Physalis Alkekengi (Winter Cherry), 
which had been brought from Northumberland ; Anchusa semper- 
mrens, here called " Eorget-me-not ;" Fritillaria Meleagris, nick- 
named " Ugly face ;" Anthericum Liliaster ; and the scarlet- 
flowered Ourisia cocctnea. A species of garden-spurge was 
observed coming up like a weed, but it was in too infantile a 
condition for determination. Among the salads grow some 
plants of Spignel, or Meum athamanticum, not a common garden 
plant. The ivy here, as elsewhere, was still loaded with berries, 
which the birds had left untouched, their winter's distress arising 
from the continuance of extreme cold rather than the lack of 
food. 

The holly-leaves, even as early as our visit, were much de- 
formed by the Maggot of Phytomyza Ilicis. Despite the winter's 
severity, there was here, as elsewhere, a great plague of slugs 
dui'ing the spring and summer. 

In the dean below the house, which has been natively rendered 
gay by the Lychnis dioica, there has been planted out a profusion 
of hyacinth-harebells of garden sorts, and also Doronicum planta- 
gineum. The woods and shrubbery are quite a sanctuary for 
birds. Thrushes so much reduced in numbers elsewhere were in 
full song here ; blackbirds were fairly numerous ; and some 
weeks after fly-catchers and robins were busy in their old 
haunts ; the hard-billed sorts not having met with disaster, need 
not be specified. The rooks, although noisy during the day. 
settle down quietly at night ; but they snore in their sleep, which 
may not be altogether agreeable to a stranger who has been told 
that the house, like most old mansions, has a haunted room. 

The most ancient part of the house is a peel-tower, which is 
still in its entirety, and though occupied, Mrs Coulson, the aged 
owner, has done all in her power to keep it as it was three hun- 
dred years ago. Over the door, which is at the N.W. corner, is 



Re'port of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 13 

placed a modern stone sculptured with the crest of the Turnbulls 
—a bull's head— with the motto, "I saved the king." Higher 
up is an older stone, brought from the old mansion house of 
Fulfordlees, now puUed down, which till recently, pertained to 
the ancestors of the present occupant of Houndwood. On a cen- 
tral shield is a monogram, TjjE, the whole surrounded with the 
Latin rhyming couplet : — 

"nvnc mea, tvnc hvjys, 
Post illivs nescio cvjvs, 
1656;" 
which is literally '' Now mine, then his, afterwards theirs, I know 
not whose ;" or more freely, ' ' What is mine to-day, may be yours 
to-morrow." Master (either a clergyman or a lawyer) Thomas 
Eeidpeth was proprietor of " Foulfuirdleyes " before June 14, 
1666, when Major John Eeidpeth, his immediately elder brother, 
was served his heir of conquest ; i.e. he had laid out money in 
acquiring the right ; in the lands of " Fowlfuirdleyes and Whyt- 
lawclovis," in the parish of Oockburnspath.^' But the family 
tradition represents that the T. E., of the inscription was a Major 
Thomas Eeidpath, or Eidpeth, who in 1650 commanded the com- 
panies that blocked up the Pass of the Pease, when Oliver Crom- 
well was hemmed in, previous to his rupture of the cordon by 
winning the battle of Dunbar.f There was once preserved in 
the family a letter from one of the Icing Charleses, in which, 
while thanking him for his efforts in his cause, it was said of 
him, that if every leal subject had behaved as strenuously, the 
affairs of monarchy would have been retrieved. "We find, how- 
ever, Mr, and not Major, Thomas Eidpeth laird of Ffulfurdlies 
from 1648 to 1661. In 1648, the last year of Charles I., he was 
one of the Commissioners for Berwick to carry out '' An Act of 
Posture anent the putting of the Kingdom in ane posture of warr 
for defence ;" and in the time of Charles H., March 29, 1661, he, 
as a heritor, occupied the same office, for "raising an annuitie 
of 40000 lib. sterling granted to his Majestic. "| On this ac- 
count I think that a Major John, and not a Major Thomas, was 
the royalist. 

* Inquisit. Retornat. (Berwick), No. 340. 
t "The enemy hatli blocked up our way at the Pass at Copperspath, 
through which we cannot get without almost a miracle." — Carlyle's Crom- 
well's Letters, &c., iii., p, 30. 

\ Act Pari, Scot, vi., part ii., p. 33. — vii. p. 95. 



14 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

On being invited to enter, the company were received with, 
great kindness by Mrs Coulson, wbo, thougb in ber 84th year, is 
still hale and hearty ; and by Miss Coulson, who gave herself an 
amount of trouble to shew the visitors everything. Some 
tapestry from Italy (subject— a shepherd, sheep, and trees) was 
to be seen in the entry hall ; also some curiosities found on the 
estate, including a ball the size of one's fist, of iron coated with 
lead, attributed to the Cromwellian period, although probably 
older. There was also a plain massive gold wedding-ring, with 
the inscription : lvve is the bond of peace, which had 
been found in the neighbourhood. Another of corresponding 
appearance was said to have also been picked up, but trace of 
it had been lost. The company was then conducted up the 
narrow stone stairs to an upper landing place, where some 
more tapestry, belonging to the house, representing a wed- 
ding scene, was preserved. Descending the stairs, the vaults 
were visited, where the cattle were kept in ancient times when 
invasion was threatened ; these being now utilised for domestic 
purposes. In one small side apartment two shoulder blades of a 
sheep were fixed in the walls for pins. There was a recess at 
the south end wherein the calves had been kept separate from 
the older cattle. A servant's hall has been made out of the half 
of it. The vaults were lighted by upright arrow slits, which 
open wide inwards. The family rooms were inspected, including 
a bed-room wherein, according to tradition, Queen Mary once 
slept, which contains, along with other paintings, a very pretty 
youthful portrait of that unfortunate princess. This was a cir- 
cumscribed narrow room. The- visitants were greatly pleased to 
see the very agreeable adaptation of the ancient apartments to 
modern requirements. Before leaving, the company partook of 
Mrs Coulson's hospitality. 

On leaving Houndwood the end of the road leading to Auchen- 
crow and Ohirnside was passed. A little way down, on the 
upperside of the railway, is an extensive deposit of sand over- 
topped by gravel and rolled stones, mostly of greywacke. There 
are many such mounds along this part of the Eye valley. The 
sand, of which an unlimited supply for building purposes can be 
here obtained, is sometimes fifteen feet deep, the intermixture 
with narrow streams of gravel being very small. It was while 
excavating gravel, hereabouts, in a position still nearer the 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 15 

railway, tliat about ten years ago, a British urn was found at tlie 
great depth of 15 feet beneath the surface. In working the 
facing of the railway cutting for gravel, this urn was exposed 
upon the occurrence of a fall of a quantity of the material. It 
was then dug carefully out, and was presented by Mr Green, 
engineer, to the Berwick Museum, where it is now preserved. 
Other two, if not more, had been discovered there previously. A 
coloured sketch of this urn was brought by Captain Norman to 
the meeting. The urn contained, mixed with clay, a number of 
human bones, with some perfect teeth among them. It had no 
bottom when it came to the Museum. It is of more than usual 
capacity ; the diameter at the mouth is 11 f inches ; and at its 
widest part, 14 inches ; the depth of what remains is 8 inches. 
It is of rough workmanship and of rude material. The orna- 
mentation which is only on the upper half of the urn is of two 
kinds. On the one half of the round it consists of spaces with 4 
or 5 upright lines, followed alternately by others with as many 
lines disposed horizontally. An unbroken long line bounds the 
lower edge of this kind of pattern. On the other half of the 
round, there is no fixed plan, some of the lines, which are of the 
dotted kind, and not entire, are perpendicular, and some hori- 
zontal; others angular, and even cross-hatched. The lower 
boundary line across the vessel on this side is of the dotted kind. 
A series of short oblique lines ornament the rim round the 
mouth. 

The company walked northwards along the public road that 
passes what was formerly Houndwood Inn, now the Free Church 
manse. Formerly the banks hereabouts, and continuing south- 
wards to Heughhead, were occupied with brush and coppice 
wood, like that still conserved on the Eenton property. Hillend 
also had its natural woods {sylvis) as we learn from a lietour 
dated April 26, 1632.* The bank opposite to that on which the 
Free Church is situated, used to be called the " Wul-cat-brae, " 
which furnishes another testimony to the former existence of a 
not very popular member of the native fauna. A corn mill once 
stood on the haugh by the Eye, intermediate between the Free 
Church and Chirnside road. Near the smithy, but on the 

* Inquis. Ret. Berwick, No. 533. Also, Act Pari. James VI., 1621, vol. 
iy., p. 658. " All and haill the Landis of Hilend with the woddis of the 



16 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

opposite side of the road are several bird-cherry trees ; others 
grow by the road-side, near Eenton house. 

Passing the Free Church manse, a fine clump of beech trees 
indicates the site of an old nursery. Old Amperly, now abro- 
gated, lay on the western side of the Eye, on Horsely farm, 
opposite the Established Church manse. Amperly, once a pos- 
session of the Coldingham monks, was granted by them in 1334 
to one Lewis de Cornoioi. " After that it was long the residence 
of the hereditary foresters (under-foresters must be meant) of 
Benton, which office for many generations was held by a family 
of the name of Craik."* There was a piece of ancient forest 
in its neighbourhood, called Amperly wood, which is now nearly 
extirpated. The North-British Railway runs through the site of 
its cottages. An old man, whose memory must have gone back 
to eighty years, told me that in his youth the farm-garden at 
Amperly was notable for producing quantities of "lilies" or 
daffodils. The offspring of these plants appear to have been 
discributed among most of the gardens thereabouts. In few 
places are there more to be seen ; and nowhere more profusely 
than in the manse garden, where also the Crown Imperial hung 
out its crop of bells. 

The public road now winds finely among woods and wayside 
trees, at each turn revealing an agreeable succession of sylvan 
prospects. After enjoying these for a time, the company turned 
into the adjacent natural wood, which is mentioned in the 
Coldingham charters as the " Grenewde," which name it retains. 
This wood is of considerable, extent, and the trees which are 
mainly oaks, birches, hazels, mountain ashes, and sallows, with a 
sprinkling of hollies, have the gnarled appearance common to 
aU ancient natural forest growths. Vegetation was too back- 
ward to admit of much botanising. Among a wealth of prim- 
roses in f uU blossom, a plant of the red variety was noticed by 
the Eev. WiUiam Stobbs. It is a variety grown in gardens, but 
was here truly wild. I know not whether it has been by paying 
more attention than usual to the forms of Primula, that I have 
this season detected two other varieties wild. In Oldcambus 
dean I found a stalked form of this very colour ; thus approxi- 
mating the Polyanthus. Again in the Pease dean, on one of the 
railway slopes, I came upon a colony of a variety of the primrose 
* Henderson's Popular Ehymes, &c., of Berwick, p. 44. 



Meport of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 17 

with nearly white flowers. There was a blush of pink on some 
of these when they decayed ; and hence I infer that they are a 
sport from the red sort, which is occasionally obtained in that 
locality. To resume, beds of the wood anemone of a variety of 
hues from white to light purple grew on the drier soil. The 
parasitic fungus on the leaves of this plant was common. Pyrola 
minor was not un frequent ; and there was a profusion of the 
Betonica officinalis, Ajuga reptans, Sanicula Europma, Hypericum 
pulchrum, Melampyrum pratense, Adoxa moschatellina, Lathyrus 
macrorhi%us, Geranium sylvaticum, Alchemilla vulgaris, Lysimachia 
nemorum, Oxalis acetosella, and Viola syhatica. There were many 
grey willow trees in blossom. These have this season been 
attended by extraordinary quantities of queen humble bees, 
which, perhaps owing to the cold having killed the field mice 
that would have fed on them, escaped the winter uninjured. 
This did not apply to the wasps, which have been extremely 
scarce. This wood was intersected by several deep but short 
ravines, with petty streams at the bottom, which present a suc- 
cession of noisy waterfalls during spates, but ;,;e almost dried 
up for the rest of the year. 

The Eev. Adam Spence pointed out the site of an old British 
camp, half-way up the ascending ground, above old Houndwood 
Inn, on the march between Houndwood and Renton estates. 
Some other memorials of the old inhabitants in this immediate 
district, may not inappropriately be here adverted to, inasmuch 
as they have hitherto been unrecorded. On the moor behind 
Greenwood farm lies Grreenwood moss. In this, a long time 
since, as I was told by the late Mr Hope, the peat-diggers on 
one occasion dug out an old bronze caldron, which was composed 
of thin plates of metal riveted together. Another of the same 
kind was come upon in 1857, under the following circumstances. 
A drainer called James Hewitt was running a drain in Fawcet 
field, on Brockholes farm, which bounds the Eenton estate on 
the opposite side of the Eye, in a wet marshy place, on which 
nothing ever grew, evidently an old well-head, when he came 
upon a bronze caldron, with the mouth upwards. It had no 
apparatus for handles, but was described as for size and appear- 
ance to be like one of the largest furnace pots, and was composed 
of separate pieces, ''clinked together with copper nails." The 
bronze plates were thinner than even tinned iron. They were 

C 



18 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

so wasted, that when exposed to the air, they fell to pieces. Of 
this I have a portion. Of another domestic utensil, but in this 
instance a brass pot, I find a notice in the Berwick Advertiser 
of July 15, 1843. "In the course of last week, there was 
dug up from a moss, in the neighbourhood of Eenton, a large 
brass-pot, which from its peculiar form and the manner in which 
it is in various places corroded and worn, has evidently been 
concealed for many centuries. It has been sold (in Berwick) 
for old metal." In 1872, another bronze pot was dug up in 
Greenwood moss, and is now in the possession of Miss Stirling 
of Eenton House. It is a very neat example, and is entirely 
smooth ; the three ribbed feet are very short, and barely suflB.ce 
to keep the pot off the ground. It is furnished with loops for 
a handle. It is 11 inches high; and 33 inches in circuit at 
its greatest circumference. I have a bronze pot very similar, 
which is 10 inches in diameter at the top, and 7 inches at the 
neck ; its greatest circumference is 35^ inches ; and it stands 
11 inches high. The only ornament that it has are three low 
parallel ridges round the middle. It was ploughed up from 
a peaty deposit- in a field at Ecklaw, which lies up towards 
Hoprig-shiels, in the parish of Cockburnspath. There is 
something mysterious about these bronze-pots and caldrons 
being in most cases extracted from peat-mosses, or weU- 
eyes. I notice that in Mr Campbell's West Highland Tales, No. 
xxxi. (ii. p. 104) — " Osean after the Feen", written down in the 
island of Barra, that Osean cooks nine gigantic stags in the great 
caldron of the Teen, which was deposited within a knoll of 
rushes, that being the exact description of a grown-up well-head. 
It was certainly a most effective mode of concealment. 

After dinner at the Eed Lion Inn, Mr Watson, Dunse, ex- 
hibited the skin of a Stockdove {Columla^nas) shot at Nisbet near 
Dunse, where several had been seen. It was mentioned that 
Mr George Bolam, Berwick, had found two eggs of the Stock- 
dove in a rabbit-hole at Hutton Bridge ; and Mr Muirhead said 
that recently a Dotterel had appeared on Lamberton moor, where 
birds of that kind had not been seen for several years. About 
the same period, a flock frequented the hill above the post-road 
near Headchesters, on Eedheugh farm, on a newly-sown field 
near the moor edge. Mr Thomson mentioned that he had seen 
in Mr Brotherston's shop at Kelso a very fine female Peregrine 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 19 

Falcon, which, had been shot on the 8th May by John Hakin, 
near Leithohn, under rather peculiar circumstances. Hakin 
makes his living by shooting wood- pigeons, and uses a stuffed 
pigeon as a decoy. On the day named the decoy was on the 
ground, when the peregrine swooped down and knocked it to 
pieces — Hakin in his turn giving the peregrine its quietus. In 
a few days it woidd have been laying. Mr Alexander Leitch, 
Fairneyside, brought to the meeting a large bronze celt, from 
Hoselaw, Eoxburghshire, corresponding with one already figured 
in the Proceedings ; and a fine celt of green slate, described in 
last vol., from Longy ester in East Lothian. He had also intended 
to have exhibited two good examples of betrothal silver rings in 
his possession, which I have since seen. The one is broad and 
strong, and has two hands clasped, and round its circuit a series 
of capital letters of an antique character on separate flat pannels, 
which read IHESVS N. This was from the vicinity of Dunbar. 
There are similar rings in the museum of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Scotland ; one of a plain hoop of silver has the in- 
scription in full IHESYS NAZAEENVS ; another with pannels 
has only IHESYS.''^ Mr Leitch's second ring is a plain narrow 
hoop-ring, with the device of a convex heart, flanked by two 
quatrefoils marked with crosses, the arched footstalks of which 
issue from the top of the heart. Above the heart are two per- 
forations, by which it might be suspended, when not worn on the 
finger. It was picked up on Flodden field. A guilloche hoop- 
ring of silver gilt, with almost the same device, found at Eing- 
wood, was in 1864 exhibited to the British Archseological Asso- 
ciation.! 

Extracts were read from a number of letters received in 
answer to inquiries regarding the effects of the past winter on 
animal and vegetable life. In the course of conversation. Sheriff 
EusseU remarked that salmon were spawning up to the begin- 
ning of May. S 

The following were duly proposed and seconded as members 
of the Club : — Eev. Adam Spence, Houndwood ; Messrs Peter 
Cowe, Lochton ; James Q-reenfield, Eeston ; James Mein, 
Lamberton ; and George SkeUy, Alnwick. 

* Catalogue of Antiq. in Mus. Soc. of Ant. of Scotland, p. 157 ; see also 
Cat. of Antiq. &c., in Mus. of Archseolog. Institute, Edinr. 1856, p. 128. 
t Wood's "Wedding Day in All Ages, &c., ii. p. 143-4. 



20 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

On a previous day, April 21, when examining the ground for 
the meeting, it was remarked that Anchusa sempervirens is still 
growing where Mr Henderson indicated at the "roadside between 
the village of Reston and Eeston-mains, and on the bank at the 
head of the ' Valley-brae ' as you go from Eeston to Colding- 
ham." In this last habitat, which is near Heugh-head smithy, 
the stem was much hollowed out by the action of some large 
caterpillar. A quantity of Viola odorata was in blossom in a 
wood-bottom near the Eye, opposite a small garden, not far from 
Reston mill. A kingfisher was observed near Reston mill. The 
grey-backed crow had not then left. Two wrens were seen ; 
also a missel-thrush ; and a single song-thrush was heard in the 
evening. The late winter has made a melancholy deficiency in 
their ranks. 

The second meeting was held at Kelso and Morebattle, on 
Wednesday, June 25. The attendance was numerous, com- 
prising — Dr Paxton, President ; Mr Hardy, Secretary ; Revs. J. 
F. Bigge, Stamfordham ; Robert 0. Bromfield, Sprouston ; J. 
S. Grreen, Wooler ; Thomas Leishman, D.D., Linton ; David 
Paul, Roxburgh ; J. Hill Scott, Kelso ; William Stobbs, Gor- 
don ; and R. Hopper Williamson, Whickham ; Sheriff Russell ; 
Capt. J. Broad, Ashby, Melrose ; Capt. McPherson, Melrose ; 
Capt. J. xi. Forbes, R.N., Berwick; Dr Charles Douglas and Dr 
Alex. Mackenzie, Kelso; Messrs A. H. Borthwick, Ladiesyde 
Lodge, Melrose ; John B. Boyd of Cherrytrees ; W. B. Boyd, 
Ormiston ; Thomas Chartres, Summerfield, Ayton ; John Clay, 
Winfield ; Thomas Craig, Kelso ; William Currie of Linthill ; 
John Scott Dudgeon, Longnewton Place ; John Freer, Melrose ; 
William Johnson, Tweedbank, Kelso ; James B. Kerr, Kelso ; 
Peter Loney, Marchmont ; George Muirhead, Paxton ; Robert 
Renton, Fans ; Frederick Lewis Roy of Nenthorn ; John Russell, 
Galashiels; Septimus H. Smith and Master Alexander Robert- 
son Smith, Norham ; John Thomson, Kelso ; Charles Watson, 
Dunse ; and James Wood, Galashiels. 

After breakfast at Kelso, the company in conveyances took the 
Softlaw road, and proceeded to Grahamslaw, where the first halt 
was made. The hawthorns by the waysides, or in the plantings, 
or little glens opening now and then to the passer by, were full 
of blossom ; and very beautiful they were when the wind brushed 
through them, and mixed the green with the white sprays. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 21 

After gaining the rise a fine free view was obtained. Far away, 
like an unfolded mantle, a shower hung suspended above the 
dark blue Eildons, considerably augmenting their grandeur. In 
other directions the prospect was very extensive, and abounding 
with objects of interest. 

At Grahamslaw, the tenant, Mr James Cunningham, met the 
members and courteously conducted them through the grounds. 
The garden is large and well sheltered ; there is a vivid verdure 
on the grass round the house ; and the well-grown trees are leafy 
and umbrageous ; three elms were specially conspicuous. In the 
garden was a capacious stone bowl, with carvings of fruit and 
foliage on the exterior, sharply but roughly cut ; which some, 
from its having an aperture beneath to admit of the percolation 
of water, pronounced to be a font ; while others regarded it as 
possibly a fancy of some of the Bonnets of Marlefield. There is 
no history attached to it. Sheriff Russell called attention to a 
moth of the Plusia Gamma. This moth has been very abundant 
this season on the Borders, as well in summer as in autumn. In 
the Ehine district, between Neuwied and Siegen, and in Saxony, 
and elsewhere in Germany, its caterpillars have this summer 
been quite a plague, having destroyed large fields of sugar-beet, 
and damaged the crops of vetches, pease, beans, potatoes, and 
young clover ; and machines had to be invented for collecting 
them ; from 6 to 8 bushels of caterpillars being collected in a 
day. A butterfly of the Cynthia Cardui was also seen in the 
morning, another of the Lepidoptera that has gained notoriety 
this season, especially in Switzerland, where migratory bands, in 
the early part of the year, attracted public attention. The larva 
fortunately lives on thistles of various kinds. 

We are not told the name of the old possessor of this part of 
the barony of Eckford. In 1547, one " Jhon Grymslowe," who 
submits among other Eoxburghshire gentlemen to the power of 
the Duke of Somerset, may from his name, be regarded as the 
occupant at that period.^ It had been spoiled in 1523 and 1545. 
It is variously written Gramislaw, Grymslaw, Grynislawe in the 
Retours. In 1826, Grahamslaw was occupied by John Eiddell, 
Esq. ; under whose direction both banks of the river were 
planted, and the walks were laid out.f 

* Patten's Account of Somerset's Expedition, p. 89, 
f Mason's Border Tour, pp. 193-4, 



22 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

The liouse at Graliainslaw now occupies a pretty situation on 
a terrace overlooking a wooded hollow, along which flows the 
winding Kale with a somewhat impetuous current. The foot- 
path down to the water-side intersects a section of the old red 
sandstone, in which the strata were lying obliquely. The cele- 
brated caves were inspected, and were found to be spacious. 
"Walls have been introduced to uphold the roof, which give the 
appearance as if there had been a multiplicity of chambers. In 
1826, they appear to have been only reached with safety by the 
aid of the overhanging branches of trees.* Jeffrey in his 
•'History of Eoxburghshire " (vol. i. p. 44; and iii., p. 326) 
makes the statement that "■ the Grahamslaw or Douglas League," 
against the government, in the reign of James II., was contracted 
here ; but this is unsupported by any documentary evidence.f 
It is well known, however, that at a much later period, the 
Covenanters found refuge in these caves ; and that they occa- 
sionally held their meetings in a sequestered spot about half a 
mile distant up the river. | The Kale was here crossed by a 
fragile bridge. Every one will deplore the neglect which has 
permitted the house of Henry Hall, the famous covenanting 
laird, to become a ruin. It was a thatched dwelling ; the wide 
rude fireplace still remains entire. The ash-tree still exists 
under which tradition says his children were baptised by the 
outlawed preachers. The famous Mr Eichard Cameron was 
licenced to preach, by two other worthies, Mr Welch and Mr 
Temple, "at Haughead in Teviotdale, at the house of Henry 
Hall."§ Henry Hall was a noted champion of the Covenant. 
He was engaged in the battle of Bullion Grreen among the Pent- 
lands, and acted as a leader in both the conflicts of Drumclog 
and Bothwell Bridge. He was fatally wounded in an attempt to 
take him prisoner at Queensferry, June 3, 1680 ; and the copy 
of an unsubscribed paper found upon him, generally called the 
'' Queensferry paper," from its uncompromising character, greatly 

* Mason's Border Tour, pp. 193-4. 
t " The Grahamslaw League" was unknown to Godscroft. "The 
"Douglas League" was with the Earls of Crawford and Ross, northern 
Earls. There was no call for the most potent of all the Earls of Douglas to 
concert a plot like a felon in a Border cavern. — Godscroft' s Hist, of Douglas 
and Angus, i., pp. 344, 352. 

X New Stat. Account of Eox., p. 226. § Howie's Scots Worthies. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 23 

imbittered the government against tbe proscribed field preachers.* 
His banner is or was till lately preserved by a family named 
Eaeburn, resident near Dunbar, and an account of it was given 
by Mr James Drummond, "E.S.A., &c., in the " Transactions of 
the Antiquarian Society of Scotland," for 1859. It is repre- 
sented in Plate XXYII. of that work. From this paper we 
learn that Hall's son held the Oameronian opinions of his father ; 
but one of his grandsons turned a conformist clergyman. 
Another descendant, Eichard Hall, born at Haughhead in 1763, 
after some experience as a surgeon in the navy, settled in Lon- 
don, and became a medical writer of eminence. He was medical 
oflB.cer to one of the Niger expeditions. He died in 1824.f 

The note of the Sylvia sihilatrix, or Wood Wren, was heard 
among the tall trees, while some of the party were climbing the 
bank near an old dove-cot. This stands beneath a barrow-shaped 
eminence, called the Haughhead Kipp, that appears to be a 
kaim of sand, like that on which Linton church-yard is situated, 
and of which there are similar assemblages of re-arranged drift, 
on the Teviot, not far from Eckford. On this knoll amidst a 
clump of trees, is the stone commemorating the independent 
bearing of Hobbie or Eobert Hall of Haughhead, the father it 
is conjectured of Henry Hall. At the top and bottom it is shown 
that the monument was "Eepaired and restored by Lady John 
Scott, 1854." The inscription reads — 

' ' Here Hoby Hall boldly maintained his rigM 

'Gainst reef plain force armed w. lawless might 

For tuenty ploughs harnessed in all their gear 

Could not this valient noble heart make fear 

But w. his sword he cut the formost soam 

In two : hence drove both ploughs and ploughmen home. 
1622." 
According to Jeffrey, "Tradition relates that it was Ker of 
Oessford who wanted to carry away the goods and gear of Hobby 
Hall. "J On an adjacent knoll surrounded by a wall, is the site 
of an ancient British grave, which has also been protected by 
Lady John Scott's interposition. The cist, which was discovered 
in 1857, consisted of rough sandstone slabs taken from the banks 
of the Kale ; and was 3 feet 1 inches long, and 2 feet 4 inches 

* Wodrow's Hist, iii., pp. 205-212. 

t Jeffrey's Hist, iv., pp. 367-8 ; Carre's Border Memories, pp. 252-3. 

X Hist, of Koxburghshire, i., p. 343. 



24 Report of Meetings for 1S79, by James Hardy. 

deep. The body had been doubled up. Along with bones were 
found a few beads of shaly coal, and a part of a fibula of the 
same material. The cranium and the bones were small, and 
were conjectured to belong to a female.* 

The road now passed Blinkbonnie farm. Looking across the 
Kale, several large oak trees on the further bank were still leaf- 
less, or only sparsely foliaged, shewing the rigorous incidence 
of the past winter's severity in some peculiarly situated localities. 
The furze and broom by the wayside were mostly killed to the 
ground. Here we looked up the valley of the Kale to Caverton 
Mill, a prospect rather tame, but not unpleasant. Nearing 
Marleheld, the shrubs planted on the wayside by Sir Gilbert 
Bennet drew attention. They are now considerably thinned out ; 
Epilobium angusUfolium is very plentiful, and there are also Crab- 
apples, Snow-berries, Privets, Honeysuckle, and common 
Guelder-rose ; but what chiefly merited attention was a profuse 
growing slender-stalked shrubby &pirma. This has obovate 
wedge-shaped leaves, which have an apiculus and are slightly 
puberulent, and the racemes of white blossoms, which are very 
delicate and graceful, are sessile. The twigs bend readily, as if 
adapted to form a garland, and of this the name Spirma is said 
to be significant. The species appears to be S. acutifoUa.=8. 
hypericifoUa, var. acutifolia of De Candolle. 

At the entrance to Marlefield is a row of fine lime-trees. 
Marlefield is a fine old place. The house is a long double- 
winged structure, white-washed, with a superfluity of windows. 
The tenant said there was room in it to accommodate a regiment 
of soldiers. It was the property of the Bennets, whose coat of 
arms is above the door : — " Gules on a chevron between three 
stars argent, a cross patee gules : Crest, a hand issuing out of a 
cloud holding forth a cross patee fitched : Motto, Benedictus qui 
toilet crucem." Marlefield, like Houndwood, is accredited with 
having blood spots that cannot be effaced on one of the floors ; 
but there is no tradition of any circumstance by which they could 
be accounted for, in either case. 

Marlefield was a frequent resort of James Thomson, the poet, 
during the vacant intervals of study at the University. He was 
said to be captivated by one of the '' fair Bennetas," as Allan 
Eamsay playfully styles the daughters of Sir William Bennet ; 

* Hist, of Roxburghshire, iii., p. 332. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 25 

and their aunt, as well as their mother, used to divert themselves 
at the expense of his youthful simplicity. Allan Eamsay was 
also wont to be domiciled here. In 1721, Eamsay wrote some 
lines " Spoken to -^olus, in the house of Marlefield, on the night 
of a violent wind." He retained warm impressions of the charms 
of Marlefield. Writing April 8, 1724, to William Eamsay, of 
Templehall, Esq., he speaks of his seat as being another Marle- 
field.* It has been attempted to identify Marlefield with the 
scenery of the " Q-entle Shepherd," but the tokens of verisimili- 
tude are inconclusive. Mowses burn, and Mowses knowe, two 
of the coincidences, are merely derived from the old name of the 
place Mow-mains, f Nor could Sir William Bennet, a prominent 
Whig, nor his father a persecuted Presbyterian, be accepted as 
Sir William Worthy, whom the poet makes a cavalier : 
" Sir William — To whom belongs this house so much decay' d ? 
Symon~To one that lost it, lending generous aid 

To bear the head up, when rebellious tail 
Against the laws of nature did prevail." 
The Irish Yews {Taxus fastigiata) in front had been nearly 
kiUed by the late winter. There are some fine beeches and other 
timber about the house, and in the ground behind : 

" A noble horde, 

A brotherhood of venerable trees." 
The trees in general were reckoned to be about two hundred 
years old. The place was in possession of the Bennets before 
1677. Measurements with a tape line were made of several of 
the best trees, by Mr Thomson and Mr Loney. In some in- 
stances, however, the basal girth was taken too low, and 

* Ramsay's Works, i., p. 179 ; iii, p. 243, Fullarton's edition. This 
was not TemplehaU near Coldingham, which with all the other lands and 
superiorities in and about Coldingham, belonging to Renton, was pur- 
chased by William Eamsay, Esq., the son (?) of the poet's correspondent, 
in 1746, from Sir John Home. Mr Eamsay is said to have named the 
Berwickshire TemplehaU after his original estate. In 1764, Mr Eam- 
say, then resident at Broomlands, sold a tenement of houses near the 
kirkyard of Coldingham, to John Tuck. This is witnessed by James Eam- 
say his eldest son, and David Eamsay his 4th son. Previous to 1774, he 
disponed Templehall to Mr Thomas Johnston. It appears from the Scots 
Mag., vol. Lxviii. p. 400, that Mr Ramsay was dead before April 27, 1806. 
These particulars are from private papers. 

t New Stat. Account of Eoxburghshire, p. 228, where it is first pro- 
pounded. It is accepted by Mr Jeffrey, Eoxburghshire, iii., pp. 338-340. 

D 



26 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

comprised the offsets of the roots. Mr Thomson gives the result 
of the joint survey : — 

' ' Behind the house, the most prominent trees were a spruce fir and a silver 
fir. The former, after having attained an altitude of a considerahle height, 
had apparently been curbed, as a branch broke off and grew horizontally to 
the east. Within a few feet of the base was a young shoot fair and healthy, 
which had reached a height nearly equal to that of its ' mother.' The 
silver fir was measured, and it was found to be 9 feet 2 inches in circum- 
ference at 4 feet from the base. Other three trees afterwards measured in 
this part of the grounds were : — A lime, 14 ft. at 4 ft. from the ground, 18 ft. 
7 in. at 1 foot, while one limb was 8 ft. 9 in. ; an oak, 10 ft. 6 in. at 4 ft., 
and 14 ft. 6 in. at 1 foot ; and a beech, 12 ft. 8 in. at 4 ft., and 16 ft. at IJ 
ft. This tree had many curious fungi growing about its trunk which in- 
dicated that internal decay was at work. Larger trees were in store, 
however, as, on entering into the lovely park behind the house, the 
measurers settled on a remarkably fine beech, which measured 22 ft. at 1 
foot, 14 ft. 8 in, at 3 ft., and 13 ft. at 5 ft. A plane proved 16 ft. 6 in. at IJ 
ft., and 12 ft. 6 in. at 4 feet. One lime was 21 ft. 6 in. at 1| ft., and 
another 18 ft. 6 in. at 4 ft., while his younger brother was 14 ft. 9 in. and 
11 ft. 9 in. at the same heights. But the most prominent tree of all was the 
remarkably beautiful and rugged elm in the middle of the pasture, which 
measured 24 ft. in circumference at 1 foot from the ground, while at 4 ft. the 
dimensions were 19 ft. 6 in. One limb measured 10 ft. round, and the total 
spread of this patriarch was over 96 yards round — a measurement confirmed 
by calculation." - 

Old plants were looked for in the garden, but there were not 
many. Antheriatm liliago was grown in the borders, and a kind 
of vetch, the name of which was not ascertained. Anchusa 
sempervirens grew half- wild near the place. Ranunculus hulbosus 
was very prevalent in the pasture field in front of the house ; 
and it was also the predominant species in the Kale water 
meadows. , 

There is a rookery at Marl6field, which is not only one of the 
largest on the Borders, but is also the winter residence for the 
rooks of many of the smaller rookeries in Roxburghshire. 

Marlefield now belongs to the Marquis of Tweeddale. It ife to 
be regretted that there is no circumstantial account of the Ben- 
nets of Grubbet and Marlefield, who were distinguished as agri- 
cultural improvers, patrons of literature, and men of public 
spirit. The following anecdote, which I owe to Mr Small, merits 
preservation, as evincing the consideration of the last of that 
worthy race, for those who had long and dutifully done his be- 
hests ; and moreover it is a piece of generosity that belongs to a 
bygone age. ' ' The late Mr McDougall, tenant of Sorrowlessfield, 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 27 

near Earlston, told me, that his father and the grand- 
father of a gentleman well-known in Hawick and the Borders 
generally, were servants on the estate of Marlefield about the be- 
ginning of the century ; the one a shepherd, the other the 
steward, and that their master, the respected and kindly laird of 
the estate, gave them each a small farm of 50 acres, at a very 
small rent ; he was so pleased with the manner in which he had 
been served by them during a pretty long service. The hundred 
acres divided between them had been reclaimed from the moor- 
land, and were divided into equal portions by a dry stone dyke. 
The old laird took his two honoured servants to the land, after 
the dyke was finished, and told them each to lift a stone that 
could again be recognised, and put it into his bonnet. This was 
done, and the old laird scrambled on to the dyke top and put- 
ting his hand within the bonnet, took the stones out, and threw 
one on each side of the dyke, saying as he did so, ' There's yer 
farms, an' yer leases.' Each therefore got the 50 acres on which 
his marked stone fell ; and there were no more words than the 
above, oral or written, about the leases ; and both tenants did 
well in the small farms." 

Before getting to Cessford Castle, the old seat of the Rox- 
burghe branch of the Kers, we had to descend into a hollow, 
where grew some fine-shaped flowering hawthorns, that will soon 
be overtopped by aspiring plantations of thriving firs. The 
castle stands on an eminence, not very marked, surrounded by a 
strong growth of very green grass, an unmistakeable evidence 
of the frequent presence of reposing flocks ; and by a number of 
old ash trees. The ruins of the keep, which were inspected with 
very great interest, are in a good state of preservation on the ex- 
terior, but all the interior chambers, as well as the vaults are 
broken down. A fire-place still entire remains, far up the walls, 
with ornamental stone jambs of red sandstone, and foliaged 
capitals. There are numerous small dark cells, lighted by arrow 
slits, in the thickness of the walls. The stone of which the 
castle is built is mostly of red sandstone, the rubble being trap 
or porphyry. Several young saplings of ash are rooted on the 
top of the walls, and will probably hasten its dilapidation ; how- 
beit for the present they contribute to its picturesqueness. 

The venerable old ash-tree, called the Crow Tree, which stood 
a few yards from Cessford Castle, and reckoned to be the largest 



28 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

in tlie district is now gone. Its measurement in 1798 was as 
follows : — The height of its trunk was 18 feet ; its circumference 
at the bottom 26^- feet, at 9 feet above the ground 15 feet, and 
immediately below the clefts 18 feet 2 inches. Calculated in the 
common way this trunk contained 397 solid feet. At the height 
of 1 8 feet three huge limbs branched out from it, each of them 
equal to a large tree. These were calculated to contain at least 
676 feet, making the whole tree 1073 feet, besides several smaller 
branches not measurable.* In 1812 it measured 27 feet 8 inches 
at the base, and was accounted the largest but two in Scotland.f 

At Morebattle the company had refreshments. Here it was 
intended that two articles in brass or bronze were to have been 
shewn to the Club. These had been found in Henshole among 
the Cheviots, and were said to be braziers of an antique form. 
They did not reach the place in time. The Eev. Mr Cowan, 
Morebattle, who saw them, said he could compare them to 
nothing but spurs of a very complicated form. They are now 
preserved in the collection of Lady John Scott. 

A visit to Gateshaw and Corbet Tower had been contemplated ; 
but for want of time this purpose was abandoned ; and the 
greater number went on foot to see Linton church, passing 
through the haugh at Morebattle Tofts. On the Kale here, the 
Eev. Eobert Paul, guided by local knowledge, led some of the 
botanically inclined members to the habitat of Arahis trifoUata (or 
Turritis glabra), which is reputed to be an escape from the 
minister of Howman's garden, situated a great way up the river. 
Mr Brotherston got plants of it four miles further up the Kale, 
on a spot where he had known it for over twenty years. Having 
gained the public road, we might now say that we were on " the 
highway to Linton." The green hiUs stand aU around the quiet 
place, to screen it from the blasts, while Hownam Law occupies 
the back-ground above some lesser heights. Many of the older 
members are acquainted with the learned and ingenious article 
on "Linton and its Legends," by Dr Charles Wilson of Edin- 
burgh, preserved in one of the Club's volumes.J A portion of 
this paper, as Dr Leishman remarks, " rests on an opinion now 
abandoned, but which was for long accepted without suspicion 

* Dr Douglas's Agriculture of Roxburgh and Selkirk, p. 375. 

t Edinburgh Topographical and Antiquarian Magazine, p. 23. 

X Vol. iii., p. 21. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 29 

on the authority of Chahners and others, that this parish was the 
Linton-rotheric which formed part of the patrimony of the Abbey 
of Kelso. That is now known to have been West Linton, in the 
county of Peebles." The church is small. It was restored in 
good taste in 1858, The Norman font stands before the pulpit. 
There is an engraving of a careful drawing of it preserved in 
our " Proceedings" for 1850. The late Mr Elliot of Clifton, on 
whose lawn it stood, allowed it to be replaced in the church, in 
the year 1868, and ever since it has been used at the administra- 
tion of Baptism. 

The list of ministers of the parish since the Eef ormation hangs 
on the north wall, and reads as follows : — 



Walter Balfour, Eector, conformed . . 


—1560 


John BaKour, M.A., 


. 1610-1616 


Robert Ker, . . . . . . 


. 1619—1658 


Eobert Boyd, M.A., 


. 1658-1662 


Jolm Brown, M.A., 


. 1664—1683 


JohnWilkie, .. 


. 1683-1689 


Eobert Boyd, restored 


. 1690—1697 


Walter Douglas, 


. 1698—1727 


George Hogg, M. A., 


. 1728—1740 


James TurnbuU, 


. 1743—1780 


Andrew Ogilvie, 


. 1781—1805 


William Faichney, 


. 1805—1854 



The members of the Club were kindly invited by Dr Leishman 
to the manse, which is agreeably situated. An Auracaria and a 
pine tree had been killed in the garden during the winter ; but 
everything else had escaped. On the borders, Mr William Boyd 
noticed a small yellow flowered species of SemerocalUs, rarer than 
the flava. The conveyances, having been sent round, were 
entered opposite the neat commodious cottages at Linton, recently 
erected by Mr E. H. Elliot of Clifton Park. 

During the journey we were surrounded with thunder showers, 
but they scarcely reached the company till they were nearly dis- 
persed. A heavy rain had fallen at Morebattle, but had almost 
ceased before we got there. Before Linton was arrived at, two 
successive thunder peals were heard, but the clouds drew back, 
and attached themselves to the hills ; and a deep blue-black 
overspread the eastern horizon, which deceptively appeared to 
rest upon a dark blue sea ; the reflection from this inky sky on 
the green hill-sides opposite imparted a lurid colour to the grass, 
more deeply embrowned a moor above the village, while a patch 



30 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

of whins full of blossom, in a sheltered hollowon the heights, 
stood out very vividly by contrast with the prevailing gloom. 
But we rapidly sped away, passing Frogden, the scene of Daw- 
son's experiments that revolutionised agriculture, Kersknowe and 
Mainhouse ; glancing up to whereabouts Blaiklaw stood on the 
ground above, once the residence of Pringle the poet, who sung 
so well of "Cheviot's mountains blue," " bonnie Teviotdale," 
and the pleasant banks of the Kale. 

Thirty-five dined in the Queen's Hotel Assembly room, Kelso. 
After dinner a paper was read "On some Stone Cannon Balls 
found in the Parish of Swinton, Berwickshire," written by our 
learned co-member, David Milne Home, Esq., of Milnegraden ; 
and a number of letters were brought before the meeting relative 
to the effects of the past winter. In one of the letters Sir George 
Douglas mentioned the occurrence of the Turtle Dove at Spring- 
wood Park, where care would be taken to protect it. It was 
stated on behalf of Mr Andrew Brotherston that an adult female 
Hobby {Falco subhuteo) had been recently shot, and was being 
preserved by him. This bird had been observed flying about 
the neighbourhood for some time, and a look out for it having 
been kept it was shot near Kelso Bridge by Mr Archibald Steel. 
The same indefatigable explorer had sent a plant of Meum 
athemanticum to be shewn to the Club. It is not recorded as 
having been found wild on the Scottish side of the Borders, 
although found on basalt near Thockrington in Northumberland. 
Some time ago, Mr William Oliver, Howpasley, on Borthwick 
water, found it growing wild on his hill farm, from which the 
specimen was obtained. Mr Brotherston subsequently found the 
plant both in Dumfries and Eoxburgh shires. It was popularly 
known as " Baldmoney." It was employed as a quack medicine, 
according to Mactaggart. A slate " spindle-birlie," marked on 
the sides with incised concentric circles, was exhibited, found at 
Over Howden, near Oxton, by Mr Eobert Sharp. Miss Dickin- 
son had sent a number of gooseberries from her garden at Nor- 
ham, which had been entered and hollowed out by a green 
caterpillar, which was said to differ from the ordinary saw-fly 
grub that devastates the foliage of the bushes. The blackbirds 
had detected the lurking foe, but they were carrying oif both 
fruit and caterpillars, so that their aid was rather an additional 
evil. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 31 

The following were proposed as members of tlie Club : — The 
Eev. Canon Tristram, Durham ; Eev. D. MiUar, B.D., LL.B., 
Mordington; Mr Thomas Cook, Alnwick; Mr Charles Henry 
Adamson, North Jesmond, Newcastle ; Dr Alexander Mackenzie, 
Kelso ; and Mr W. F. Vernon, Kelso. 

The third meeting was held at Alnmouth and Alnwick, on 
Wednesday, July 30th. Those present were — Dr Paxton, Presi- 
dent ; Mr Hardy, Secretary; the Hon. and Eev. Evelyn J. 
Monson, vicar of Croft, Lincolnshire ; Eevs. Thomas Ilderton, 
Hderton; Ambrose Jones, Stannington ; F. B. Nunnely, M.D., 
Eock and Eennington ; W. Eudge, Alnwick ; F. E. Simpson, 
North Sunderland ; William Stobbs, Gordon ; George Selby 
Thomson, Acklington ; and E. Hopper Williamson, Whickham ; 
Lieut. -Col. Briggs, Bonjedward ; Major Holland, Abbey Cot- 
tage, Alnwick ; Capt. Forbes, E.N., Berwick ; Messrs James 
Aitchison, Alnwick; Thomas Allan, Horncliffe House; Henry 
Hunter Blair, Alnwick ; Charles B. PuUeine Bosanquet, Eock ; 
Cadogan Hodgson Cadogan of Brenckburn Priory ; L. C Chrisp, 
Hawkhill; WiUiam Currie of Linthill ; Middleton H. Dand, 
Hauxley ; John Dunlop, Berwick ; Albert Grey, Howick Hall ; 
James Hastie, Edrington ; William Hastie, London ; James 
Heatley, Alnwick ; W. T. Hindmarsh, Alnwick ; W. A. Hunter, 
Dunse ; G. T. Lebour, F.G.S., Gateshead ; Henry A. Paynter, 
Alnwick ; Adam Eobertson and William Eobertson, Alnwick ; I. 
Simpson, North Sunderland ; Septimus H. Smith, Norham ; 
Thomas -Tate, Alnwick ; John Thomson, Kelso ; William Topley, 
F.G.S., Alnwick ; J. P. TurnbuH, Alnwick. 

As the President and Secretary bent their way to the place of 
rendezvous, it was noticed that at Alnmouth Bridge, a colony of 
sand-martins had established themselves in the stratified earth- 
cUff adjoining. Black-headed guUs were actively fishing, or 
picking up food, along the course of the Aln. A corn-bunting 
(a locally distributed bird) trilled its song from a tree. An in- 
scription on one side of the substantial stone bridge informs us 
that this is "The Duchess-Bridge," the date being 1864. On 
the other side, it is recorded on a cast-iron plate that "To 
Eleanor Duchess of Northumberland, the Public are chiefly in- 
debted for this Stone Bridge and Foot-path to the Station. 
A.D. MDCCCLXIV." Almost the first house in Alnmouth 
arrests attention by a door with an ogee moulding, over which 



32 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

are the initials T. A., above tbe date 1713. Alnmoutli is 
prettily seated in a nook by the sea-shore, and enjoys the 
immunity of clean grassy sea-banks, adapted either for golfing, 
there being two or three golf clubs here, or for a promenade ; a 
long expanse of silver sand ; a clean tidal basin ; and an exten- 
sive prospect from the heights above. The usual sea-side plants 
were found on the shore. Aster TripoUum was noticed in the salt 
marshes ; Sagina maritima on the links, and Major Cadogan 
pointed out a peculiar pale-coloured cricoid variety of Galium 
verum, which is a sea-side form. The caterpillars of Sphinx Qalii 
occur on this part of the coast. The southern view from the 
station of the artillery battery was rather obscured by haze. 
Out to sea the lagging smoke of passing steamers hung in 
blurred masses, which one might fancy to be distant islands 
partially obscured in fog. The northern prospect was more dis- 
tinct. Not far off was Foxton Hall, recently tenanted by Mr 
Bennet. It may be mentioned that the Duke of Bedford, in a 
visit paid not long since to the north country, came to see the 
last residence of his faithful steward. Seaton, more inland, 
appeared next ; and then the clustered fishing village of 
Boulmer, with its red-tiled and blue-slated roofs picturesquely 
intermixed. Still more remote were the Howick woods, dark in 
the morning light. Cultivated fields intervened. Flocks of 
lapwings and starlings, and numerous larks, were observed to be 
active. The sea was calm, the day was iDerfection, natxire 
smiled, the mind felt at ease. The farmers, constantly brooding 
over the previous dismal weather, almost envied us, and said 
" we were favoured." 

The breakfast was in the Schooner Inn. Here there were a 
number of stuffed birds, the" rarest being the Polish Swan 
( Cygnus immutabilis), which was shot in the Aln close at hand, at 
a time when the severity of the past winter had induced a small 
flock of these birds to seek shelter on this part of the coast. Mr 
Cadogan mentioned that he had recently got a stone implement 
from the Simonside hills, near the camp there. Mr Dickson, of 
Sea-bank House, sent a good specimen of Sirex Gigas, a rare 
wasp-like hymenopterous fly, which he had lately captured ; also 
;x pencil sketch of a fleshy light green caterpillar of one of the 
Sphingides, with a sharp thorn-like spike on its head, which fell 
from a beech tree, when he was angling. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 33 

After the transaction of business, a walking party was formed, 
beaded by Mr Topley, wbicb traversed the sea-sbore as far as 
Howick Burn moutb. Tbe otbers, by means of conveyances 
kindly furnisbed by Alnwick friends, reaebed tbe same destina- 
tion by an inland route. From bigb parts of tbis interior road 
a fine view was obtained of tbe vale of tbe Aln, a portion of x^ln- 
wick town being visible, and tbe park surmounted by Brizlee 
bill; and Obeviot lifted its bead bebind afar off. Tbe land 
about Lesbury is said to be of good quality. Several asb-trees 
by tbe wayside bave felt tbe evil influence of tbe sea-breeze, and 
bave become decayed and stag-beaded ; but if properly sheltered, 
trees will thrive nearer tbe coast than they are usually attempted 
to be grown. Tbis deficiency of wood near the Northumbrian 
coast is painfully apparent in the tract between Killingworth and 
tbe sea, and might be remedied by imitating the examples set in 
the more northern, and one would naturally expect, more ex- 
posed parts of the country.'''' Lesbury is a pretty village, snugly 
embosomed in trees, with trim gardens in front of the houses, 
glorious with bright Delphiniums, Orange Lilies, and large 
flowered blue Irises. As Longhoughton is approached, the soil 
has a poorer aspect, and from tbe frequent wet spots visible on 
tbe fallow, is evidently undrained. Tbe turnips were a poor late 
crop. Tbe cottages at Longhoughton bad in front the same good 
old-established flowers for a decoration as at Lesbury. A halt 
was made at Longhoughton Hall. Tbe church, with its almost 
unique Saxon chancel arch, was shewn to the visitors, by the 
vicar, tbe Eev. L. J. Stephens. Under bis auspices tbe church 
has lately been renovated and restored, and the work has 
evidently been carried out in the most careful manner. B3- in- 
vitation the party inspected the fine and extensive collection of 
roses cultivated by Mr John Smith, and partook of bis hospitality. 
Tbe garden is well sheltered with trees. There were two Arau- 
carias in a thriving state on the lawn. Tbe roses are budded on 
wild briar stalks, the whole tbe work of Mr Smith. Marecbal 
Niel flowers with him in the open air, and this continued in 
blossom till Oct. 21 ; Souvenir de Malmaison and Gloire de Dijon 
were flourishing. Mr Smith has furnished me with a marked 
Catalogue of those be has successfully treated (William Paul & 

* Since this was written, I notice that the Duke of Northumberland has 
granted a number of trees to plant at Earsdon. 

E 



34 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

Son's) but tbey are too numerous to specify ; but I may give the 
numbers as classified, although he assures me that he has several 
more not indicated. 1. Hybrids of Chinese, Bourbon and 
Noisette Eoses ; ten varieties. 2. Austrian Eoses ; one viz., 
Persian yellow. 3. Perpetual Moss Eoses, one Perpetual white, 
4. Hybrid Perpetual Eoses, resembling the Hybrids of the 
Chinese; eighty-seven varieties. 5. Bourbon and Noisette Per- 
petual ; four varieties. 6. Eose de Eosomane, one var. 7. 
Bourbon Eoses {R. Indica Bourhoniana), one var. 8. Noisette 
Eoses {H. moscJiata Noisettiana), one var. 9. Tea-scented Eoses 
( JS. Indica odorata), three var. Mr Smith seldom loses one in the 
severest winters, but not much hoar frost lies in his vicinity. 
Nothing he says suits them better than a stiff loam on a red 
clay. He seldom sees finer foliage than they make with him. 

The garden used to be a great resort of thrushes, but only a 
single bird had been visible this season. Blackbirds, previously 
an annoyance, were now scarce. I understand that on this as 
well as on other adjacent coast farms, seaweed can be obtained 
in quantity on the coast, in what is called the " May-drift," and 
again in autumn ; and is applied to the grass on the surface, or 
is mixed up with manure heaps. Dr Paxton and I were here 
shewn a gold finger ring, which had been found in a gravel pit 
near Swarland (Northumberland;, which had a small dark blue 
sapphire, closely resembling the modern quartz-amethyst, simply 
rounded and not cut, in the bezel. On the outside of the ring 
were incised cinquefoils and olive branches. Dr Paxton had 
seen two similar rings, which had been found at Norham Castle, 
during the recent repairs ; both contained sapphires of this tint, 
nearly in their natural state. . One of these was presented to Mrs 
Jerningham. The kind of violet blue sapphire, with which these 
rings were set, is called the oriental amethyst.* They are pro- 
bably of considerable antiquity, when the art of gem-cutting was 
not practised to any perfection. The violet-sapphire it is next to 
impossible to engrave. We have other instances of its use in 
rings. '' In 1822, in digging the foundation of a dyke on the 
north side of the hill opposite to Garchory (in the parish of 
Strathdon, Aberdeenshire), were found two gold rings and 
several hundred silver coins. One of the rings is gold, with a 
small dark sapphire. A ring precisely similar was discovered 
* Jameson's Mineralogy, i., p. 56. 



Meport of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 85 

16t]i July, 1829, "with, other relics, in the coffin of a bishop of 
Chichester, in the cathedral of that city. The date of the tomb 
is A.D. 1146. The other was a broken iron gilt ring, with a pale 
sapphire, and is very similar to many Arabian and Indian rings. 
The coins were nearly all of Henry HI., of England. Some of 
them were of "William the Lion of Scotland, and two of them of 
King John. "^' There is a famous ring in Perthshire called ' ' Inch- 
brakie's Eing." In the days of darkness a poor woman of the 
name of Catharine McNiven was burnt for a witch near the 
rock of Crieff. The laird of Inchbrakie strove to the ut- 
most to save poor Kate's life, though his exertions proved in 
vain. '' When the flames were lighted, and her sufferings com- 
menced, she is said to have uttered various predictions against 
her enemies, and, turning round to Inchbrakie, to have spit a 
blue stone out of her mouth, which she requested him to take 
and keep, declaring that so long as it was preserved in the 
family, his race would never cease to thrive. The stone re- 
sembles, and is said to be an ancient sapphire. It is now set in 
a gold ring, and is most carefully preserved."! This and the 
following appear to have been " oriental sapphires." In the in- 
ventory of John Edgar of Wedderlie, Co. Berwick, who deceased 
in 1657, is included, "Ane broken gold ring with ane blue 
stane."! The Sapphire of the ancients having been the Lapis 
lazuli§, the virtues attributed to the one have been transferred to 
the other ; hence nothing can be positively affirmed of the powers 
either real or imaginery, that old writers have transmitted to us 
regarding the sapphire ; but they may be all summed up in what 
Eenodeeus, an old writer on precious stones, affirms of gems in 
general, that they "adorn kings' crowns, grace the fingers, en- 
rich our household stuff, defend us from enchantments, preserve 
health, cure disease ; they drive away grief, cares, and exhilarate 
the mind."|i 

Howick woods were approached through a canopy of over- 
arching boughs from tall wayside trees. The party alighted 

* New Stat. Acct. Parish of Strathdon, p. 546. 
t Ibid. Parish of Crieff. % The Scottish House of Edgar, p. 94. 
§ Beckmann's Hist, of Inventions, i., p. 468, &c. ^Bohn's Edition) : Pliny's 
Nat. Hist, vi., p. 432, Note. (Bohn's Edition). Adams' Paulus ^Egineta, 
iii., p. 228 (Sydenham Society). 

II Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, Part 2, Sec. 4, Mem. I, Subs. 4. 



3G BepoH of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

and took the walk, wliicli is called tlie ''Long Walk," by the 
bum ; plunging at once into a ''boundless contiguity of shade," 
which, however, was now and then brightened by sunny gleams. 
This dell is thickly wooded with planted trees nearly all the way 
to the sea-side. The majority of the trees — beeches, elms, firs — 
are tall and clean- stemmed. Several of them, however, are 
twisted, as if they had had a difficulty in their youth to struggle 
through, before they could become upright. One of the silver 
firs divided itself in twain, and then became united, to separate 
again, and again be combined in one ; and finally terminated in 
two tops. The elms grown in most places, as was seen by some 
cut timber, are quite rotted in the interior. The hollies were 
little more than bushes ; but one of the largest hollies in North- 
umberland, grew near the steward's house, but was cut down 
some years ago. Riles alpinum is grown as an under shrub ; and 
Buscus aculeatus is also used for a cover. Plots of herb:mercury 
occupy some of the bottoms ; and clumps of Finca minor have 
been planted to hide the bareness of others, where the shade has 
destroyed the natural herbage, and have spread widely. 

By the walk side small outcrops of sandstone rock occasionally 
rise above the surface. Where these occurred Sieracium vulgatum 
invariably appeared. In the swampy places clustered giant 
butter-burs. Queen of the Meadow, Geranium pratense, in its 
brilliancy, and Cow-parsnip. Rumex sanguineus also grew here. 
In the central part is the well-sheltered Pinetum, where there 
are some very healthy trees ; particularly a row of Araucarias of 
thirty years growth, so many being seldom together elsewhere. 
Dr Paxton has been favoured with a letter from Mr David Inglis, 
the gardener at Howick Hall, which enumerates the more promi- 
nent of the conifers here cultivated ; and as many of our mem- 
bers have made experiments in this department, I shall extract 
most of his statements, with occasional remarks. 

The principal Conifers grown at Howick are: — Ahies Canadensis 
(Hemlock Spruce of North America), large specimens ; A. Bouglasi 
from 40 to 50 feet high ; Ahies Menziesi, handsome specimens, 
about 60 feet high. The Araucaria imbricata, as noticed, forms a 
large lot and fine specimens. Of Cedrus Beodara, there are fine 
tall examples, about 40 feet. There are also in the grounds 
some excellent trees of the Cedar of Lebanon {Cedrus Libani), 
about 70 feet high. Of Cephalotaxus Fortuni there are small plants ; 



Report oj Meetings for 1879, by James Haidy. 37 

and of Cryptomeria Japonica and elegans, there are also small 
plants. Mr Albert Grey mentioned that they were not very suc- 
cessful -with the Cryptomerice, the young trees being liable to die 
out. There are fine specimens of Cupressus Lawsoniana ; and also 
Cupressus macrocarpa, which rises here 40 feet high. There are 
small plants of Ficea nolilis. Ficea Nordmanniana, P. Pindrow, P. 
Pinsapo, and F. Wehhiana, an exceedingly handsome tree, are 
also grown here. Finns Austriaca (Austrian or Black Pine), said 
to be one of the best for planting as shelter, was one of the few 
that the last winter had embrowned the foliage of. Finns 
insignis is here perfectly hardy, and can be planted near the sea. 
There are also Finus Genevensis, the Geneva wild Pine, and F. 
excelsa, the Bhotan Pine. Of Retmispora plnmosa and sqnarrosa, 
there are beautiful plants, growing to 12 feet high. There are 
also varieties of the Taxus and Taxodinm ; and fine large speci- 
mens of Thinopsis lorealis (Cupressus Nootkaensis). Of Thuja or 
Arbor vitse, there are Th. gigantea, Menziesi, occidentalis, argentea, 
and pendula. Lastly Wellingtonia gigantea is here perfectly 
hardy, grows well, and forms a good exemplification of the tree. 
The laurels were cut down, but it was merely to thicken their 
growth. Some of the Rhododendrons had suffered from the 
winter's inclemency, but were springing anew. In other respects 
no more damage had been sustained here. Owing to its vicinity 
to the sea, there can be little hoar frost. Near the sea-side end 
of the walk, a patch of JEpilohium angnstifolinm had been planted. 
The burn at first stagnant, at length broke away to pay its tribute 
to the great ocean, across the large assemblage of gravel and 
boulders on the beach. Crossing the bridge, a green knoll, sur- 
mounting a crag was reached, whence an extensive view of the 
coast to the south opened out. On the sea-banks to the north of 
the burn above the cliffs, Rippophce rhamnoides, or Sea Buckthorn, 
probably planted, grows plentifully. A cormorant was passing, 
the only sea-bird visible. The contrast of the verdant banks, 
the dark tangle- covered rocks, and the wan-coloured sea, is 
always striking. It was on the rocks at Howick Burn mouth 
that a herd of Round-headed Porpoises {Fhocana melas) was 
stranded on the 19th March, 1853, of which Mr Tate gave an 
account in the Club's " Proceedings," vol. iii., pp. 176-180. He 
told me that he was so full of the occurrence, that on the eveDing 
after he had visited the place, he delivered a lecture in the 



88 Report of Meetings foi' 1879, by James Hardy. 

x^lnwick Mechanics' Institute, on the Natural History of the Por- 
poise ; it being his custom to seize all such opportune emergencies 
for conveying positive instruction. 

The walking party by the line of coast soon after arrived, and 
■we may now take up the account of what they had accomplished 
from the minute narrative of Mr Thomson, who had accompanied 
them. They first visited a camp on the green height above Aln- 
mouth, where they also met with traces of a small circular fort 
of about 30 feet in diameter on the southern part of the hill. 
They then walked down to the links, which others of the com- 
pany had visited in the morning. They passed on to a sandy 
beach where numerous large boulders of whinstone were 
scattered about ; and then encountered a bed of limestone 
characterised by a profusion of Encrinites, popularly termed St. 
Cuthbert's beads. Above high water mark the vegetation was 
singularly uninteresting, bracken being the predominant consti- 
tuent. ''At Seaton House Point, a small promontory formed 
mainly of hard, coarse, gritty sandstone, the markings of glacial 
action were seen on many boulder stones. The sandstone in 
some places was exceedingly coarse, many of the strata being 
almost entirely 'pudding-stone,' the 'plums' in which were 
very large. On 'rounding the point the sandstone changed both 
its character and its colour, becoming a finer gritted white, some- 
times being tinged by a deep tawny yellow as if igneous action 
had caused it. Boulmer, celebrated for being the principal re- 
sort of smugglers in the olden time, was now in full view. 
Though the smuggling has now happily ceased, smuggled 
articles, such as silks and casks of spirits, are sometimes dug up, 
having been deposited there in bygone times, and been forgotten 
by their owners. A number of fishing boats were lying in the 
little harbour, and several men were busy netting salmon. Be- 
fore we reached Boulmer there was a stretch of the coast extend- 
ing to about 200 yards in length, where the only plants were 
Honheneja peploides and Cakile maritima. Prom the low cliffs north 
of Boulmer the limestone was seen sloping out into the sea. 
Shortly after this there is a considerable expanse of greyish red 
sandstone, which stretches levelly out to sea. In the tiny lagoons 
which dotted its surface were perhaps twenty large herons, two 
or three herring gulls, a dozen common gulls, and a great num- 
ber of plovers and lapwings. The sandstone a little way further 



Report, of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 89 

on becomes redder and coarser in its grit, and the pudding-stone, 
tbough. not so coarse, again occurs. At tbe boundary line, wbere 
the Howick Hall property is entered, is a ' dyke ' of trap, stretch- 
ing out into the sea for a hundred yards or so. Another sand- 
stone point intervenes, followed by very dark limestone. On the 
Sugar Sands there are numerous boulders of limestone and 
basalt scattered about. After crossing a small burn that enters 
the sea here the limestone again crops up, this time in great 
abundance, and full of shells in a very good state of preserva- 
tion. There are also layers of fire-clay between the limestone. 
There was a tiny spring of mineral water issuing from the super- 
incumbent clay. The sandstone is again the surface rock after 
this, and judging by the way the clay is falling down on the 
cliffs, the recent storm had severely affected it." 

During this journey Thalictrum minus and the scarlet-flowered 
Pimpernel had been picked up. Geranium sanguineum, Astraga- 
lus Hypoglottis, and Scahiosa columbaria, which all grow on the 
links, had been passed over ; and the rare Helminthia EcMoides, 
which occurs on the sea-banks at Howick Burn Mouth, was not 
seen. Leaving the coast, the united company were conducted 
by Mr Albert Grey to the remains, in a pasture field, of a circular 
camp 60 yards in diameter. It had occupied the summit of a 
gravel mound, which slopes abruptly to the wooded dean. 
JEchium vulgare grew here. 

The dean was again traversed. Before the Hall was reached, 
Listera ovata was observed near the walk. Pulmonaria officinalis 
also grew there, but had been planted. Convallaria majalis, 
Smilacina hifolia, Lilium Martagon, Saxifraga Geum, and S. 
umbrosa have also been planted out in the Howick woods. 
Passing over an ornamental bridge, the church was reached, 
which is of a florid Norman style. Two inscriptions in bronze 
state, that the church was built at the expense of Sir Henry 
Grey, Bart., in 1746, and was restored by the present Earl Grey 
in 1849. The most interesting section of the church is the 
chancel, which contains the monument to Charles, the second 
Earl Grey, K.G., and Mary Elizabeth, his Countess. The style 
is florid Gothic. The company then walked along in front of the 
Hall, viewing the fine flower gardens, and the richly-foliaged 
trees indigenous and exotic. The Myrtle here stands the winter 
out of doors with a slight protection. Behind the mansion stand 



40 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

two very tall full-leafed trees of Quercus Ilex. Leaving tlie 
grounds, the greater number of tbe members went by train to 
Alnwick, wbile others drove there direct, reaching it in time to 
allow such of the members as wished, to visit Alnwick Castle. 

After dinner in the White Swan Inn, it was stated that 
additional reports regarding the effects of the past winter on 
vegetation had been received. Mr Topley, F.G.S., then gave a 
very able sketch of the progress and results of the Greologieal 
Survey of Northumberland, now in course of completion. Mr 
Topley's paper was deemed exceedingly valuable, and the 
coloured geological charts and diagrams on the walls tended to 
enable members to understand it more easily. Professor Lebour 
proposed a vote of thanks to Mr Topley for his excellent paper, 
which he said embodied startling and important discoveries, that 
had caused much talk among geologists. Mr Topley undertook 
to extend his paper, and prepare it for the " Proceedings." Mr 
Topley had with him, for exhibition, a broad wedge-shaped 
polished stone-axe, found on Alnwick Moor. It appeared to be 
of decomj)osed syenite ; both quartz and mica were visible on the 
exterior. It was mentioned and regarded as a rare occurrence 
that a pair of yellow-hammers had built their nest, about six feet 
from the ground, in Mr L. C. Chrisp's garden at Hawkhill. The 
interior of the nest was the same as in other nests of this bird, 
but the outside was formed of strong coarse wheat straws, with 
several ears of corn hanging from the nest. 

At this meeting the following were proposed for membership — 
Eev. Charles Kinnear Greenhill, Eoberton by Hawick ; William 
Layton, M.A., High School, Kelso ; Mr John Grunn, Greologieal 
Survey, Berwick ; Eev. F. B. Nunneley, M.D., Eennington, 
Chathill ; Eev. Thomas Calvert, 92, Lansdowne Place, Brighton ; 
Eev. Donald McLeod, B.D., Jedburgh. 

The fourth meeting was held at Marchmont, on Wednesdaj'-, 
August 27th. There were present — Dr Paxton, President ; Mr 
Hardy, Secretary ; Sheriff Eussell ; Eevs. W. Dobie, Ladykirk ; 
J. S. Green, Wooler ; P. Gr. McDouall, Cosgrove Eectory, Stony 
Stratford ; E. F. Proudf oot, Fogo ; Evan Eutter, Spittal ; J. A. 
Sharrock, St. Nicholas Church, Newcastle ; Adam Spence, 
Houndwood ; W. Stobbs, Gordon ; John H. Walker, Greenlaw ; 
Drs Henry Eichardson, E.N., Berwick ; Charles Stuart, Chirn- 
side ; Messrs Archibald Campbell Swinton of Kimmerghame ; 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 41 

W. B. Boyd, Ormiston House ; A. Brotherston, Kelso ; A. Currie, 
Darnick ; Thomas Henderson, Middle Third; W. A. Hunter, 
Dunse ; W. H. Johnson, Tweedbank, Kelso ; J. B. Kerr, Com- 
mercial Bank, Kelso ; E. D. Ker, Edinburgh ; Peter Loney, 
Marchmont ; Hume Nisbet, Edinburgh ; Eobert Eenton, Fans ; 
James Wood, Galashiels ; John Eussell, Galashiels ; Andrew E. 
Scougal, Melrose ; William Stevenson, Dunse ; Charles Watson, 
Dunse. 

Till about half -past one there was a continuous rain, in conse- 
quence of which the movements of the company were very much 
restricted, and many points of interest were left unvisited. But 
Sir Hugh H. Campbell having courteously opened the treasures 
of art and literature contained in Marchmont House, most of the 
time was profitably and comfortably spent under cover. March- 
mont is distinguished for its well grown-timber trees, many of 
them of large dimensions, tall and handsome in their appearance, 
and superabundant in their wealth of foliage. There are some 
clean, straight, noble oaks on the bank above the Eailway ; and 
the beeches, which are the predominant trees, Spanish chestnuts, 
and silver firs throughout the grounds, shew by their vigorous 
strength that the soil although of a stiff tenacious red clay and 
full of moisture below, is adapted to their growth. The roots do 
not penetrate deeply, but spread horizontally over a wide area, 
wherever the ground is dry. 

The first point of interest visited was near the summit of the 
high banks to the north of the railway, and immediately adjoin- 
ing the station, as being the site of a remarkable landslip which 
occurred there on the 21st December, 1876. The banks are com- 
posed of a red sandy earth, very porous and retentive of moisture. 
On the occasion of the landslip, the weather was very wet, 3.38 
inches of rain having fallen on the 20th and 21st of the month. 
On the second day of this rainfall, about 9 o'clock at night, a 
pedestrian crossing the braes at this place, discovered that a great 
portion of the bank had slipped forward, leaving a great trench 
or gap about ten feet in width. So steady and deep had been 
the movement of the soil as it slipped, that several large trees 
were carried forward, just as they stood, a number of feet from 
their original position. One of these, a fine oak tree, still as 
erect and flourishing as ever, and measuring above fourteen feet 
round the trunk, had been moved ten feet from the spot where 



42 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

it formerly grew. There has been no change since, nor has the 
gap shown any tendency to widen, notwithstanding the heavy 
rains of the present season. 

The old mansion house of Eedbraes had been situated on a 
level platform at the top of the banks, whose soil being of the 
red tint communicated to it by the subjacent red sandstone, had 
given origin to its name. The only remnants of the last Eed- 
braes, which in the front was a lengthened line of building, with 
a central peaked tower, are two back wings, one the kitchen de- 
partment, now converted into the manager's house ; and the 
other, the laundry, now constitutes part of the offices. The walls 
are of great thickness. In the intervening grassy area between 
these old Eedbraes tower stood ; the outline of the encircling 
moat being still traceable by a different colour in the grass. 
The old garden lay to the south ; the sole remains of it are a yew 
fence, now grown into trees, with the roots densely intertwined ; 
and a very luxuriant hedge of boxwood. The garden was a 
terraced one, in the style of a by-gone age, with rockeries and 
mazes, and abundance of fruit trees. All this arrangement has 
been altered, and the site planted over. On the removal of the 
house to a different position, about 120 years ago, and the new 
title of Marchmont adopted for it, the name Eedbraes fell into 
disuse. It had been constructed of old red sandstone, similar to 
that at present wrought in the extensive quarry on the estate 
opposite Greenlaw. The new mansion is of a white sandstone. 
Some fragments of the old house bearing inscriptions have been 
preserved in the garden walls. 

Everything about the garden and pleasure-grounds is well 
kept. While the ribbon style of bordering is the most prevalent, 
a goodly array of old perennial favourites have been preserved. 
The flowering borders appear to be usually made up of a yellow 
and a blue Viola ; Geraniums of various colours ; Gladioli ; 
Ageratums ; backed by a kind of white Pyrethrum. A con- 
siderable variety of good plants are cultivated in the greenhouses. 
The Taxonias, natives of Japan, are particularly to be noted, as 
we believe they were first flowered, and the fruit first reared to 
perfection at Marchmont. The fruit is yellow, like a small 
gourd, and edible. One, Taxonia Van- Volkheimii, placed in the 
centre of one of the houses, which is 60 feet long, spreads its 
arms, and fills both sides, crossing the house in an arch five 



Report of Meetings foi- 1879, by James Hardy. 43 

times. Other two species of Taxonia (one of them Baumanniana) 
are cultivated here ; also a "wide-spreading Passiflora racemosa, 
which flowers at all seasons. Passiflora Bougainmllea covers one 
half of a house ; a large flowering Heliotrope was also very con- 
spicuous. 

There may be also noticed, EwpJiorhium splendens ; Lapygena 
rosea ; a screw pine ; SedycMum Gardnerianum, from South 
America ; a new hyacinth -like plant ( Opliiopogon Jdburan) ; two 
well reared climbing ferns {Lygodon scandens) ; many fine Maiden 
hair, golden and silver ferns, and a profusion of other sorts, very 
healthy and luxuriant. Aloes, Colias, Calidiums, Arums, 
Chinese Primroses, Fuschias, Double Petunias, and other 
decorative plants serve to make up the very interesting collection 
grown here. In one of the grape houses is a very productive 
Black Hamburgh. At first it was grown in many divaricating 
branches spreading from a single central stem ; but Mr Loney, 
dissatisfied with its bearing capacity, twisted round one of the 
under branches to the right, while another branch was retained 
that naturally spread to the left ; by branches spreading from 
these the house is now crossed and filled ; and the remarkable 
thing about it is, that the wood from the twisted feeder bears 
the heaviest and best bunches of fruit. 

Of ornamental Coniferse there are in the grounds outside the 
garden a Wellingtonia gigantea, 18 years old, feathered to the 
ground with branches ; a Pinus Douglasi, with the top hurt ; two 
Araucarias, whereof the finest, shews the severe winter of 1859- 
60, by the altered foliage of that year's growth. There are also 
Deodars, a Pinus excelsa, a Picea Wehhiana, and a thriving 
Crgptomeria Japonica. 

In the vegetable and flower departments this summer slugs 
have been excessively numerous, and it was found almost im- 
possible to keep them in check. 

A very fine old copper dial, of date 1726, behind the house, 
and a peculiarly grown larch standing there, already mentioned 
in the Club's ''Proceedings," were hastily looked at, amidst the 
incessant rain. The material on the walks, which has been 
broken into fragments by a machine, consists of porphyry from 
Kyles HiU. 

The house is an imposing structure, and has a stately appear- 
ance from the cross road in front of it ; it is partially ornamented 



44< Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

witli ivy. Little clumps of beech, faced with, silver firs, break up 
the straight line of the extremely lengthened undulating grassy 
lawn in front, which is 1 J mile long. Walks penetrate everywhere 
among the grassy sward and cool shade, underneath the lofty 
trees. On one approach there is a fine cathedral-like overarch- 
ing of giant branches of beech, and a dense gloom between the 
noble pillars, which increases to an intense darkness in a moon- 
less night ; and then at a turn which terminates the vista, some 
pale barked trees present a very spectral look. 

The members of the party were kindly received by the pro- 
prietor, and invited to inspect what was interesting in the house ; 
Sir Hugh Campbell himself acting as cicerone, and shewing him- 
self to be a man of most refined taste and highly cultivated mind. 
The chief attraction was the family portraits, which were very 
numerous (some 50 or 60), ranging from Sir Patrick Hume, the 
first Earl of Marchmont, and Grizel Kar, the first Countess, down 
to the present representative of the family. There were also 
many portraits of illustrious personages, and several paintings of 
interest, including many good copies, but these it is impossible 
to detail. There were also a number of busts, as well as 
statuary, porcelain, &c. In the dining-room there were two 
ancient " black jacks" — immense jugs made of one piece of 
leather, handle -and all, and capable of containing from five to 
six gallons of ale. There was also a smaller one of similar 
material, called a "gill," which was silver mounted, and 
accounted rarer than the " jacks."*' There are two libraries, one 
for modern and the other for older books. Among the latter are 
many old law books, and theological treatises, parliamentary 
records, and historical works. There were several editions of 
the Bible shown, one a Breeches Bible in small quarto ; a 

* The "Black Jacke " is mentioned in Brand's Pop. Antiq. ii., p. 206. It 
occurs in the song of " Now Ancient English Melody," &c., as "the coal 
hlack Jack ;" and there is a song elevating it above the bottle in Durfey's 
Pills to Purge Melancholy, whose title is "The Bonny Black-Jack." It is 
one of the stage properties of Brome's "Jovial Crew," London, 1652. Other 
notices of it may be seen in Halliwell's Dictionary of Provincial "Words, i., 
p. 181; and Wright's Dictionary of Provincial English, i., p. 217. The 
Pomlum Fotatorimn in the family of Scott of Thirlestane (now part of the 
Cherrytrees estate) near Yetholm, was in the form of a jaek-hoot. Each 
guest was obliged to empty this at his departure. — Sir Walter Scott'' s Notes 
to Waverley. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 45 

G-eneva Bible ; tbe Marcbmont Bible, witb the name of "Madam 
Grisell Kar of Pol wart, ber Book, 1660," inscribed on a fly leaf. 
Tbis was Sir Patrick Hume's spouse, afterwards first Countess 
of Marcbmont. Tbere was also a good old edition of Dante, and 
an old work in Frencb, entitled "La Mer de Histoires," 1514, 
folio. A work tbat appeared to be very attractive to members 
was a copy of Watson's "Pbilip II. of Spain," done up in 2 
vols, quarto, and illustrated with portraits of tbe celebrated per- 
sonages of tbat king's period. Tbere were suspended in tbe 
library, two letters in tbe bandwriting of Cbarles tbe Pretender, 
tbe first written in 1760, and tbe otber after bis fatber's deatb, 
of date 28tb June, 1766. Tbere was also a bolograpb letter of 
Mary Queen of Scots. Anotber from Queen Anne, tbanked 
Lord Marcbmont for assisting in completing tbe Union of tbe 
two kingdoms. Letters are also preserved of tbe Cbevalier de 
St. George, dated 1717 ; of Maria Antoinette, Queen of France, 
1784 ; of Cromwell (no date), and of Cardinal Eicbelieu. 
Tbere were also two bags used by Patrick, first Earl of Marcb- 
mont, wben be was Lord Higb Cbancellor of Scotland, from 
1696 to 1702. 

Tbe bed was sbown, wbicb was slept in by Sir Patrick Hume, 
wben concealed in tbe vault beneatb Polwartb Cburcb.- It is a 
folding bed of wood, on four sbort legs, wbicb also folded down 
by binges wben tbe bed was not required, and bad strong springs 
to keep tbem erect wben in use. Tbe wbole goes into very little 
space. Tbe bed is of black walnut, and is in good preservation, 
but tbe castors, wbicb are of beecb, are worm-eaten and worn. 
Tbe bed bears tbe date 1660. 

About two bours were spent in examining tbe various articles 
of vertu and interest in tbe bouse, after wbicb tbe party pro- 
ceeded to see tbe ancient Cburcb of Polwartb. Before leaving, 
tbe company were treated witb refresbments. 

Altbougb of old foundation, tbe present walls of tbe cburcb 
only date from 1703. On tbe outer walls are a number of in- 
scriptions, cbiefly to tbe memory of ministers of Polwartb. 
Tbese bave been copied, but it bas been deemed advisable to 
defer an account of tbe cburcb, as well as otber particulars 
about Marcbmont, wbicb cannot be included witbin tbe compass 
of a report. 

The following is a list of tbe Ministers of Polwartb from Dr 



46 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

Hew Scott's "Fasti Ecclesise Scoticanse," part ii., pp. 422-444, 
and Wodrow Society's Miscellany, p. 373 : — 

Adam Hume, 1567 to 1593. 

Eobert Bell, reidare at Polwort, 1573. 

David Forsyth, 1586 to 1592. Eeidare at Coldingham, 1571. 

Alexander Gaittis, A.M., 1593 to 1603. 

Alexander Cass or Carse, A.M., 1604 to 1651. 

David Robertson, A.M., 1652 to 1663. 

George Holiwell, A.M., 1664-1704. 

Archibald Borthwick, A.M., 1709-1727. 

John Hume of Abbey St. Bathans, 1727-1734. 

William Home, son of Walter Home of Bassendean, 1735-1757. 

Alexander Home, 1758-1768. 

Eobert Home, 1769-1838. 

Walter Home, Assistant and Successor, 1823. 
On the 2nd Sept. 1296, after having paid homage to Edward 
I., Adam Lamb, parson of the church of Poulesworth, was 
restored to his benefice.*' On August 2, 1299, Edward presented 
William de Sadyngtone, clerk to the church of Powelesworthe.f 
The inscription on the bell is : " Given . to . the . Kirk . of . 
PoLWARTH. By . Lady . Geizel . Kar . Countess . of . March- 
MoiTNT . 1697. P.M. Fecit . Edr . 1717." 

In the vault beneath the church are contained on the left (1 
and 2) the coffins of Annie Western, Countess of Marchmont, 
and the Master' of Polwarth ; on the right (3 and 4) those of 
Alexander 2nd Earl and Sir WiUiam Purves. Sir Patrick 
Hume, first Earl and his Countess, were interred in the Canon- 
gate Churchyard. 

Outside of the church is an old rude font, recently found be- 
hind a wall at the back of the church. It has a perforation be- 
neath, a hoUow lip for the water running over, and about the 
middle two holes for the lid to. play on. It is very ancient, and 
closely resembles that preserved at Linton. The churchyard is sur- 
rounded by large sycamores. The tombstones are white lichened, 
as if placed in a damp close atmosphere. From the old spelling 
I take the meaning of the word Polwarth to be Paul's village or 
hamlet ; and not what Chalmers makes it the settlement on the 
pol or muddy stream. 

Leaving Polwarth Church, the party divided. The majority 
passed along the walk through the open glen or vale by the 

* Eot. Scot, i,, p. 25. 
t Documents Illustrative of the History of Scotland, ii., p. 378. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 47 

Swirden burn, called the Lady's walk, on their way to tbe Eail- 
way station. This was the path by which Lady Grizel Baillie 
(then Grizel Hume) used to visit her father at the dead of night, 
when he was secreted in the old church, owing to his life being 
sought after for his adhesion to Presbyterian principles, and his 
patriotic opposition to a tyrannical government. " She at that 
time," we are told in the narrative of her daughter, Lady 
Murray of Stanhope, "had a terror for a churchyard, especially 
in the dark ; but when engaged by concern for her father, she 
stumbled over the graves every night alone, without fear of any 
kind entering her thoughts, but for soldiers and parties in search 
of him, which the least noise or motion of a leaf put her in terror 
for." The lime trees by the side of this hollow were already 
wearing the sear and yellow leaf — the lime leaf being one of the 
earliest to assume the autumnal hue. Greenlaw was reached by 
train. Another party returned to Marchmont House, and went 
to Greenlaw either by conveyances or on foot by the public road. 
Several of the hedges near Marchmont are composed of beech, 
which on this and the previous season, have been badly blighted 
by the beech Aphis, Aphis Fagi, L. [Phyllaphis Fagi of 
Kaltenbach), which by extracting the sap, withers the leaves. 
Several portions of hedge in a variety of situations, ap- 
peared to be quite dead. On the previous autumn this was 
pointed out by Mr Loney, and the winged insects, like little tufts 
of down, were floating across the roads, and were very trouble- 
some by getting into one's eyes. At a recent meeting of the 
Scottish Arboricultural Society, at Edinburgh, on the 7th Octo- 
ber, Mr 0. S. France, Penicuik, suggested that a prize should be 
offered for an essay on the disease which was doing so much in- 
jury to beech hedges. In his neighbourhood the disease first 
appeared on the hedges in Jime last year, and this season it had 
entirely destroyed some portions of the hedges. In October, I 
passed a few days in the vicinity of Eoslin, not far from Peni- 
cuik, and found the insect on nearly all the beech hedges by the 
public roads, some of them being deprived of foliage, in con- 
stantly recurring patches, like those at Marchmont. The disease 
is no great mystery, if one only examined the leaves at the proper 
period. According to Mr Walker, the viviparous wingless 
female, which is pale green or yellow, appears on the beech be- 
fore the end of April ; and the viviparous form in the middle of 



48 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

May. The oviparous wingless female appears in October, when 
tbe winged male pairs with it. The eggs are fastened in Novem- 
ber to the twigs of the trees. From June to October only a few 
little Aphides of retarded growth appear."^' This insect differs 
from the Coccus Faji which attacks the trunks of the beech, and 
covers them with a cottony layer. This Coccus has been ob- 
served at Ayton, and in the Edinburgh Botanic Gardens, and in 
Dalkeith Park. 

Mr Loney also called attention to the damage committed by 
wood pigeons, to the growth of spruce and silver firs, by their 
custom of preferring to perch on their topmost branches, and 
breaking them down by their weight. On examination it was 
found that there were hundreds in this condition. Spruce firs, 
it is said, do not last here over 40 or 45 years ; after that period 
they decay inwardly, the moist sandy soil being prejudicial to 
their welfare. 

Before leaving Marchmont it must not be omitted to notice an 
immense blue basaltic boulder, estimated to weigh 14 tons, lying 
in the woods on the banks of the Swirden burn. This had been 
turned up in an adjacent field in the course of cultivation, and 
dragged b}^ horses into its present position. There are the scars 
of ploughs and harrows that have operated on it, at one end ; and 
also a series of parallel lines at the base, which may be either 
structural or glacial, if they are not deceptive traces of moisture 
falling from the tree beneath which it has become a fixture. The 
dimensions of this boulder as taken by Mr Loney are — length, 
10 feet ; breadth, 5 feet ; longest circumference, 23 feet 4 inches ; 
across top and sides, 12 feet. 

At Greenlaw several visited the church. At the entrance at 
the bottom of the kirk steeple, the cell of the more depraved 
prisoners, long known, when this formed a portion of the jail, as 
the " Thieves' hole," and " Greenlaw pit," was pointed out. In 
March, 1844, when the stair was made that gives access to the 
bell, a human skeleton was found between the top of the arch of 
the cell and the wooden floor above ; supposed to have been that 
of some one murdered by his prison associates, and then con- 
cealed. A few of the more interesting inscriptions on the tomb- 
stones were copied. 

To this meeting the Rev. Wm. Dobie brought from Ladykirk 

* Annals of Nat. Hist. 2nd Series, 1848, pp. 328-330. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hai-dy. 49 

a pellet of quartz stone, covered with lead, of the size of a 
large marble, which had probably been shot from Norham 
Castle. Mr Currie produced a drawing of a necklace of jet taken 
out of a cist on the farm of West Morriston in 1846. This is a 
simpler ornament, although on the same model, than others figured 
by the Scottish Society of Antiquaries. Mr Watson handed in 
some notes on Sir Patrick Hume, and a list of the ministers of 
Polwarth Church ; and he also exhibited a photograph of the 
portrait of Sir Patrick Hume, of which the original is at March- 
mont, and drawings of the mansion house of Eedbraes, of March- 
mont House, and Polwarth Church. Mr Brotherston distributed 
examples of Potamogeton Ziezii from Coldside Loch ; and of Crepis 
succisceifoUa, which he had found in many places in Poxburgh- 
shire. Scirpus pauciflorus he stated to be not uncommon in Eox- 
burghshire. Mr Watson brought a specimen of Saxifraga 
hirculus from the Langton habitat, so that it is fortunately still 
preserved. 

About thirty gentlemen sat down to dinner in the Castle 
Hotel, Greenlaw. The following were proposed for member- 
ship : — Pev. George Gunn, Stitch ell ; Dr Patrick Kynoch, 
Greenlaw ; Messrs George Anderson, manufacturer, Selkirk ; 
Thomas Brown, Woodburn, Selkirk ; Palph Dunn, Melrose ; 
Thomas Fairley, Academy, Galashiels ; Pobert Darling Ker, St. 
Leonards House, Edinburgh ; William Laidlaw, Eastfield, Gala- 
shiels ; Hume Nisbet, Studio, 6, Sandwich Place, Edinburgh. 

A combined meeting of the Club, and the Architectural and 
Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland, took 
place at Durham, on Wednesday, 24th September, which was 
very numerously attended by members of both Societies, up- 
wards of 200 having been present at different periods of the day. 
The Eev. William GreenweU, F.E.8., F.S.A., President of the 
Archaeological Society, gave in the Cathedral the history of the 
religious body which ultimately settled at Durham, and having 
detailed the chronological date connected with the fabric, in a 
very eloquent address, proceeded to point out the various archi- 
tectural features of the church. After an interval of three 
quarters of an hour, Mr GreenweU conducted the re-assembled 
company to the Library, once the monastic dormitory and re- 
fectory, where the relics found in the grave of St. Cuthbert, and 
many valuable and early Manuscripts were inspected. The 

G 



50 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

company then adjourned to the Castle, where the Eev. Canon 
Ornsby, author of '' Sketches of Durham," read a paper by Mr 
W. H. D, Longstaffe, F.S.A., which he supplemented from a 
paper of his own, that appeared in the Archseological Society's 
Transactions, and he afterwards conducted the company over all 
the apartments, and round the exterior, explaining their 
peculiarities most minutely. As a report of the addresses and 
observations made at the meeting will appear in the '^ Proceed- 
ings," it is unnecessary to recapitulate further. The arrange- 
ments were admirable, and every one appeared to be pleased. 
Many had to leave to reach home that evening, but about ninety 
ladies and gentlemen connected with the two societies, dined to- 
gether in the great hall of the castle, Canon Greenwell officiating 
as chairman.*' 

Although no business meeting could be called, the names of 
the following gentlemen, duly proposed and seconded, were 
handed to the Secretaries, and were held as having fulfilled the 
conditions required of new-entrants, viz. : — Eev. Eobert Small, 
Caddonfoot, Galashiels ; Mr Frank Eutherford, Bank of Scot- 
land, Galashiels ; Eev. A. Duncombe Shafto, Brancepeth Eectory, 
Durham ; Mr J. J. Vernon, F.S.A., President of the Hawick 
Archseological Society ; Mr Eobert Henry Elliot of Clifton Park ; 
Mr J. W. Barnes, banker, Durham. 

The annual meeting for 1879 was held at Berwick, on Wed- 
nesday, October 15. Among others present were : — Dr Paxton, 
Norham, President ; Dr F, Douglas, Kelso and Mr J. Hardy, 
Oldcambus, Secretaries ; Eobert Middlemas, Treasurer ; Sir 
Walter Elliot of Wolfelee, K.C.S.I., &c. ; Mr Eobert Grossman 
of Cheswick; Mr Matthew T. CuUey of Coupland Castle; Mr 
David Milne Home of Milne Graden ; Capt. David Milne Home, 

* One of the great events in Sir Walter Scott's life, was his dining in this 
hall, with the Bishop of Durham, ' ' surrounded and supported by the 
assembled aristocracy of the two northern counties, and in the presence of 
the Duke of Wellington." " The dinner was one of the finest things I ever 
saw; it was in the old Castle Hall, untouched, for aught I know, since 
Anthony Beck feasted Edward Longshanks on his way to invade Scotland." 
' ' The bright moon streaming in through the old Gothic windows contrasted 
strangely with the artificial lights within ; spears, banners, and armour, 
were intermixed with the pictures of old bishops, and the whole had a singular 
mixture of baronial pomp with the grave and more chastened dignity of 
prelacy." — Life by Lockhart. 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 51 

M.P., of Paxton ; Eevs. Jolin F. Bigge, Stamfordham ; William 
Dobie, Ladykirk ; John S. Green, Wooler ; Hastings M. Neville, 
Ford ; Jobn Orr, Berwick ; John George Eowe, Berwick ; Evan 
Eutter, Tweedmouth ; Joshua Hill Scott, Kelso ; E. Hopper 
Williamson, Whickham ; Beverley S. Wilson, Duddo ; Drs 
Colville Brown, Berwick ; Charles Douglas, Kelso ; Henry 
Eichardson, E.N., Berwick; Oapt. J. A. Forbes, Berwick; 
Messrs E. G. Bolam and George Bolam, Berwick ; C. B. P. 
Bosanquet, Eock ; Andrew Brotherston, Kelso ; Thos. Chartres, 
Ayton ; William Cunningham, Coldstream ; Thomas Darling, 
Berwick ; John Dunlop, Berwick ; Charles Erskine, Melrose ; 
James Greenfield, Eeston ; Henry Gregson, yr., Lowlynn ; James 
B. Kerr, Kelso ; E. D. Ker, Edinburgh ; Geo. Muirhead, Pax- 
ton ; James Nicholson, Murton ; James Purves, Berwick ; Stanley 
Hill Scott, Kelso ; William Shaw, Gunsgreen ; Septimus H. 
Smith, Norham ; William Stevenson, Dunse ; Alan Swinton, 
Swinton House ; John Thomson, Kelso ; W. F. Vernon, Kelso ; 
Charles Watson, Dunse ; Matthew Young, Berwick. 

At Mrs Carter's residence, among other interesting objects not 
previously viewed by members, there were MSS of Burns's 
"Lines written in Friars-Carse Hermitage," both versions ; his 
"Literary Scoldings and Hints" with the originals of three 
of Burns's letters to Mr William Cruikshanks, of the High 
School, Edinburgh, which were exhibited by the Eev. James 
Henderson, vicar of Ancroft, the grandson of the poet's corres- 
pondent. Some of the readings in the letters slightly vary from 
the copies used by Allan Cunningham in his " Works and Life 
of Burns." The poet appears to have copied out for his more 
intimate friends, those pieces he had recently been occupied 
with ; and hence there may be of some of them more than one 
example purporting to be an original. Of articles of local 
interest there were also to be seen there three sketches, of Etal, 
Langleyford, and Horncliffe Mill, by the late W. Wilson, jun., 
of Bridge Street, Berwick ; and a continuation of Miss Dickin- 
son's beautiful paintings of wild flowers, and the commencement 
of a series of moths with their caterpillars. 

At one o'clock the members met in the billiard-room of the 
King's Arms Hotel, for the transaction of business. Dr Paxton 
delivered his address, and nominated Mr Charles Watson, Dunse, 
^.s his successor. Mr Hardy read the Eeports of the various 



52 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

meetings for the year ; and the treasurer, Mr Middlemas, stated 
that Mr Kerr had audited the accounts and found a balance of 
£ 12 8s 8id in favour of the Club. 

Sir Walter Elliot read an article on the Objects of the Club, 
in which he impressed upon the members the advisability of 
systematic action in scientific and archaeological research. It 
was resolved to appoint a committee to carry out some of Sir 
Walter Elliot's suggestions. 

Mr James B. Kerr read a paper upon some verses written by 
Sir Walter Scott, in 1832, while residing in Rome, which are be- 
lieved to have been the last ever written by the poet. Mr Kerr 
produced the original manuscript, which is written in a very 
feeble hand ; as also a passport for Sir Walter Scott, signed by 
Prince de Polignac, the Erench Ambassador in London, and 
dated 25th October, 1826. This passport bears Sir Walter 
Scott's own signature and address, viz.. Hotel Windsor, Eue de 
Eivoli, No. 38. Another document shewn was a diploma of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Normandy, in favour of Sir Walter 
Scott, Bart., President of the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh, and 
dated A Caen le 19 Janvier, 1829, and bearing the signatures of 
Le President, Le Secretaire, le Secretaire adjoint, &c. 

Dr Francis Douglas said that the Club was under great obli- 
gations to the Northumberland and Durham Archseological 
Society at the meeting at Durham last month ; and he thought 
it was only due from them as recipients of the generosity and 
liberality of the Archaeological Society, that the kindness of the 
sister society should be put on record. He hoped that an oppor- 
tunity might soon occur when the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 
might meet them, and make some return for the favours re- 
ceived. His motion was cordially adopted. 

Some discussion next ensued as to the proper place for the de- 
posit of the books and pamphlets received by the Club from 
other societies, but nothing definite was resolved upon. 

The following were proposed as members of the Club : — Mr 
Ralph Patterson Nisbet, Chesterhill House, Belford ; Mr George 
Bolam, Berwick ; Eev. Thomas S. Marjoribanks, Prestonkirk, 
East Lothian ; Eev. James King, vicar of St. Mary's, Berwick ; 
Mr James Bogie, 5, Spence Street, Newington, Edinburgh; 
Eev. Alexander Milne, Swinton ; Mr Francis D. Blake of Till- 
mouth Park, Coldstream ; Dr Andrew P. Aitken, Dr. So. Nivelle 



Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 53 

Cottage, Liberton, Edinburgh ; Mr E. Bamford, Edenbank, 
Kelso ; Mr James Thomas Spencer Elliot, yr., of Wolfelee ; Mr 
W. G. Macdonald, Grammar School, Berwick ; and Dr Thomas 
Eutherford, Kelso. These along with the others proposed at 
the different meetings throughout the season, were admitted as 
members. 

The following were the places in which it appeared to be 
desirable to hold meetings during 1880 ; but as there would be 
diflB.culties in carrying some of them out, alternatives were like- 
wise proposed : — Dunbar for Woodhall and Thurston Woods, on 
the last Wednesday in M ay ; Gordon, or Longf ormacus in June ; 
Belford or Beadnell in July ; Morpeth for Newminster Abbey 
and Mitford in August ; Gilsland in September. 

Several highly interesting articles were exhibited to the meet- 
ing.. Dr Francis Douglas brought a small green glass phial, 
conjectured to be Eoman, discovered in digging for the founda- 
tions of the Public School at Kelso, of which he will give an 
account. Mr Milne Home produced a chipped spear-head of 
pale grey flint, like the material of one already figured for the 
Club, which he had obtained from one of the Earl of Home's 
gamekeepers, who had picked it up in a rabbit-hole near Eire- 
burn Mill, opposite Oarham. Sir Walter Elliot, to illustrate his 
remarks on local archaeology, referred to a variety of specimens, 
which were handed round. 1 . A very fine fully polished light 
grey flint celt, got at Wolfhopelee, on Wolfelee estate. 2. A 
very perfect example of a chipped brownish-grey flint arrow- 
head, picked up near the Drove Eoad, not far from Wolfelee, in 
1 862. 3. A wrought flint chip, from a gravel walk at Wolfelee. 
4. A small stone ring, or rather bead, of greywacke slate, like 
one already figured for the Club, found at Wolfelee Townhead 
Cottage, by the shepherd's daughter, in August, 1879. 5. Two 
distaff spindle weights ; the one met with at Braidhaugh, at the 
foot of Bonchester, in 1871 ; and the other at the Chester on the 
Eoundabout farm. 6. An oval stone of a grey quartzy mixture, 
a sort of bastard sandstone, which had a groove and dimple 
lengthways to the stone ; about the size and form of a small 
hammer-stone. — This was from a field at Braidhaugh, at the foot 
of Bonchester Hill. 7. An Egyptian copper arrow-head from 
Thebes, March, 1863. 8. A flint arrow-head picked up on the 



54 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

tombs at Marathon, September, 1834. 9. A bone arrow-head 
found among the bones of Deer, Wild Boar, and Ox, in a rath 
on the estate of John PuUar, Esq., C.M.Gr., Tipperary. 

Mr George Bolam informed the comioany that this week he had 
shot a Pied Fly-catcher {Muscicapa atricapilla) in his father's 
garden at Berwick. Dr Colville Brown exhibited three Poma- 
rine Skuas {Lestris Pomarinus), shot that day, Oct. 15. This is a 
species of unusual occurrence, but owing to a storm or some 
occult cause, about that period, great numbers of these birds had 
been driven from some high latitude, upon the eastern coasts of 
Britain. Mr George Bolam obtained information that on the 
14th Oct., one man at Spittal shot no fewer than 15 ; and other 
persons killed 4 or 5 each. Mr Knight got two at Holy Island. 
It was still more plentiful up the Frith of Forth. Mr Gray had 
examined 32 specimens in Edinburgh, besides 3 or 4 Lestris 
Buffoni, which appears to have arrived in company with the 
Pomarines. Mr Harvey Brown writes that about that period. 
Buff on' s Skuas had occiu'red in the Moray Frith ; and that he 
had heard of 26 Pomarine Skuas in three weeks in the Frith of 
Forth ; and many others elsewhere on the eastern coast. In 
England it swarmed in the end of October and in November. In 
a paper read to the Eoyal Physical Society of Edinburgh, Dr 
Traquair recorded that m October and November specimens had 
been shot at Dunbar, Longniddry, North Berwick, Portobello, 
and Queensferry ; as well as at Dundee and North Uist. The 
birds were generally in a state of exhaustion, and were very tame. 
In the beginning of October large numbers were observed in the 
Faroe Islands. 

The Club have deeply to regret the death of several of its 
oldest members, as well as of others in the prime of life : — 1. Mr 
Ealpli Forster, of Whitsome Hill, Berwickshire, who died at 
Pome, 17th February, 1878, in the 44th year of his age, whose 
mortal remains rest in the Protestant Cemetery there. 2. Lieut. ' 
James H. Scott Douglas, Spring wood Park, a youth of great 
promise, slain while on duty in the Zulu war as signal officer of 
Lord Chelmsford's army, at the age of 26, July 1, 1879. 3. Mr 
William Richardson, Alnwick, a zealous botanist, and the dis- 
coverer of several rare plants in North Northumberland, who 
died 18th April, 1879, in his 80th year. 4. Mr James Maid- 



Rejport of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 55 

ment, advocate, a distinguislied literary antiquarian and genealo- 
gist, who died at his residence in Eoyal Circus, Edinburgh, on 
the 24th November, 1879. He joined the Club in 1859. 5. 
The Eev. John Dawson, minister of Makerston, who died sud- 
denly, 1st December, 1879, aged 47. He officiated for many 
years in India as an army chaplain. 6. In the same fatal roll 
we have to inscribe our friend, and the Club's friend, Mr John 
Clay, who was cut off suddenly at his residence in Eavensdowne, 
Berwick, January 26, 1880, in his 50th year. Mr Clay joined 
the Club, October 28, 1857. 7. The Eev. J. S. Green, vicar of 
Wooler, who died February 15,1 880, who joined the Club May 31, 
1860, and for that long period was almost a constant attendant on 
the meetings. Mr Green had attained his 65th year. Of Scottish 
descent he was born in Huntingdonshire, and was educated at 
Cambridge, where he took the B.A. and M.A. degrees. He was 
formerly curate at Stockton and Bishop Auckland, and in the year 
1842 he was appointed rector of St. Mary-le-Bow, Dvirham. 8. 
The Eev. Charles Thorp, vicar of Ellingham, died at EUingham 
vicarage, 17th February, 1880, in his 55th year. He was the 
son of the late Yen. Archdeacon Thorp, Archdeacon of Durham 
and Eector of Eyton. Educated at University College, Oxford, 
he took the degree of B.A. in 1 850, and the degree of M.A. in 
1853. He was ordained in 1850 ; and became vicar of Elling- 
ham in 1855, prior to which he was curate of Blanchland. Since 
he became vicar the church has been completely rebuilt, and it 
is now one of the neatest country churches in the North of Eng- 
land. New and handsome school buildings have been erected, 
and lately, through his instrumentality, a substantial house was 
built for the schoolmaster. Mr Thorp became a member of the 
Club, Jan. 31, 1856. 

ADDITIONAL NOTICES. 

From a memorandum made in 1845, it appears that the giving 
of a field for a horse was not singular on the parts of the lairds 
of Hillend and Houndwood ; but that a similar bargain was 
made between the lairds of Fairneyside and Eedhall, both of 
which farms are contiguous ; the former having given a field of 
Fairneyside to the owner of Eedhall, as the price of a hunting- 



56 Report of Meetings for 1879, by James Hardy. 

torse. At one period tlie lands of Fairneyside and Houndwood 
belonged to the same proprietor ; and it is possible that the two 
exchanges form a part of one transaction ; or at least that the 
one or other might afford a precedent. 

I have found, after the first portion of the report had gone to 
press, the original notice of the discovery of the urn near Hound- 
wood, in the Berwick Advertiser, October 9, 1868, and it is 
advisable to preserve what the finder says about it. " On Satur- 
day last (October 3) whilst the workmen, who are at present en- 
gaged in removing a sandbank at Houndwood Lye for ballast 
for railway purposes, came upon an urn filled with human bones. 
It is 15 inches deep, and 12 inches wide, is formed of coarse 
baked clay, and is in very good preservation. The bones have 
a charred appearance, and when exposed to the air crumble 
down. This is the sixth of the same sort that has been found 
near the same spot, but those formerly found were so much 
damaged that they could not be removed." 

Misled by Mr Eiddell-Carre (Border Memories, pp, 252, 253) 
I have mis-stated both the Christian name and the date of the 
decease of the eminent medical descendant of Henry Hall of 
Haughhead, on the Kale. The authenticity of the obituary 
notice in Constable's Edinburgh Magazine, vol. xiv., p. 640, 
maybe more relied on. "April 24, 1824, at Chelsea, Eobert 
Hall, M.D., late Surgeon to the Forces, a descendant of the 
ancient Border family of the Halls of Newbiggen [Parish of 
Oxnam], and great grandson of Henry Hall of Haughhead, the 
celebrated Covenanter, who fought at Bothwell Bridge, Drum- 
clog, &c." 



57 

An Address on the History of Durham Cathedral, delivered 
at the joint Meeting of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 
and the Archceological and Architectural Society of Dur- 
ham and Northumberland. By the Rev. William Green- 
well, F.R.S., F.S.A., President of the Archaeological and 
Architectural Society of Durham and Northumberland. 

I propose to divide what I have to say into three parts, the 
first commencing with a brief account of the earliest introduction 
of Christianity into the North of England, bringing the history 
down through the period before there was any religious estab- 
lishment at Durham, and from thence to the time of the Norman 
Conquest and the establishment of the Benedictine Order at Dur- 
ham. After that I will give in detail the facts from history 
which have relation to the erection of various parts of the 
Cathedral, and then I will accompany you through the building, 
and endeavour to show how the architectural features of the 
several parts tally with the historic data previously given you. 

With regard to the first establishment of Christianity, I do not 
think there is any evidence to show that it had taken root during 
the time of the Roman occupation. We know that there is 
abundant evidence that Christianity did exist in various parts of 
England, but I am not aware that there are any facts which 
would enable us to say that Christianity was established here in 
the North of England, at all events, to any great extent. There 
may have been isolated instances of Christians, but that they were 
few seems to be shown by the fact that all the inscriptions upon 
the Roman stones down to the latest period of the Roman rule 
are Pagan. 

As I proceed, I shall have to bring before you a number of 
great figures, men of extraordinary eminence, capacity, and re- 
ligious zeal in their several times and places. The first of whom 
I have to speak is Paidinus, the great missionary of the North 
in the very earliest time. He preached throughout all this 
part of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria, in which is 
comprised the present counties of Northumberland, Durham, 
and Yorkshire, together with a large portion of South-Eastern 
Scotland, up to the Frith of Forth. There are several places 
well known to many of you where he preached and baptised 
with great success, one of which, Pallinsburn, near the later 

H 



58 Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell. 

site of the Field of Flodden, appears to have got its name from 
him. The Swale and the Glen are rivers associated with his 
mission, and his well at Holystone, in the valley of the Coquet, 
where he baptised, is familiar to us all. He was obliged, A.D. 
633, to leave the country, when, after the death of Eadwin, slain 
in the battle of Hethf eld, Northumbria was conquered by Penda 
king of Mercia, and Cadwallon king of the Strath Clyde Britons, 
and relapsed with its two kings into Paganism. I now come to 
one of the greatest names of Northumbria — Oswald, who is 
intimately associated with the Church of Durham, in connection 
with its patron, Saint Cuthbert. A son of Aethelfrith, of the 
royal house of Bernicia, he fled from his country, when a youth, 
and took refuge in Scotland, where he became a convert to the 
Christian faith. On his return to his own country, after defeat- 
ing and killing Cadwallon at Hevenfield, near Hexham, he was 
the means of introducing Christianity into it. I shall now have 
a few words to say with regard to the place from whence North- 
umbrian Christianity.came. I refer to lona. lona, which many 
of you will know, is a small, low-lying, sterile, inhospitable 
island upon the west coast of Scotland, and the last place likely 
to be selected for a residence. This place, however, was chosen 
by a great Irishman, descended from one of the lines of Irish 
kings, his name Columba. He was a man of enormous energy, 
and would have made an admirable commander and a great 
soldier, had his energies been turned in that direction. The early 
part of his life was intermixed with the feuds then prevailing, 
and he was the cause of much bloodshed, and was compelled in 
consequence to leave his native country. An exile from all he 
loved, he came to lona, and there settled, and never returned to 
Ireland, which was so dear to him, and for which through life he 
longed. He lived at lona, and there founded a great missionary 
church, and from thence the Christian faith was diffused through 
a considerable part of Scotland. There were other centres from 
which the Christian faith spread in that country, but we must 
look to Columba as the origin, and to lona as the great centre 
and source of Christianity in Scotland and the North. "We can 
never think of lona without a deep feeling of veneration and re- 
gard, and no Scotchman can visit or speak of it without strong 
emotion. lona will always live in the memory of Scotland. 
Scotland, narrow perhaps in some things, harsh it may be in 



Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Green well. 59 

others, looks ever with, reverence upon lona, and her great heart 
beats with a fervent throb at the name. I know not of any 
country in Christendom more imbued with stronger religious 
feeling and more fervour than Scotland, and doubtless she owes 
much of it to St. Oolumba and his island home. Here, in Dur- 
ham, too, and throughout all the North of England, we cannot 
but look to lona with veneration, for it is impossible to do so 
without feeling that from it was extended to us Christianity and 
civilization. To recur to Oswald. After the defeat of Cadwallon, 
Oswald then became firmly seated as king of Northumbria, and 
immediately afterwards he sent to lona for help in his endeavours 
to convert his people to Christianity. lona responded to his call, 
and gave him at first Corman, who failed, however, in his mis- 
sion on account of his too great harshness. A monk named 
Aidan at once supplied his place, and amply fulfilled the expec- 
tations that had been formed of him. After Paulinus' departure 
Christianity had disappeared from Northumbria, and it remained 
Pagan until Aidan' s arrival. We know a good deal about 
Aidan, and all we know shows that he was a man of great re- 
ligious vigour and zeal, and also of admirable tact. Beda tells 
us much about him, and though not an altogether friendly wit- 
ness, on account of the differences about the keeping of Easter 
and the tonsure, he speaks of him in terms of the highest praise. 
Oswald, with whom he was most intimately connected, the king 
often acting as interpreter when the Bishop preached, fell in 
battle A.D. 642, at Maserfeld, probably near Oswestry, in Shrop- 
shire, in fighting against Penda, the old Pagan king of Mercia, 
who had conquered Northumbria before the time of Oswald. He 
defeated Oswald and slew him, using great barbarity. He cut 
off his hands and head. His head ultimately came to Lindis- 
farne, and ever after became associated with St. Cuthbert, We 
always hear of them together, St. Cuthbert being usually repre- 
sented as carrying king Oswald's head, which was buried with 
him at Lindisfarne, and ultimately at Durham. Perhaps it may 
not be here out of place to say a few words with regard to Ire- 
land as a centre, not alone of Christianity, but of art. It is 
entitled to our respect not only on account of our Christianity 
having been introduced from it through lona, but for other 
reasons about which I have to speak. Ireland was one of the 
great centres of missionary work, and sent missionaries over a 



60 Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell. 

large part of Europe, tkroughout the seventh, eighth, and ninth 
centuries. It was also the country whence art at that time was 
widely diffused. The art which we are accustomed to call Anglo- 
Saxon, and which is sometimes known as Eunic, is purely Irish. 
Almost all the art ornamentation in use at that time in our own 
country upon stone and metal, and in books, came from thence. 
Into the principles of this art time will not permit me now to 
enter fully. It has nothing in common with Classical or Oriental 
Art, and does not appear to have been known anywhere except 
in the United Kingdom, and to a trifling extent in some parts of 
South Germany. In Ireland, however, this special art orna- 
mentation reached its highest excellency. The power of design 
and of execution, as shewn in the manuscripts, is truly most re- 
markable. This principle of art is in the main based on a spiral 
reversing itself, which becomes joined on to an elaborate inter- 
lacing pattern, probably originating in late Eoman work. This 
union produced that wonderful system of art ornamentation 
which is found so beautifully developed in many of the early 
books, written both in Ireland and our own country, and in none 
more exquisitely than in the Lindisfarne Gospels, which, once at 
Durham, is now in the British Museum. We have also in the 
Library here another very fine example, consisting of a frag- 
mentary copy of the Gospels, equally beautiful with the Lindis- 
farne Gospels. 

When Oswald placed Aidan at Lindisfarne (now called Holy 
Island) or more probably when Aidan selected that spot for a 
religious settlement, he found it singularly like the place from 
whence he had come. It is a small low-lying, sandy, and un- 
fertile island, not far distant from the mainland. Both Lindis- 
farne and lona are exposed to the storms from the ocean, and to 
those of the opposite highlands, and in many respects are much 
alike, and I cannot but think that Aidan was induced to settle at 
Lindisfarne from a sentiment of affection, because of this like- 
ness to the island where he had received his education, and 
where he became so deeply imbued with a true Christian spirit. 
The religious body established at Lindisfarne by Aidan was 
fostered by that great and most virtuous of kings — Oswald — and 
there the monks remained for several years. But before I bring 
you away from Lindisfarne, to Chester-le-Street and Durham, 
there is one figure which rises before us — the figure of the great 



Dv/rham Cathedral, by Rev. William Green well. 61 

Saint of the North of England, our patron Saint at Durham — 
Cuthbert. His genealogy is disputed, but there is little question 
he was of Anglian and not of Celtic origin. He was probably of 
humble parentage, although a noble descent has been claimed 
for him. We hear of him first as a shepherd boy in the South 
of Scotland, not far from Melrose, the monastery at which he 
entered, and there received instruction in religion. He 
ultimately became a great missionary, and preached throughout 
a large part of Northern Northumbria, then comprising the East 
of Scotland up to the Frith of Forth. He became Bishop much 
against his will, and had he chosen his own lot he would not 
have ruled over the Northumbrian See, but have lived on in re- 
tirement from human kind as a hermit upon the adjoining island 
of Fame, to which he had before removed from Lindisfarne. I 
cannot but think that he must have had other qualities than the 
ascetic which induced the people to select him. We know that 
he was a great missionary, and that he preached with much 
effect, but he must also, like Aidan, have had a conciliatory 
spirit, kindness, firmness, discretion, and the skill to rule. He 
became Bishop at Lindisfarne A.D. 685, and died on the great 
Fame A.D. 687, and his body was taken to Lindisfarne, and 
there buried. He, therefore, only ruled the Northumbrian See 
for two years. Eleven years after his death his body was disin- 
terred, the monks having, in the meantime, prepared a cofiin in 
which to place it. They naturally expected to find a skeleton, 
but they found the body incorrupt. They then placed it in the 
coffin which they had prepared, and, probably with the exception 
of coffins from Egypt, this is one of the oldest wooden coffins, of 
which remains still exist. Fragments of large portions of it are 
still preserved in the Cathedral library. Reginald, the author 
of a "Life of St. Cuthbert," who had opportunities of carefidly 
examining it, says it had on it representations of Saints, Apostles, 
and of various other figures. Many of these still remain on the 
fragments of the coffin at Durham, and the description given by 
him so fully agrees with the character of the sculpturing still left, 
that there cannot be the slightest doubt that in these remains we 
have portions of the coffin made before A.D. 698. The letters, 
for some of the figures have the names attached, are also of the 
form in use at that time. 

I must now mention another great name — that of Beda, or the 



62 Durham, Cathedral, by Rev. William Green well. 

Venerable Beda, as lie is commonly called. He wrote a ''Life 
of St. Cuthbert," and he tberefore becomes very intimately con- 
nected with, tbe great Saint of the North. Beda was a man of 
high attainments and culture. He was not, perhaps, a man of 
action, and I do not know but that he passed his whole life more 
or less in seclusion, not mixing in the world. He was em- 
phatically a student, and remarkable for great personal religion. 
He is, indeed, an instance of, for his time, extraordinary learn- 
ing, much simplicity of life and character, and of eminent and 
unselfish piety. Who is there that can read the account of his 
parting moments, and the story of his death without emotion ? 
I think there can be nothing more affecting. He was a great 
writer, and second to none as an Historian. His history con- 
tains, no doubt, many things which modern investigation have 
shewn to be incorrect. That arose, however, not from any fault 
in his own mind, but because the data did not then exist from 
which he could draw his facts. As an historian, he may almost 
stand side by side with Herodotus. He was also a great 
theologian, and indeed was well versed in every branch of 
literature then known. He was truly a great man, and amongst 
the most eminent of the scholars who lived at that time. We 
possess at Durham not only the bones of Cuthbert, but also of 
Beda. You will- see the tomb which encloses them in the Galilee. 
He died at Jarrow, in A.D. 735, and was buried there. There 
lived, however, in the monastery at Durham, a monk, Elfred, 
who was greatly attached to the memory of St. Cuthbert, and 
who had charge of his body. He thought that two such men 
should rest together. Can we blame him for his wish, or for the 
way in which he attained its fulfilment ? He took an opportunity 
of carrying off the body from Jarrow, and removed it to Durham, 
and here it still remains. 

I must now pass over a considerable period, and come to the 
year 875, when our connection with Lindisfarne ceases to a cer- 
tain extent. At that time the great Scandinavian invasions were 
beginning to take place, and, among other places, the Danes 
landed upon the coast of Northumbria, and harried the country. 
The monks fled from Lindisfarne. I mentioned before that I 
thought Lindisfarne had been selected by Aidan because of its 
great resemblance to lona. I think there was probably another 
reason, — its neighbourhood to the Castle of Bamburgh, the seat 



Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Green well. 63 

of the Northumbrian kings, Lindisfarne is very near to it, and 
naturally would be under the protection of the king, who lived 
there. Bamburgh, however, proved no great protection against 
the Danes, who came over the sea, and landing on the coast, 
then over-ran the country. The monks fearing lest they would 
be deprived of the Saint's body and their other treasures, and of 
their lives as well, fled from Lindisfarne, and wandered, not only 
over a great part of the North of England, but over a consider- 
able portion of the South of Scotland ; and many churches dedi- 
cated to St. Cuthbert, in those parts, probably mark the spots 
where the monks rested for awhile, with the body of the Saint. 
After wandering from 875 to 883, they settled at Chester-le- 
Street, which was given to them by Guthred, a Danish king, then 
reigning in Northumbria, and who had become a Christian. 
Chester-le-Street, unlike Lindisfarne, is inland, and stands upon 
the site of a Roman station. It possesses no great natural 
features for defence, but it is likely that some considerable re- 
mains of the old Roman walls were standing, and served as a 
protection against these Northern Rovers. There are a few re- 
mains of the monk's sojourn at Chester-le-Street, in the shape of 
portions of shafts of crosses, which are covered with thai peculiar 
carving which I have already referred to as of Irish origin. 
There the body rested, and from it the Bernician See was ruled, 
until the removal of Bishop Ealdhun and the monks to Durham, 
in 995. The difficulties of an adequate defence probably proved 
to the monks that Ohester-le-Street was not a suitable place for 
protection. The superior position of Durham was, no doubt, the 
reason why it was selected for the site of the See. This then 
was the commencement of the City of Durham. 

The site chosen for the final resting-place of the body of the 
patron Saint of Durham, is a plateau, small in extent, but en- 
closed by precipitous banks, and having the river running almost 
entirely round it. So strong, indeed, is its position that in those 
days it was, in fact, all but impregnable. 

In 999, Bishop Ealdhun completed the building of a stone 
church, into which the body of St. Cuthbert was transferred 
from a wooden building in which it had been at first placed. Of 
that church I do not know that a single stone remains visible to 
the eye, though there are, no doubt, thousands of stones belong- 
ing to it enclosed within these walls. This building remained 



64 Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell. 

until after the Conquest, a great change having taken place in 
the meantime. The monks who had originally constituted the 
congregation of St, Cuthbert, had fallen from the rule which was 
at first observed. There was in those days a great tendency 
among the regular clergy in the Saxon church, to degenerate 
into a kind of secular clergy. Symeon says those at Durham 
were neither monks nor regular canons. At Durham, as at Hex- 
ham, and elsewhere, they were married, and had families, and 
there was rapidly springing up an hereditary priesthood, father 
succeeding son, and had that system gone on there would have 
arisen a sacerdotal caste, with all the evils attending such a body. 
The Norman conquest happily did away with that, as it did with 
many other abuses. I incline to think that some indications of 
such a state of things were discovered, when about three years 
ago the foundations of the east end of the old Chapter-house, 
which was so ruthlessly destroyed in 1798, were laid bare. Just 
outside of the east wall of the present Chapter-house the graves 
of Bishops Flambard, Galf rid Euf us, and William de St. Barbara 
were met with, and in them were found three Episcopal rings of 
gold set with sapphires, which I will show to you in the Library. 
Much to our surprise, below the level of the Bishops' graves 
there were found a considerable number of skeletons of men, 
women, and children. There can, I think, be little doubt that 
the remains found at a lower level than the graves of the 
Bishops, those skeletons of men, women, and children belonged 
to the married clergy and their families who occupied the 
monastery at Durham, from the time of Ealdhun to the time 
when they were dispossessed by Bishop William of St. Carilef. 
I have already alluded to the congregation of St. Cuthbert, but 
of that body I must give you some further account. The re- 
ligious community, the congregation of St. Cuthbert, which 
ultimately settled at Durham, included the Bishop and the 
monks. The two formed one body, whose interests were identi- 
cal, and the Bishop lived among the monks, over whom he ruled 
within the community as he ruled over the diocese without. 
This system went on at Durham until the establishment of the 
Benedictine order shortly after the Norman Conquest. This 
unity between the Bishop and the monks was very similar to 
that which prevailed in the religious communities in Ireland and 
Scotland. The Bishop was a member of the body and lived 



Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell. G5 

■within it. He liad no estates or means of subsistence apart from 
the whole community. His interests and those of the rest of the 
congregation were one. This state of things was altered, as I 
have said, after the Conquest by Bishop William of St. Oarilef , 
who was the second Bishop appointed by William the First. 
Walcher, the first Norman Bishop, having reigned only a short 
time when he was killed by his own people at Gateshead, during 
a rebellion caused by the oppression of his officials. In 1081, 
William of St. Carilef was made Bishop. He was a Benedictine 
brought up in one of the great monastic houses in his own 
country, Normandy. Naturally enough, such an establishment 
of married clergy as that he found at Durham, must have been 
most distasteful to him. He had been a Benedictine monk him- 
self, and he therefore preferred being surrounded by those of 
his own order and not by those of whose system he disapproved. 
In the time of Bishop Walcher, the ancient monasteries at 
Jarrow and Wearmouth were deserted. Both of these churches 
still contain parts which are probably as old as any in this 
country, and I would strongly urge any of you who have not 
already been to Jarrow and Wearmouth, to visit these two places, 
which possess the highest interest whether they are regarded 
ecclesiastically or with reference to their architectural features. 
They had been deserted by the monks in consequence of the 
Danish invasions. It is difficult to say how long they remained 
without inhabitants, but they were probably more or less occupied 
during the interval. However this may have been. Bishop 
Walcher placed there Benedictine monks from Winchcombe and 
Evesham ; and Bishop Carilef, thinking there were not sufficient 
means for the maintenance of more than one monastery, brought 
the monks from Jarrow and Wearmouth to Durham, and founded 
a Benedictine house here, but before that he had dispossessed 
the secular clergy. At that time the Church of Ealdhun was 
still standing, and it is uncertain whether Carilef determined 
from the first to build a new church for the new order. He be- 
came a party to the rebellion against William Eufus, in 1088, 
and was driven an exile for three years into Normandy, and 
there, it may be, he conceived the design of replacing the old 
church by a new and more magnificent building, and it is 
possible that he may have brought with him, from that country, 
the plan of the very church in which we are now met. 

I 



66 Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell. 

Normandy at tliat time was full of splendid cliurclies, many 
lately erected, and it is probable tbat the tbougbt may have 
passed across the mind of Carilef , tbat if be did return to Dur- 
ham, he would raise there a more glorious building, and one 
better adapted to the wants of the new community, than the 
church he had left behind him. At all events on his return he 
determined to build a new church, and may we not think that 
gratitude was the motive which induced him to do this. In the 
meanwhile, during the time of his exile, as we learn from 
Symeon, the monks built the refectory, as, says he, it now stands. 
Symeon lived in the early part of the twelfth century. He 
therefore speaks with authority. The crypt under the refectory 
which still exists cannot be later than Symeon's time, and must, 
therefore, if not a still earlier piece of work, be part of the re- 
fectory built during Carilef's exile, and is therefore the earliest 
building we have at Durham in connection with the Monastery. 

I now come to the second part of my address ; you will ask 
what authority I have for the statements I shall make with re- 
gard to the dates of the various parts of the church. I have 
already stated that Symeon, a monk of Durham, lived when a 
great part of the work at the church was going on, and there- 
fore his testimony is very important. His history was continued 
after him by an anonymous writer ; and then we have a further 
continuation by Geoffrey de Coldingham, Eobert de Graystones, 
and William de Chambre, together with a number of indulgences 
from various Bishops, given towards obtaining means for making 
alterations in the building. These form our series of historic 
evidences. 

In 1093, on the 11th August, the foundation stone of the new 
church was laid. There were then present Bishop William of 
St. Carilef, Turgot the Abbot, and, as another writer says, 
Malcolm, king of Scotland. If he was present, it is curious 
that Symeon does not record the fact. The building went on 
rapidly. The Bishop had been accumulating money for his new 
church, and he carried on the building of it as far as the first 
large pier in the nave. The death of Bishop Carilef took place 
in 1096, and an interval of three years elapsed before the election 
of Bishop Flambard, in 1099, who is described as great by some 
and infamous by others. Ealph Flambard was William Eufus' 
Chancellor, and whether he was infamous or not, he was anyhow 



Durhatn Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell, 67 

a remarkable man. We are told that he carried on tlie work of 
the nave up to the roof — that is, that he completed the nave as 
far as the vaulting. In the meantime, between the death of 
Oarilef and the consecration of Flambard, we learn that the 
monks went on with the church. There had been an agreement 
between them by which the Bishop undertook the building of the 
church, and the monks of the domestic parts of the monastery. 
but that agreement came to an end on Carilef's death. That 
part of the church which was built by the monks there can be no 
doubt was the west side of the transepts, and the vaulting of 
both. We are next told that after the death of Bishop Flam- 
bard, in 1128, in the interval before the accession of Bishop 
Galfred-Eufus in 1133, the monks completed the nave. There 
was nothing left to complete but the vaulting, for Flambard had 
finished the nave up to the roof. With this date, about 1130, 
the architectural features well agree, notwithstanding the pointed 
arch of the main ribs. I may here take the opportunity of say- 
ing a few words with regard to the original vaulting of the 
choir. It was very common in Norman churches to have a 
wooden ceiling without any groined stone roof. This, however, 
was not the case at Durham, where a stone vaulting was placed 
over the choir almost immediately after the completion of the 
walls. There is sufficient evidence of this from the marks still 
left on the walls of the cloistory, but we have also the evidence 
of historic relation. In 1104 the building was so far completed 
that the monks were enabled to transfer the body of St. Cuth- 
bert from the small building in the cloisters, where it had before 
remained, to the Shrine, at the east end of the choir. At that 
time a very remarkable event took place, as we learn from 
William of Malmesbury's " Gesta Pontificum." He tells us that 
the wood work supporting the roof over the shrine was still 
there, which implies that the stone vaulting was only lately com- 
pleted. He says there was a difficulty as to getting down the 
wood work before the body of St. Cuthbert was placed in the 
shrine. St. Cuthbert, however, came to the assistance of the 
monks, and knocked the whole down during the night, and on 
the following morning it was found spread on the floor without 
having done injury to anything beneath it. Galfrid Rufus was 
the next Bishop, and reigned from 1133 to 1143. We are told 
that the Chapter -house was completed by him. Possibly it may 



68 Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell. 

have been begun before bis time ; but, at all events, it was tben 
finisbed. The Cbapter-bouse ! alas ! I can scarcely say Cbapter- 
bouse, for it is now only a miserable remnant of a building once 
probably the finest Norman Cbapter-bouse in England. It was 
barbarously destroyed at tbe end of tbe last century ; wby, I 
cannot tell, except as it is stated, to make tbe room warm and 
comfortable for tbe members of tbe Chapter. The Glalilee was 
nearly destroyed at the same time. Fortunately there is a very 
beautiful doorway still left in the Chapter-house, which may be 
attributed to Galfrid Eufus, who also probably built the great 
north and south doorways of the Nave. The sculpturing upon 
these doorways, and that upon the figures which supported the 
ribs at the east end of the Chapter-house, have apparently been 
done by the same hand. The Episcopacy of William de St. 
Barbara, so far as we know, was not marked by any important 
work. We then come to a great builder, Hugh de Puset, or 
Hugh Pudsey, as he is generally called, a nephew of king 
Stephen, and a son of the Count of Bar. He was young when 
he became Bishop, and during his long Episcopate, a number of 
works were effected by him. He had two architects, Pichard 
and William, " Ingeniatores " as they are called, and about one 
of them, Mr Surtees, the historian, has made a curious mistake. 
He took Ingeniator to mean Snarer or Poacher, and describes 
Picardus Ingeniator as Dick the Snarer, instead of which he was 
an important land owner in the county, holding a considerable 
estate, the reward doubtless of bis skill as Pudsey' s great 
builder. Bishop Pudsey, we are told, began to build a Lady 
Chapel at the east end of the Cathedral. He caused marble 
columns and bases to be prepared for it, which came from beyond 
the sea. These still exist in the Galilee, and are made of Pur- 
beck marble. The meaning of '' beyond the sea," no doubt, is 
that they were brought by sea to Newcastle from Dorsetshire. 
He commenced building, but as the work went on cracks began 
to appear in the walls, and Pudsey thinking the work was dis- 
tasteful to God and St. Cuthbert, left off building there, and 
transferred the chapel to the west end, where it still remains, a 
most beautiful specimen of twelfth century work, and shewing 
how great was the taste and skill of Pudsey's architect. There 
can be little doubt as to the cause of the shrinking. The 
Cathedral at the west end is close to the rock : whilst at the other 



Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Green well. G9 

end the soil is deep, and in places of a peaty nature. The old 
builders cared little about the foundations, they frequently 
planted the walls upon the surface, and thus, when the soil was 
of a compressable nature, shrinking of the walls was apt to occur. 
From the same cause that affected Pudsey's work, the east end 
of Carilef's choir began early to shew signs of instability and be- 
came ruinous. 

Though we have no record of the builder or of the date when 
it was built, it is certain that the outer part of the south-east 
doorway of the cloisters is of the time of Pudsey. It is a 
characteristic work of his and very rich in its details, although 
not perhaps so beautiful a specimen of late twelfth century work 
as the doorway of Pudsey's great hall in the castle. Prom the 
time of Pudsey we have no account of any work done until 
Bishop Poore (1220-37), and to him has always been attributed 
the building of the Nine Altars, probably from the fact that he 
began to make preparations for it. It was not commenced until 
after his death, when in 1242, Prior Melsanby began to build. 
Poore had been a great builder at Salisbury before he came to 
Durham, and he must always have the credit of the intention, if 
he did not live to carry out the building of the noble specimen 
of 13th century architecture we see in the Nine Altars. Some- 
time before his Episcopate cracks had begun to appear at the 
east end of the church, and we have a number of indulgences, 
some of them going back to an early period, and one coming 
down as late as 1278, granted by various Bishops in aid of the 
new work. Following upon the building of the Nine Altars was 
the replacing of the original Norman groining by the present 
roof, which may be attributed to about the year 1300, and is a 
good example of early decorated work. Prior Thomas of 
Melsanby (1233-44), who commenced the building of the Nine 
Altars, had been elected Bishop by the monks, but was refused 
by the Crown. He was one of the greatest men who have sat 
in the Prior's chair at Durham, and to him must be given much 
of the credit of that beautiful building the Nine Altars. I am 
sorry I am not able to tell you the name of the architect. It is 
very rarely that the name of any of the mighty builders of old 
has been preserved. They did not care that their names should 
be handed down to posterity. They were content to build, and 
leave the work and not their names to speak, I once came 



70 Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell. 

across the name of the architect of the new work, as the Nine 
Altars was called, as a witness to a conveyance of some land near 
Durham. The date of the deed was of the time when this chapel 
was building'. I neglected, unfortunately, to make a reference 
to the deed, trusting to my memory, and I have never since, 
though I have often sought for it, been able to find it again, 
or to remember the name of the architect. The next date we 
have in connection with the building is that of Prior Hoton 
(1289-1307), who repaired the roof of the nave. It is due 
to Prior Fossor (1341-74) that the large window in the North 
Transept was inserted, and which was restored by Prior 
Castell (1494-1519). To Prior Fossor also is due the great 
west window of the Nave. The Bishop's throne and his own 
tomb were built by Thomas de Hatfield (1345-80). In 1380 
the altar screen was erected, mainly at the expense of Lord 
Neville of Paby, though Prior Berrington bore some part of 
the cost. It was made in London, and brought to Newcastle 
by sea. Hence the notion that it was made of Caen stone. 
It is really Dorsetshire clunch. The cloisters were begun in 
1368, and not finished until 1498 ; they have been much 
mutilated. In 1404 the Dormitory was completed. In Car- 
dinal Langley's time (1406-37) a great amount of work was 
done in the Galilee ; windows had been inserted during the 1 3th 
century in the north and south walls, and Langley, who found 
the Galilee in a ruinous condition, put on a new roof, inserted 
the windows in the west wall, and, possibly, added two 
piers to the original Purbeck shafts of each column. He 
also erected his own tomb in it, behind which he placed the 
altar of the Blessed "Virgin. The wood work of the reredos 
of that altar, of great interest, containing paintings of the 
fifteenth century, was taken away a few years ago, and 
not a vestige of it now remains." Why it was thought necessary 
to destroy this I cannot tell you. I would rather not speak 
of the ruthless destruction which has taken place in the 
Cathedral. It is too painful. There has been more mis- 
chief done during the last forty years than was done pre- 
viously during a couple of centuries. Beautiful pieces of work, 
containing many interesting features, have been swept away 
under the ridiculous notion of restoring the building to what was 
called its original state of Norman simplicity. All the 



DurhaTR Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell. 71 

perpendicular tracery in the windows has been destroyed. The 
screens dividing the transepts from their aisles, and the clock 
case, which had been originally erected by Prior Castell, and still 
contained much of his work, have all been removed. 

The central tower, which was struck by lightning in 1429, was 
so much ruined in 1456 that it was almost entirely rebuilt, and 
was not finished in 1474. This only refers to the building above 
the great tower arches, which themselves are the work of Bishop 
Carilef . The last work I shall have to mention is the tabernacle 
work of the stalls of the choir. This was put in after the 
restoration in the time of Bishop Cosin. Cromwell confined the 
Scotch prisoners in the church after the battle of Dunbar, and it 
is said that in order to keep themselves warm they used the 
wood work for fires. Bishop Cosin also put up a solid oak choir 
screen, which, though some people did not like it, was, neverthe- 
less, a handsome piece of work of great boldness in its carving, 
and I much regret its removal. There was in ancient times a 
screen between the two western tower piers, which separated the 
church into two parts. In fact, the building was originally con- 
structed for two churches, the one in the choir for the monks, the 
other in the nave for the people. The throwing open the whole 
church I cannot but regard as a mistake. It is quite impossible 
to utilise a building of such vast proportions for one service. If 
the church were divided as of old, then week-day services might 
be held in the choir, and the Sunday service in the nave. I 
have to regret another piece of wood work, of much interest, 
which has also been swept away. Eound the shrine of St. Cuth- 
bert there was, until lately, a screen of oak, which was probably 
put up during the time of Queen Mary. It was a handsome 
work of its kind and did not interfere in any way with the general 
effect of the building, but rather enhanced it, and in addition it 
marked an epoch in the history of the church. During the reign 
of Henry YIII. the building passed from the monks into the 
hands of the Chapter, which was established by that king ; but 
during Mary's reign the old religion was restored, and again 
possessed the Cathedral. There can be little doubt that the wood 
work which surrounded the Shrine of the patron Saint corres- 
ponds with the time of the re-introduction of the monks, and it 
was, therefore, one of the historical facts connected with the 
Cathedral Church of Durham. It is ever to be regretted that it 



72 Durham Cathedral, by Rev. William Greenwell. 

should have been removed. As the Cathedral is seen at present, 
I think there is too much of the mere building. It is empty, and 
wants furnishing ; almost every part of it is seen at once. Others 
may differ from me upon this matter, and perhaps I may speak 
influenced by early associations, but I cannot but say that the 
screens had a good effect, and told generally on the building as 
a whole. At present the church appears to me too naked. 
There is nothing left to the imagination, there is nothing of 
mystery — so important an element in that which appeals to every 
mind. 

I will now make a few remarks upon the general effect of this 
most majestic building in which we are assembled. I assert 
without hesitation that no grander Norman building exists in 
England, and if not in England, then in no part of the world. E 
will make a still bolder assertion, and say that no more impres- 
sive and effective Cathedral exists in England, I would almost 
say in Europe. You may go where you like, you may tell me of 
the beauties of Lincoln, the size of York, the varied architectural 
features of Canterbury, Winchester, and Ely, and the grace of 
Salisbury ; but I say the Cathedral Church of Durham, as it now 
stands, is the finest ecclesiastical building in this country. I do 
not say that some others of our Cathedrals may not possess more 
exquisite pieces of architectural work, that some of them do not 
surpass it in siz'e ; but, granting this, where will you find any- 
thing which will compare with the Galilee. The Galilee is un- 
equalled for its unique beauty and elegance. It is as beautiful in 
its lightness as the choir and nave are in their solemn massiveness. 
The Nine Altars, with its vaulting, its shafts carrying capitals 
carved with the most charming mixture of foliage and animal 
form has no rival to compete with. I say unhesitatingly that, 
taken as a whole, and looking at the solemnity of the building, 
its beautiful proportions, and the admirable way in which a great 
design has been carried out, Durham Cathedral stands unrivalled. 
Look at the symmetry of the great arcades of choir and nave ; 
the pillars are not too short and broad, nor again too lofty 
and stilted, but admirably fit into the proportions of the 
whole. Look how the triforium and clerestory, neither dwarfed, 
nor too important, harmonise with the arcades which support 
them, and form with them a design of perfect symmetry and 
proportion. Everything is in complete harmony, and the church, 



Durham Castle, by Mr W. H. D. LongstafFe. 73 

choir and nave, have a most solemn effect, and cannot but deeply 
move us. Peterborough, Norwich, and Gloucester, magnifi- 
cent as they are in their early portions, sink down, I may say 
to nothing, when compared with the greater glories of Durham. 
When we stand within its time-hallowed walls, as we do to-day, 
and allow our minds to feel the due influence of its massive but 
perfect proportion, it seems as if it had been built for ever. It 
looks like the eternal hills. 

This church we owe to William of St. Carilef. The whole 
plan of the building must have been elaborated and the main 
lines laid down by that Bishop. The choir and other parts 
are of his own building, and the nave, though built by Flam- 
bard, carries out in its main features the original design. The 
only difference between the two parts is in the richer effect 
given in the nave by the use of zig-zag and in the different 
patterns on the pillars. The work throughout harmonises in 
the highest degree, and that harmony is made more apparent 
by the variation. Two men have, it is evident, worked upon 
the church with the same intention, and upon the same plan ; 
and the slight difference in the character of their work but 
adds an additional interest and charm to the whole. In con- 
clusion, I may repeat that the plan of the whole church is, 1 
think, unquestionably due to Carilef, who finished a great part of 
the church, and who, I believe, carried the walls to the top of the 
arcade of the aisles round the whole building, I have now con- 
cluded my remarks, and will go round the building with you. 

Mr Greenwell then conducted the party through the church, 
and pointed out in succession its various architectural features. 



Report of the Meeting at the Castle, Durham. 

After the Cathedral had been inspected the company pro- 
ceeded to the Castle to hear a paper by Mr W. H. D. Longstaffe. 
That gentleman having sustained an accident to his eye, the 
paper, so far as complete, was read by Canon Ornsby : — 

Although one very early story of Durham is, it must be confessed, some- 
what ohscure, and the questions arising as to its occupation in Eoman days, 
and the identity of Maiden Castle with Wardenlaw, where St. Cuthbert's 
body became immovable, do not enter my scope ; it is, however, noteworthy, 
we cannot doubt, that the town was fortified in some fashion during the 

J 



74 Durham Castle, by Mr W. H. D. Longstaffe. 

Saxon period. After the defeat of Malcolm's besieging Scots by Ucthred, 
during tbe episcopacy of Aldbun, tbe erector of a Saxon Cathedral there, the 
most handsome heads of the slain were carried by their tangled hair to Dur- 
ham, and, having been washed by four women, were arrayed upon poles 
round the walls, each woman having a cow for her pains. It may also be 
mentioned, as to this or some later period, that, according to newspapers, ex- 
cavations for sewers showed that the carriage way of the Baileys surmounts 
a vast accumulation of refuse, including the bones of boars, stags, horses, 
domestic animals, and the extinct elk. The same appearances were reached 
at the outside of the city wall at Claypath Gates, and in both cases they sug- 
gested that ancient moats had been filled up with debris. Three years after 
the Conquest, in 1069, we gain another glimpse of Durham in a military 
point of view. The conqueror sent Earl Eobert, surnamed Cumin, to the 
Northumbrians at the north side of the Tyne. He entered Durham and per- 
mitted his soldiers to act hostilely, they even slaying some of the " rustics" 
(i. e. serfs) of the Church, but was received by Bishop Egelwin with all 
civility and honour. The Northumbrians, determined not to submit to a 
foreign lord, marching all night to Durham, at dawn burst its gates (jportas) 
with great force, and slew the earl's men, thus taken unawares, everywhere 
in the houses and streets. They then proceeded to attack the bishop's house, 
in which the earl had been received, but, not being able to bear the javelins 
of the defenders, they, in Cabul fashion, burned the house with its inhabi- 
tants, including the earl. The house was near the Cathedral, for, while the 
assailants were endeavouring to throw fire into it, the flaming sparks, flying 
upwards, caught the western tower of the period, which, according to 
Symeon, was in immediate proximity, and it appeared to be on the very verge 
of destruction. The people prayed St. Cuthbert to preserve his church from 
being burned, and a ^nd arose from the east, which drove the flames back- 
wards from the church, and freed it from danger. The house had then 
caught fire, and continued to blaze. It will be remembered that Bishop 
Walcher was destroyed through the same Northumbrians setting fire to the 
roof and walls of Gateshead Church a few years afterwards. 

The event sufiiciently explains the erection of a castle at Durham. "Wal- 
cher, of Lorraine, was made bishop in 1071, and in 1072, when the King had 
returned from Scotland, he built a castle in Durham, where, says the pseudo- 
Symeon, the Bishop might keep himself and his people safe from assailants. 
Of the nature of this castle we are, of" course, ignorant, but, whatever were 
its beginnings, it soon rose to importance, for great stress upon its possession 
was laid in the controversy of 1088 between King William Eufus and Bishop 
St. Karileph, the successor of the murdered Walcher. It is diflB.cult to 
ascribe an exact date to the early Norman chapel in the castle, but consider- 
ing that it is so totally different from the peculiar Norman design which was 
introduced by St. Karileph in 1093, when he began his new cathedral, and 
was followed by Bishop Flambard, it would appear to be earlier than it. 
The defensive works at Durham by Bishop Flambard, who also built a castle 
at Norham (soon after destroyed by the Scots), were these: — "The city 
[tcrbem), although Nature had fortified it, he rendered stronger and more 
august with a wall. He constructed a wall in length extended from the 



Durham Castle, by Mr W. H. D. LongstafFe. 75 

chancel of the church as far as to the citadel (arcem) of the castle. The place 
hetween the church and the castle^ which many little habitations took up, he 
reduced to the plainness of an open field." Thus Place Green or Palace 
Green arose. In the time of his successor, Geoffrey Rufus, the monks' 
Chapter-house was completed, having caryatides and florid work, and we 
must assign to his episcopacy or that of Wm, St. Barbara the doorways of 
the nave, and perhaps the gateway of the castle. The possession of the 
castle was again an element during the assertion of a claim by William 
Cumin between the rules of Rufus and St. Barbara to be bishop himself. 

"We now come to the important episcopate of Bishop Pudsey. He built 
" a new wall from the north gate to the south one," by which Dr Eaine 
understands "that part of the city wall which extends from the old goal 
gate (now destroyed) to the water gate, of which, towards its southern end 
there are (he says) some curious remains." But more to our point is the 
following assertion of Coldingham, the historian of Durham, about this busy 
prelate who put, or attempted to put, all his houses in order. "In the 
castle of Durham the edifices, which in the first times of his episcopate, the 
flame had consumed, he renewed ; and the castle of Northam, which he 
found infirm in fortification, he rendered strong with a very substantial 
tower." One of the continuators of Symeon also mentions his building a 
castle on the Tweed, at his entrance to the bishoprick, by command of his 
relation. King Stephen, the earliest fortress erected by Flambard having 
been destroyed by the Scottish army, and then he proceeds thus: — "Many 
buildings he made in the bishoprick, and in the city 'urbe) itself of his See, 
the old ones being destroyed, he made new and noble {insignia) edifices." 

In considering the remarkable works of Pudsey, we must remember that 
he acceded in 1153 and died in 1194, passing through the whole of the 
Transitional period, beginning with the late and florid Norman style, and 
ending with a fairly advanced early English one. Notwithstanding the ex- 
amples before him, his predecessors' Chapter House and the doorways of the 
Nave, all Pudsey' s works, however rich, seem to have been chastened and 
toned down by that peculiar spirit which St. Karileph's style, continued by 
Flambard, would produce upon an artistic mind in a time when purity was 
in great danger from ornament. Magnificent as is the doorway to his hall in 
the Castle it is not meretricious. Then again, with the most eminent archi- 
tects employed, he appeared to have been indisposed to desert the Norman 
style, notwithstanding the swift current of the fashionable pointed style. 
The Galilee is a wonderful specimen of what the Norman style, in its last 
days, vdth light and plain treatment, was capable of. Its date is about 1175. 
In this Galilee the prevailing characteristic is that ornament peculiar to 
Pudsey's time, a peculiar ornament used on capitals, usefully called the 
Transitional volute, capable of much variety, but always readily recognisable. 
Repeating my words, "rich as is the doorway," there is no trace in it or in 
the gallery above it of this volute. The Keep at Norham is too plain and 
utilitarian to yield details, but in the church, there, we find the Transitional 
volute surmounted with bold and good moulded arches, and in the windows 
of the chancel an unusual treatment of the common Norman zigzag orna- 
ment, by setting it edgeways. This we again find in Durham Castle. The 



VG Durham Castle, by Mr W. H. D. Longstaffe. 

inference from all this probably should be that Pudsey's works there pro- 
ceeded from the non-existence, or at all events his non-use of the volute, 
but that they were executed by the architect of Norham Church, who did use 
it there. Now Pudsey had two successive architects, and perhaps we shall 
not be far wrong in assuming that the old architect could not altogether 
shake off the old style, though he carried it to the utmost pitch of refined 
decoration and lightness, while the new architect, whose works at Darling- 
ton and other places we need not discuss to-day, could not decline the at- 
tractions of the new pointed style. 

We hear nothing more of erections at Durham Castle until Chambre tells 
us that Bishop Hatfield built a curious work on the south side of the choir, 
near the stalls of the monks, in the middle of which was the ' ' episcopal 
stall," and a place for his sepulture under the stall, and that "in the castle 
of Durham he renewed the edifices, which had become consumed or debilitated 
by antiquity and decay, and constructed afresh {de novo) the episcopal hall 
and the constable's hall, with other edifices in the same." Now, there are 
small portions of Hatfield's work in the corner of the castle seen on entering 
the city from Framwellgate Bridge, but unless he was using old materials 
wholesale, what is now known as the Great or Hatfield's Hall is manifestly 
earlier in its details, not later than Bishop Bek's time. Then there are two 
halls mentioned. The explanation may probably be in the fact that in all 
seats of consequence there were two halls, the one for state purposes, the 
other for domestic comfort. The episcojDal hall here mentioned may well 
have been the bishop's private one. The constable's hall was, of course, an 
office for the transaction of his business, which was very multifarious, the 
Constable of the Castle being a sort of Eeceiver- General and responsible for 
the accuracy of the Pipe Polls of the Palatinate. But this solution does not 
get over all the difficulty. The same author, Chambre, tells us of the much 
later prelate. Bishop Foxe, that he transmuted the hall in the Castle of Dur- 
ham, for whereas there were two seats of regality, one at the top and the 
other at the bottom of the hall, now he left only the upper one, and on the 
site of the lower one made a pantry, &c., with two seats above for musicians, 
&c., works easily recognisable still. He also began to make a hall, kitchen, 
&c., in the high tower of the castle, but left them unfinished on his transla- 
tion to Winchester. It seems plain that at some time Pudsey's Hall had 
ceased to be the princii)al hall before Tunstall encased it with his gallery, 
from the ground as Chambre and the works themselves show. The only 
theory that I can offer is that here as at Auckland, for some reason, what 
became the hall was originally the Great Chamber, standing in the same 
position, and probably built by the same bishop Bek. It is observable that 
Pudsey's hall at Durham stands east and west. So does that at Auckland, 
now the chapel. 

Immediately after the sentence about these works by Hatfield, we have 
another one, j)lainly suggested by that of the earlier writer about Flambard's 
wall. Only that wall, as well as Nature, has now to be mentioned. 
' ' Although Nature and a wall had sufficiently fortified it, yet he rendered the 
Dunelmensian city [urbem] stronger by the construction of a very strong 
tower at his expense in the castle." This is obviously the present keep, the 



Durham Castle, by Mr W. H. D. Longstafte. 77 

picturesque character of wMch before its conversion into a University many 
eyes remember. 

After Canon Ornsby bad concluded tbe reading- of tbis paper 
be invited tbe members of tbe two societies, and tbe visitors 
present, to accompany bim round tbe Castle, so tbat be migbt 
point out to tbem, as nearly as possible in tbeir cbronological 
order, tbe various parts of tbe building wbicb are more especially 
wortby of notice. We subjoin a brief conspectus of tbe informa- 
tion given by Canon Ornsby respecting tbe portions of tbe 
structure to wbicb be directed attention : — 

1. The entrance gateway, the groining of which probably belongs to 
Bishop Pudsey's time. Its exterior presents no features of antiquity, having 
been restored and refaced by Wyatt, about the early part of this century, or 
the latter end of the preceding one. The door, with its little wicket, is 
worthy of attention as regards its great strength, being almost wholly made 
of iron, justifying the expression of the chronicler, William de Chambre, who 
records that Bishop Tunstall " construxit portas ferreas ejusdem castri," an 
epithet which they well deserve. 

2. The original Norman chapel of the Castle, of very early work, possibly 
of the time of Walcher, the first Norman bishop (1072-1080), but certainly 
not later than the early part of Karileph's episcopate (1081-1096). It bears 
a great similarity to the crypt of the abbey of the Holy Trinity at Caen, 
founded in 1066. The capitals of the piers, with their square abaci and rude 
imitation of the Ionic volute, are very like some in the Church of St. George 
Bocherville, near Eouen, which dates from the middle of the same century. 
The chapel is divided into nave and aisles, the altar platform being on an 
elevation of two steps. There are brackets for images or lights on either 
side of the east window, and an almry in the north wall. Each aisle has had 
a window at its eastern extremity. The two side windows which give light 
to the northern aisle were enlarged in 1840. In their original state they 
were widely splayed, plain, round-headed openings, not more than six inches 
in width. The capitals of the piers are peculiar and interesting in their 
ornamental details. The j)avement, with the herring-bone arrangements of 
the small flag-stones which form it, is probably coeval. 

3. The great stair- case of the Castle, the work of Bishop Cosin (1660- 
1674), gives access to what is now known as the Norman Gallery. The 
weather-worn stones of what was once its external wall are seen at the head 
of the staircase. Internally it presents a range of triple arches, adorned 
with chevron ornament, the centre one, containing the window, being 
higher in each case than the blank ones by which it is flanked. At the 
eastern end is a round-headed doorway of the same period, communicating 
by a staircase in the thickness of the wall with the floor in a lower hall. 
This doorway makes it obvious that this range of windows belonged to a 
large upper haU or chamber of state, and recent alterations have shown that 
a similar range of windows existed on its northern side. Below it was 
another haU. Both belong to the time of Pudsey (1154-1197). Access was 
given to the lower one by a very richly decorated doorway, clearly belonging 



78 Durham Castle, by Mr W. H. D. Longstaffe. 

to Pudsey's period. It now gives access from Bishop Tunstall's gallery 
to some comparatively modern apartments. This doorway was long hidden 
by brick and mortar, which was removed by Bishop Barrington (1791-1826). 
The lower portion shows signs of exposure to the weather. The upper part 
is perfectly fresh, probably owing to its protection by a sort of penthouse 
roof open at the sides, which covered a staircase which gave access to it from 
the courtyard below. The upper hall must have had a high pitched roof. 
One of the original corbels is visible above the east side of the upper door- 
way. 

4. The great hall of the Castle is commonly associated with the name of 
Bishop Hatfield (1345-1382). The great entrance from the courtyard had an 
external porch added to it by Bishop Cosin after the Eestoration. The inner 
doorway is clearly earlier than Hatfield's time, and dates probably from 
Bishop Bek's period (1283-1310). Hatfield no doubt carried out a consider- 
able work in this and other parts of the Castle, but it is clear that there must 
have been a great hall in existence on this side of the Castle at an earlier 
period, replacing probably some Norman buildings. A window on the north- 
west side of the large fire-place has escaped restoration, and shows banded 
shafts and caps which undoubtedly belong to the 13th century. In all pro- 
bability this great hall, originally of the most stately proportions, owes its 
first foundation to Bishop Bek. Until the time of Bishop Fox (1494-1501) 
it occupied nearly the whole length of the block of buildings on the west side 
of the courtyard. The last mentioned prelate divided it, leaving it little 
more than half its original length, and converted the space gained at the 
southern end into difEerent chambers and ofiices. His 'ha.&ge — a pelican in 
her piety— is twice repeated on the wall which forms this division. To 
Bishop Fox are also due the stone galleries corbelled out on either side, in- 
tended for trumpeters and musicians. He also added a large and lofty kit- 
chen and offices. The buttery hatches still remain, of oak, black with age, 
carved with Fox's badge, and the motto est deo gracia, and the date 1499. 
Bishop Cosin curtailed the upper part of the hall in order to gain two 
additional rooms, and the space they occupied is now restored to the hall. 
He also added a screen, shutting off the tower part of the hall. This has 
imfortunately not been allowed to remain. 

5. Bishop TunstaU added a gallery, which leads to the present chapel of 
the Castle, usually known by his name, and built by him. His arms are 
carved on the jambs of the windows. It was lengthened by Bishop Cosin, 
but he re-inserted Tunstall's east window. This chapel has recently been 
carefully restored, under the superintendence of Mr C. Hodgson Fowler. 
The stalls were brought by Bishop TunstaU from a chapel in Auckland 
Castle. The misereres of these stalls have much curious carving. The 
standards have Bishop Ruthall's arms carved on them (1509-1522). 

6. The Keep, externally and internally, is perfectly modern, as far as ap- 
pearance goes. No ancient work is to be seen, though there can be little 
doubt that it owes its erection, in the first instance, to WiUiam the Con- 
queror, and portions of his work are no doubt embedded in some part of the 
structure. The main part of it, as it stood, a stately and picturesque ruin, 
previous to its restoration, was probably the work of Bishop Hatfield. 



On Fossils found at Foxton Hall, by G. A. Lebour. 79 

Canon Ornsby then conducted tlie visitors to tbe terrace on tlie 
north side of the Castle, pointing out a portion of the building 
which is associated with the name of Bishop Butler, who made 
some alterations on that side, and whose arms are carved on the 
exterior. He also directed their attention from that point of 
view to the remains of the exterior defences of the Castle, and 
the position of the barbican or great outer gateway, so long 
known as the gaol gates, from the fact of its having been occu- 
pied until its demolition, about 1820, as the County prison. He 
also mentioned an interesting account given by Lawrence, Prior 
of Durham (1149-1154;, of the old Norman Chapel, the Keep, 
and the position of the Castle, in a Latin poem (entitled Liher 
Dialogorum Laurentii Dunelm. Monachi). Prior Lawrence also 
tells of the havoc made by the wolves upon the young colts be- 
longing to the bishop in the winter season. Durham at that 
time was surrounded by a wide tract of half forest, half moor- 
land country. It is probable that a breed of wild horses, some- 
thing like the Exmoor or Welsh ponies, roamed over the uncul- 
tivated hill and dale which extended from the country immedi- 
ately about Durham to the head of the valley of the Wear. 



List of Fossils found in the Calcareous Shale cropping out 
on the heach at Foxton Hall, about half a mile to the 
North of Alnmouth, Northumberland. By G. A. Lebouk, 
M.A., F.G.S., Professor of Geology in the University of 
Durham College of Physical Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

This shale is almost entirely covered by the sea at high water, 
and can, therefore, only be collected in at certain times. It con- 
tains a large number of fossils, both as to species and individuals. 
Of these none appear to be peculiar to the bed, but many which 
are common in it are not usually found so high up in the series. 
Although the exact horizon of the f ossilif erous band is not known, 
there is no reason to doubt that it occupies a position very near 
the top of the Carboniferous Limestone series — approximately 
that of the Filltop Limestone. The latter bed may be looked 
upon as bringing before us the last assemblage of marine forms 
existing in the Bernician area of the Carboniferous Limestone 



80 On Fossils found at Foxton Hall, by G. A. Lebour, 

Hesb. Special interest, therefore, attaches to authentic collections 
from this zone. 

Harlow Hill, on the line of the Eoman Wall, near the Whittle- 
dean Eeservoir, is the best known locality for Filltop Limestone 
fossils, but they are even more numerous in the shale of Eoxton 
Hall. Comparing collections from both localities, one is chiefly 
struck by the presence in each, of abundant specimens of Produc- 
tus latissimus, a form which is by no means of common occurrence 
elsewhere. The beautiful corals belonging to the genus Lithos- 
trotion, which are so common at Harlow Hill, seem to be entirely 
absent at Alnmouth, a fact which must probably be referred to 
the less calcareous nature of the sea bottom at the last named 
place. On the other hand one of the Trilobites and most of the 
Crinoids found at Foxton Hall, have not yet been recorded from 
the Felltop Limestone proper. In the following list the species 
known to occur at Harlow Hill are marked thus "H. H." : — 

1. CUsioph^Uum hiparfitum, M-cGoj. Not rare. H.H. 

2. CI sp., a long vermiform species. Common. 

3. Choetetes tumidus, Phill. Not uncommon. 

4. Gri-ffithides sp. Eare. H.H. 

5. Gr. Farnensis, Tate. Eare. Sometimes in clay ironstone 

nodules. 

6. Poteriocrinus nuciformis, McCoy. Not rare. I have found 

several perfect calyces of this small crinoid. The late Mr 
G-. Tate, F.G.S., referred the form to P. nuciformis of McCoy, 
but my friend, Mr W. Percy Sladen, F.L.S., who has made 
the group the study of his life, doubts whether it belongs to 
the genus Poteriocrinus. He has, however, not yet decided 
the question, and in the meantime, I have placed my speci- 
mens in his hands for determination. 

7. Crinoidal Plates of a larger form than is usual, are not rare. 

These are also awaiting Mr Sladen' s determination. 

8. Crinoidal Stems, some very large, attaining an inch in diameter 

occasionally, and ranging from that to the smallest size are 
very common. They occur in little local groups, probably 
occupying much the same spots which they inhabited during 
life. Some of these, undoubtedly belong to the genus 
Poteriocrinus, but it is not possible, at present, more 
accurately to name them. 



On Edin'a Hall, by John TurnbuU. 81 

9. Fenestella pleheia, McCoy. Common. H.H. 

10. F. membranacea, Phill. Eare. H.H. 

11. Glauconome pluma, Phill. Eare. H.H. 

12. Gl. sp. Eare. 

13. Lingula squamiformis, Pliill. Eare. Occurs in beautifully 
preserved specimens in small ironstone nodules in the shale. 

14. Productus punctatus, Mart. Eare. 

15. Pr. longispinus, Sow. Not uncommon. H.H. Occurs in 
two well marked varieties, one large and one small. 

16. Pr. giganteus, Mart. sp. Eare. Yery common at Harlow 

Hill. 

17. Pr. latissimus, Sow. Very common. H.H. Chiefly young- 
individuals. 

18. Pr. semireticulatus, Mart. Eare. H.H. 

19. Orthis Michelinis, Lev. Eare. 

20. Edmondia arcuata. One fine specimen in a nodule only. 

21. Macrocheilus sp. Eare. Bad specimens not specifically 

determinable. 

22. Murchisonia sp. Very rare. A bad cast only found. 

23. Bellerophon Urei, Flem. Eare. 

24. Euomplialus sp. Common. A beautifully marked medium 

sized species. 

25. Ortlioceras attenuatum, Flem. Eare. 

26. Fish scale, not determined. 

12th March, 1880. — P.S. — I collected all the above during the 
summer of 1879. — G. A. L. 



On Edin's Hall. By John Turnbull of Abbey St. 
Bathans, W.S., F.S.A., Scot. 

The first mention of Edin's Hall is in the Scots Magazine, vol. 
xxvi., p. 431. The communication is dated from Musselburgh, 
30th August, 1764, and is signed J. MuiTay. Though neither 
minute nor correct, it is interesting, as by it public attention was 
first directed to the remains. The name is there spelled ' ' Eedin's" 
Hall, which probably was the pronunciation the writer then heard, 
and it exactly corresponds with that now used. The writer 
says : — " Some will have Eeden's Hall to be a Temple of the 

K 



82 On Eclin's Hall, by John TurnbuU. 

God Terminus, but tlie form and manner of building is an invin- 
cible argument of the contrary. Others will have it to be a 
Temple for Druid Worship, but they ought to reflect that the 
Druids as well as the magi had no temples. It seems to me 
very probable that the Scots kept constantly an army of observa- 
tion on the Lammermoor hills to be ready to defend the borders, 
if they were invaded from England by land, or by a foreign fleet 
from the Frith of Forth. As soon as the signals were lighted 
up along Tweedside or along the Forth this army would march 
down to their relief." This he thought might have been one of 
their positions. The next mention is in Sir John Sinclair's 
Statistical Account of the Parish of Dunse, in 1792, vol. iv., p. 
389. It is there stated that the building is " by some called 
Wooden's Hall, but commonly called Edin's or Edwin's Hall." 
The writer says, " It is supposed to have been a British building, 
and afterwards used as a military station. What the original 
name was we have no tradition of, but in after times it has gone 
by the name of Edin's or Edwin's Hall," so called from the king 
of Northumberland, who is supposed to have " taken possession 
of it for a military station for an army of observation, as the 
Danes were frequently invading Scotland both by sea and land." 
Next in point of date is Chalmers's Caledonia, vol. ii., p. 211, 
where the description is almost the same as that in the Scots 
Magazine (to which reference is made) but not so correct ; for it 
misinterprets the description of the entrances, and applies it to 
the building of Edin's Hall, whereas the description in the Scots 
Magazine was of the entrances to the Camp or enclosure in 
which Edin's Hall is situated. The New Statistical Account of 
the Parish of Dunse in 1845, vol. ii., p. 253, contains a short 
account, and more accurate than any of its predecessors ; but 
the author of it afterwards explained that it was written 
hurriedly from memory and the testimony of others, without 
himself verifying the description on the spot at the time (Ber- 
wickshire Nat. Club's Proc, vol. iii., p. 9, foot-note). The late 
Mr Turnbull, of Abbey St. Bathans, contributed a paper to the 
Proceedings of our Club, in 1850, which contained a fuller 
account than any that had then appeared, and proceeded upon 
measurements so far as the remains then admitted of them. He 
also had the use of a MS. account, written by the late Mr John 
Bldckadder of Blanerne East Side, a most accurate observer and 



On Edin's Hall, by John Turnbull. 83 

surveyor, and the author of a map of the county. Dr Eobert 
Chambers visited the remains in 1854, and gave a short notice 
of them in Chambers' Journal for 10th June of that year, in an 
article entitled "A Day on the Whitadder." The object of the 
paper, however, is more philological than descriptive, and he 
derives the name from " Etin," which, in old Scottish tradition, 
is a giant. " Thus we hear in our early national literature of 
the tale of the Eed Etin," Popular Ehymes of Scotland, 3rd 
Ed., p. 243; and " Sir David Lindsay in his Dreme speaks of 
having amused the infancy of King James V. with ' Tales of the 
Eed Etin and Gyre Carling.'" Dr Beddoe, President of the 
London Anthropological Society, when visiting Edin's Hall, 
stated that the name " Etin's hald " reminded him of the Scan- 
dinavian word for a giant " aetan." It is confirmation of this 
derivation that there is a tradition of a giant connected with 
Edin's Hall. 

On 25th July, 1861, the Club visited Edin's Hall, and in his 
Anniversary Address, Mr Milne Home gives an account of the 
visit, and makes some observations on the remains. Some years 
afterwards, he suggested that the ruins might be cleared out ; 
and Dr Stuart, the eminent antiquarian and secretary to the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, read to that Society, on 11th 
January, 1869, a paper on Edin's Hall, in which he mentioned 
Mr Milne Home's proposal ; and on his suggestion, " the Society 
cordially approved of Mr Milne Home's plan for clearing out 
and preserving the very curious remains in question, and voted a 
sum of £5 towards the necessary expenses of doing so." In the 
Transactions of the Archaeological Institute of London for 1870, 
General Lefroy gives a short account of Edin's Hall (and of the 
Picts house which was discovered at Broomhouse). He is of 
opinion that the earth- works of Edin's Hall are on a scale be- 
yond the efforts of a very primitive people ; and he refers to Mr 
Skene's preface to the Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, p, cxv., 
where is mentioned the defeat of a chieftain, Donald Brec, in the 
year 638, at a place not identified, but certainly south of the 
Forth, called Glenmairison, after which Etin was besieged (in 
Tighernae, Chronicles, p. 70, the name is spelled Etain). Mr 
Skene conjectures that this place may be Caer Edin now Carri- 
den, in Linlithgowshire ; but it is quite possible that it may 
have been Edin's Hall. If so, it must have been a place of some 



84 On Edin's Hall, by John Tnrnbiill. 

importance in the seventh, century ; and if St. Bathan ever 
visited the place, which still bears his name, he may in all pro- 
bability have resided in Edin's Hall. 

In consequence of the suggestion of Dr Stuart, a fund was 
raised by subscription, and the following paper contains an 
account of the excavations which have been made from time to 
time, and of the remains as now exposed. 

Edin's Hall lies in the parish of Dunse, on the north-eastern 
slope of the hill called Cockburn Law, one of the range of the 
Lammermoors, and about a mile east of Abbey St. Bathans. 
This hill rises to the height of 1065 feet above the level of the 
sea. From its summit an extensive prospect of the country to- 
wards the south and east is obtained. The sea is nearly shut 
out by the hills which terminate abruptly at St. Abb's Head, 
and by the range of high ground extending from Ay ton to Ber- 
wick ; but glimpses of it are got at two or three places, and the 
view includes Eyemouth, Ayton, Berwick, Holy Island, Bam- 
burgh, and the Yalley of the Tweed from Berwick to above 
Coldstream, bounded on the south by the Cheviots at a distance 
of twenty miles, and the remoter hills of the county of Eoxburgh 
on the south-west. Edin's Hall itself is not so situated as to 
command any expanded view. It is about 400 feet below the 
top of the hill on which it is situated, and which bears nearly 
S.W. ; and the look-out from it is much circumscribed by the 
neighbouring hills ; being confined to two or three miles of the 
Glen of the Whitadder, which is here narrow, steep, and rugged, 
and of the Valley of the Eye. The camp at the head of Preston- 
cleugh is a prominent object from it. It stands on a shoulder or 
terrace, uneven in surface, and having a considerable slope to 
the north-east. This shoulder or terrace is bounded on the 
south-west by the acclivity of the hill ; on the north-west by a 
deep hollow or ravine running down to the Whitadder ; on the 
north and north-east by a very steep bank covered with heather 
and brush-wood, at the foot of which is the Whitadder in a 
rocky bed about 250 feet below ; and on the south-east by 
irregular but moderately sloping ground. 

From this position of Edin's Hall, Major-Gen eral Lefroy, who 
visited it with Mr Milne Home, says, that it appears to him that 
it was provided against dangers apprehended from the eastward, 
and has a relation of opposition to the circular camps on the 



On Edin's Hall, by John Turnbull. 85 

opposite hill. On this platform is situated the enclosure or 
camp in which stands the building called Edin's Hall. This en- 
closure measures somewhat less than 200 yards from east to 
west, and somewhat more than 100 yards in greatest breadth 
from north to south. It is formed by earthen ramparts and 
ditches. On the north and north-east, where it is very inac- 
cessible owing to the steepness of the ground and the river 
below, there is only a single ditch between two comparatively 
low ramparts ; but on the other three sides there are two very 
deep ditches, and the same number of high ramparts — a ditch 
being outside, then a high rampart, next a very deep ditch, and 
inside of these another rampart. Even now these ditches are in 
some places from 12 to 15 feet deep, measuring from the level of 
the top of the ramparts, and the breadth varies from 15 to 25 feet. 
The principal entrance to this enclosure or camp is at its east 
end. It is composed of a roadway or passage having a wall on 
each side of it. This passage commences at the inner of the 
ramparts and runs in a direction a little to the north of west, 
continuing of a breadth of 13 feet for a length of about 77 feet. 
It is then taken in or narrowed 6 feet on the north side, which 
reduces its breadth to about 7 feet, so as to form what may be 
regarded as a gateway dividing the outer from the inner passage. 
The stone constituting the projecting corner of this intake 
measures 21 inches on each side by 18 inches in height. Just 
before reaching this intake there is on the south side of the pas- 
sage the appearance of a recess, measuring 8 feet along the 
passage, by nearly 3 feet deep ; the west end of it forming a 
straight intake in the same line with the intake on the other side 
of the passage ; but possibly this may be caused only by the dis- 
placement of the foundation stones of the wall. Erom this in- 
take the wall on the south side of the passage continues in the 
same direction for 4^- feet, providing a narrowed passage or gate- 
way of that length, and it then turns south-westerly at a right 
angle, and can be traced for 20 feet, but is then lost. After the 
intake, the north side of the narrow passage or gateway does 
not run parallel with the south side of it ; but slopes out 2 feet, 
so as to make the gateway about 9 feet wide at the west side. 
This north wall of the entrance passage then runs 66 feet in 
nearly a straight line parallel with the direction of the outer 
passage. It then forms the arc of a circle, widening the passage 



86 On Edin's Hall, by John Turnbull. 

by a circular recess measuring 30 feet along- the line of tlie pas- 
sage by 8 feet deep, thereby making the widest part of the pas- 
sage here about 23 feet. This arc is prolonged at its western 
end so as again to narrow the passage to 6 feet, of which breadth 
it continues for 15 feet in the same north-westerly direction, 
where it terminates in a wall running north and south or nearly 
at right angles to it. At the inside or west of the first men- 
tioned gateway there is no trace of a wall on the south side of 
the passage for a space of 20 or 30 feet ; but a wall reappears 
there and runs and forms the south side of a passage, of which the 
wall already described forms the north side. The cross wall at 
which this passage terminates runs from the enclosing rampart 
on the north to the largest of the subsidiary buildings to be 
afterwards described on the south. The foundations of the wall 
along the whole south side of the outer passage are perfect ; the 
stones being large; from 18 inches to 2 feet each way. The 
wall itself, composed of earth and stones, is 6 feet thick ; and is 
from 3 to 4 feet high on the side next the passage ; but only 
about 2 feet high on the south face in consequence of the rise of 
the ground. The outer corner of this wall is formed by a large 
stone with a square angle which stands 2^ feet above the 
ground ; the exposed faces of it being respectively 2|- feet and 
1ft. 9in. broad. The face of the wall on the north side of the 
outer passage is much obliterated for 30 feet at the east end, but 
the foundations of the remainder of it are perfect, the stones 
being of much the same size as those on the other side of the 
passage. The north face of this wall is not distinct, possibly it 
had no face of masonry at all, so that its thickness cannot be 
ascertained. The whole of the passage, as well as the circular 
recess near the west end of it is paved with flat irregularly 
shaped stones. At one or two places, however, the natural rock 
crops up and forms the roadway. The rampart running south 
from the entrance of this passage shows foundations for about 6 
feet from the entrance on its outer face, and for about 60 feet on 
the inner face. 

There is another entrance to the camp or enclosure on the 
south west which appears to have been an original one ; but it 
consists simply of cuts or openings through the two ramparts. 
These openings are in a line with each other, but inside they are 
confronted by a high traverse, which falling in height on either 



On Edin's Hall, by John TurnbuU. 87 

side is continued as a line of lower mounds or walls from 6 to 7 
feet thick; the east horn whereof touches the largest of the sub- 
sidiary buildings to be afterwards mentioned, and both it and 
the other horn meet the north rampart. The whole combined 
form an inner enclosure in which the main building, or Edin's 
Hall, is situated. In the east horn or wall and nearly in a con- 
tinuation of the lines of the main entrance-passage first described, 
is the appearance of one side of a doorway, but it is too indis- 
tinct to speak of with certainty. On the sides of the cuttings 
through the ramparts, and on the face of the traverse are stones 
which may be the remains of building. There is another open- 
ing through the ramparts near the middle of the south side, 
formed by the ramparts being lowered and the ditches somewhat 
filled up. It has a much more modern appearance than that on 
the south west, and has no traverse or defence as it has ; but it 
had existed at the time Mr Murray visited the place in 1764, it 
being mentioned by him. From this south-west entrance, a wall 
or mound, without trenches, of from 180 to 200 yards in length, 
and more than 5 feet in thickness, runs first westward and then 
north, into the ravine or hollow, which bounds the terrace or 
shoulder on that side. Many of the large stones remain on each 
side of it. 

Situated in the north-west quarter of the large enclosure or 
camp, and within the smaller enclosure which has been described, 
is the building of Edin's Hall. Until the excavations were 
made several years ago, it might almost have been mistaken for 
a huge cairn. The form, however, of the principal features of 
the building could be traced ; though the work on the south-east 
side was so covered up and overgrown as to be almost indis- 
tinguishable from the natural surface, and in excavating the in- 
terior most of the debris was carted over it without causing any 
injury. It now shows from 2 to 3 feet high at this place. 

The building is circular, and is about 55 feet in internal and 
92 feet in external diameter. The external circumference is 
nearly a true circle, the diameter being from — 

N. to S. - - 92i feet. 

E. to W. - - 90 „ 

S.E. to N.W. 92i „ 

S.W. to N.E. 92 ,, 
The interior circumference diverges very considerably from a 



88 On Edin's Hall, by John TurnbulL 

true circle, tlie walls varying from 15 to 20 feet in thickness. 
The foundation is composed of large flat stones, whicli project 
from six inches to a foot beyond the face of the wall, so as to 
form a scarsement as in modern buildings. The wall above this 
scarsement now varies from 2 to 6 feet in height, and is perpen- 
dicular. It is constructed of dry stone, that is, of stones without 
clay, mortar, or any cementing material. The stones are whin or 
greywacke obviously taken from the hill on which the building 
stands. There is no quarry in the neighboiirhood from which 
they could have been dug out ; and in all probability they were 
gathered from the surface where plenty of similar stones still re- 
main. They are angular and irregular in shape ; and it is 
doubtful if there are any marks of dressing on them. The 
largest blocks mostly occur on the outer face of the wall, and 
measure from 2 to 3 feet in length, and are often of the same 
height, but there are many of larger size than this. The outer 
face is regular and smooth, and presents a very perfect specimen 
of dry stone masonry. The stones are very carefully adjusted in 
their places, the projecting part of one stone being fitted into the 
hollow of the adjoining one ; necessary interstices being filled up 
with smaller flat stones laid in courses. The interior face of the 
wall is not nearly ^o carefully built ; the stones are smaller, not 
so well fitted to each other, and not so smooth on the exposed 
face, and the interstices are not "pinned" as on the outside. 
The heart of the wall is composed of much smaller stones than 
the faces, and apparently thrown in without any regular assort- 
ment. The perfection of the dry stone masonry had attracted the 
attention of the earlier observers, for Mr Murray, in 1764, says : 
" It has no cement or mortar of any kind. The stones, however, 
lie very close and compact, the interstices being exactly filled up 
with small stones. Among the mass of ruins almost every stone 
has some irregular figure cut out upon it, and not one of these 
figures resembles another. I believe, for my part, that the 
upper part of every stone has been cut to receive the convexities 
and rugged surface of its fellow, and that this is the whole 
mystery of the figures." It is almost unnecessary to say, that 
there are no " figures cut out " upon any of the stones, and what 
was meant is probably that the stones themselves are of very 
irregular shapes, and these shapes the observer believed had 
been artificially produced. In Sir John Sinclair's Statistical 



On Eclin's Hall, by John TurnbuU. 89 

Account (1792) it is stated—'' The building is not cemented with 
any sort of mortar. The stones, which are whin and many of 
them very large, are all grooved into one another — that is the 
concavity of the one receiving the convexity of the other, so that 
they are locked together, yet all these locks are different." 

There is only one entrance or doorway, and it is on the east 
side. The wall where it pierces it is 1 6|- feet thick. The door- 
way forms a passage, the south side of which is 16 feet long, and 
the north side 17 feet long. For a depth of 7 feet from the out- 
side it is 4ft. 9in wide. It then widens by the wall being re- 
ceded at a right angle, 3 inches on the south side and 6 inches 
on the north side, so as to become 5ft. 6in. wide for the inner- 
most 9 feet. The intake is effected by large stones having a 
square angle set upright. It is probable that this intake was 
meant for a door closing against, but there is no socket or chase 
into which a bolt or beam could be fixed behind it. There is 
no special arrangement in the passage, as if for a second door, 
which was common in such buildings. In the entrance part of 
this doorway lie two stones, the larger of which measures 6ft. 
Sin. long by 3ft. 3in. broad, and 1ft. 6in. thick, the other being 
only a few inches less. They probably weigh 3^ tons each. 
These have evidently been lintels covering the doorway. They 
are sufficiently broad to cover only the outer half of it. No 
stones large enough to form lintels for the inner half were found, 
and this half was probably covered by the gradual convergence 
of the walls on each side, as has been the case with the 
chambers or cells to be presently described. The outside sill of 
the doorway is formed by one large stone. The height of the 
wall remaining on the north side of this doorway is 5ft. 3in. ; 
and on the south side is 4ft. 6in. The highest stone remaining 
on the north side of the doorway measures 3ft. 6in., by 3ft., by 
1ft. 6in. It is close to this doorway, on the south side of it, in 
the interior of the building that the great fire-place seems to 
have been ; for here the stones are much calcined and blackened 
by a fire having been made against the wall, and were crumbled 
a good deal away. There is no appearance of a built fire-place 
or chimney. The passage is paved. The central area to which 
this doorway enters has a slope from west to east, and about a 
fourth of it on the east side next the doorway is paved with flat, 
rough stones, which are generally from 1 to 2 feet square, but 
some of them are 3, 4, and almost 5 feet long. 

h 



90 On Edin's Hall, by John TurnbuU. 

Opening from the inner and wider part of the entrance-passage 
on each side of it, and formed in the thickness of the wall, is a 
small chamber or cell. The cell on the north side of the passage 
enters and is on the same level with the passage. The doorway 
to it is 3 feet wide through a wall 2 feet thick. This chamber is 
kidney shaped ; the south end in which is the doorway being, 
however, cut square. Its width is 7 feet, and its extreme 
length from the south-east to the north-west corner is i6ft. 4in. 
The thickness of the wall between the chamber and the interior 
court is 4 feet, and between the chamber and the outer face of 
the building is 8 feet. The walls remain to a height of 6 feet, 
and at the north end show a convergence inwards as if to form a 
vault-shaped roof. The floor is paved. 

The chamber on the south side of the passage enters by a 
doorway 2|- feet wide, which is 2^ feet above the level of the 
passage. It had originally been only l^ foot high, and has 
been raised to the present height by another stone, a foot thick, 
being put on the old sill, but recessed from 4 to 6 inches, so as 
to form a narrow step. Inside the chamber is a rude stair of 
three steps down. The chamber measures 7ft. Sin. each way, 
being nearly a square, with one of the angles rounded. To the 
south of this chamber and separated from it by a partition 4 feet 
thick, is another chamber, which is of the same width as that just 
described, but only 5 feet long, and rounded at the south end. 
In the south-east corner traces of a fire were found. There is 
no entrance to this chamber through the partition or elsewhere. 
These two chambers had originally formed one chamber of the 
same kidney- shape squared at the one end, as that on the north 
side of the doorway, and exactly the same in size. The partition 
or dividing wall has been built after the chamber was formed, 
and rests against the walls of it, but is not bonded into them. 
The walls of these chambers are from 3 to 5 feet high. 

All the other cells or chambers enter from the interior court. 
Of these there are three, or at least there are three entrances 
from the court — for each entrance leads to more than one cell. 
The entrance to the cells in the north side of the building is 3ft. 
2in. wide. Facing it and projecting from the opposite wall is a 
partition, the thickness of which is exactly the breadth of the 
door. It projects 5ft. from the north wall, and as the chambers 
or cells are 7ft. wide, it leaves entrances to the right and left 



On EdkCs Hall, by John Tumbull. 91 

about 2ft. wide into two separate cells. Tlie cells are each 10ft. 
long by 7ft. wide, the ends being rounded and the side walls 
taking the shape of the circular wall in which they are formed. 
The walls and partition are from 4 to 5 feet high. The floor of 
the north cells is not paved. The entrance and the floors of 
these chambers are on the level of the central court of the build- 
ing. The thickness of the wall between these north chambers 
and the outside face of the building is 6 feet at the east end and 
7 feet at the west end of them. Beside the entrance there were 
traces of a fire. 

On the west side of the building are three cells, or more 
properly a lobby and two chambers entering by one door. The 
door is 3ft. 6in. wide, and rises from the floor of the court in one 
step about a foot high. On each side of this entrance is a parti- 
tion leaving between them what may be called a lobby 5ft. lOin. 
wide. The partition on the south side of this lobby and dividing 
it from the south cell projects from the west wall so as to leave 
a door into the cell between it and the east wall ; but the parti- 
tion on the north side of the lobby projects from both sides, and 
the doorway into the north cell is in the middle of it. The south 
partition is 4ft. 4in. thick — the north partition is 3ft. 2in. on the 
east side of the door and 3ft. lOin. on the west side of it. The 
length of the three chambers is 33 feet, and the width 7 feet to 
7ft. 6in. The wall between the cells and the court is on the 
north side of the entrance door, 4ft. Sin. thick, and on the south 
side 4ft. 11 in. These cells are not exactly of the same size ; the 
north one is 9ft. 6in. long; the south one, 12ft. The height of 
their walls is from 3 to 4ft. The central or entrance cell is 
paved, and a part of the south cell nearest the door. Beside the 
door of these cells in the court, traces of a fire were found ; and 
in the southmost cell in the middle of the floor a hearth and 
remains of a fire were also found. On the upper surface of the 
stone forming the south side of the doorway to these cells is the 
only artificial marking which has been found. The surface in 
which it occurs has always been exposed above ground, and that 
the marking is not very recent is evident from the fact that it is 
overgrown with lichen. But whether it is ancient and contem- 
porary with the building itself, it is difficult to say. It is repre- 
sented in the Plate of the real size. None of the partitions, 
either in these or in the north cells, form part of the original 



92 On Edin's Hall, by John Turnbull. 

building. They are not tied or bonded into it, but are separate 
pieces of building of ruder masonry, and built of stones smaller 
in size and worse in quality. In none of the doorways of the 
building, except the main entrance, is there any projection or 
"kepp " for a door. There is no scarsement in any of the cells. 

There are indications in aU the cells of the building of con- 
vergence towards the roof. In the chamber on the north side of 
the entrance this convergence begins at a height of 8 feet, in the 
north chamber at about the same height, and in the west cham- 
bers (those opposite the entrance) at about 1 foot 6 inches. 

On the south side of the building is an entrance or doorway 
3ft. 2in. wide and entering not quite straight in, but bending 
rather to one side. To the right on entering, that is to the west 
from this entrance, runs a passage 1 1 feet long, and from 3 to 5 
feet wide, leading to a stair of which nine steps remain. These 
steps are very rudely formed, each of a single stone, which may 
possibly have been broken (for they are not dressed) into its 
present shape. They are respectively, beginning at the lowest 
step, 5, 6, 7, 6, 10, 5, 7, 8, and 9 inches high, and 9, 9, 5, 9, 6, 
7, 6, and 6 inches broad in the tread. The edges of some of 
these steps appear to be slightly worn ; and as the stone is a 
hard whin, this indicates the use of the stair for a long period of 
time. The staircase is narrow, being 2ft. llin. at the lowest 
step, and 2ft. 2in. at the highest. In the passage leading to the 
stair and on the south side of it is a low bench. It is 5ft. long, 
and from 1ft. 6in, to 2ft broad, and 1ft. high, and, like all the 
rest of the structure, is composed of dry stone building ; the 
longer and flatter stones being used for the top. The height of 
the walls in this passage is from 3 to 5 feet. At the other end 
of this passage from the stair,' and on the left or east of the 
entrance to it, is a cell or chamber one step (of 1ft. Sin.) below 
the level of the passage. It is of an irregular shape, the largest 
dimensions being 9ft. Sin. from N. to S., by 6ft. 4in. from E. to 
W. The height of the walls is 3ft. 6in. In neither the passage 
nor the cell is there any pavement. 

In the north-west and south-east of the building there were 
supposed to be traces of other chambers, but now that the build- 
ing has been exposed it is found that none such exist. 

Outside of the building and attached to it on the north side 
of the doorway is a chamber, 7ft. 3in. long by 4ft. 9in. broad. 



On Ed'm's Hall, by John TurnbuU. 93 

It has two entrances. One of these is on the south side and close 
to the door of the principal building. It is raised by a high step 
about two feet from the ground. It is 2ft. 3in. wide, and the 
wall through which it passes is 5ft. thick. The other entrance 
is on the south side. It is 4ft. wide, and is on the level of the 
ground. The east wall is 2ft. 3in., and the north wall 3ft. thick. 
In this chamber were found some bones, teeth, remains of 
burned wood, a stone whorl, and what may have been a hone 
or sharpening stone. On the east of this building are found- 
ations, but the plan could not be traced. 

Besides the important building which has just been described,* 
there are within the space enclosed by the ramparts several 
smaller remains, which have also been excavated. None of these, 
however, are within the subsidiary enclosure in which the prin- 
cipal building is situated. The largest of them is about 50 feet 
south-east of the principal building, and touches the wall form- 
ing the subsidiary enclosure already mentioned. It is a circular 
building, or rather foundation, 47ft. in internal diameter. The 
wall along the north and east sides is 8 or 9ft. thick. On the 
south-west the ground rises, and has been cut into, so as to pre- 
vent the floor having too much of a slope, and here accordingly 
there is no wall having faces, but the stones rest against the 
face of the cutting. Some of the stones are 3ft. by 2ft., but 
most of them, though of considerable size, are smaller than this. 
The door is on the east side, and is about 4^ft. wide, but it can- 
not be exactly measured. One of the outside corner stones 
which remain, measures 2ft. Tin. high by 2ft. Gin. outside of the 
wall, and 1ft. 9in. to the doorway. There is no stone near, 
which could have formed a lintel, nor are there any accumula- 
tions of stones or debris to indicate that the walls had ever stood 
much above the level of the ground. About 7 feet south of the 
doorway was an appearance as if of another doorway, but if 
such had ever existed at all it was too indistinct to be traced 
when excavated. Outside of the doorway, both on the north 
and south sides, are foundations as of walls enclosing a small 

* A reason for such a prodigiously massive construction as Edin's Hall 
exhibits, Major General Lefroy is of opinion, may be found in the ex- 
cessive insecurity of a circular building of dry stone without external 
openings, against an active enemy who could get at the foot of the wall ; for 
he would certainly quarry through in time. 



94 On Edin's Hall, by John TurnbuU. 

court yard. This court, as well as most of the circle itself, is well 
paved. 

Twenty-five feet east of this circle is another but smaller 
circular foundation. It is 32ft. in diameter. It is mostly cut 
into the slope of the ground ; but on the north side, where the 
wall of it is on the level of the surface, it is nearly 7ft. thick. 
The door is to the east, but only one side of it is perfect, so that 
its width cannot be ascertained. About half of the circle next 
the door is paved. 

About 40ft. south of the last is another and a smaller circle. 
It is 17ft. in diameter." It also is cut into the slope of the hill 
on its south side, and the wall on the north is not sufl&ciently 
perfect to admit of measurement. The door can be seen on the 
east side, but its exact width cannot be measured. The eastern 
half of the circle is paved. 

Still further south, and about 25ft. from the preceding, is 
another circle of 16ft. diameter. Being on steep ground on the side 
of the innermost rampart, it is almost wholly cut into the slope 
of the hill ; but notwithstanding of this the floor has still a con- 
siderable slope on it. On the north-east, where it is not sunk 
into the ground, the wall is 6ft. thick. The door is to the east, 
and is 5 feet wide, but it is doubtful if the sides of it are entire. 
The doorway and about a quarter of the circle next to it are 
paved. 

On the north side of the entrance, and almost touching the 
north wall of that entrance just before it contracts to the 7ft. 
doorway before described, is a circle between 19 and 20ft. 
diameter. The south half of it is sunk into the slope of the hiU, 
and the wall on the north half is 3^ feet thick. The door is on 
the east side, and appears to be about 5 feet wide, but one side 
of it is indistinct. The stones on both the inside and outside 
corners of the side that remains are 2Jft. by 2ft. by 1ft. The 
doorway is paved, as also is about a quarter of the circle next 
it. 

To the north of this last, and situated between the two ram- 
parts, which here diverge considerably, are four structures in a 
row, within 10 or 12 feet of each other. The eastmost of them 
is a circle of 17 feet diameter. The ground slopes steeply to the 
north, and while the south half of the circle is cut into the hill, 
the north haK is supported by a wall, which must have been 4 



On EdirCs Hall, by Jolin TurnbuU. 95 

or 5ft. high, in order to raise it to the level of the south half. 
This wall is 7ft. thick. The doorwaj is on the east, but does 
not admit of accurate measurement, though it seems to have been 
5^ft wide. It is paved as well as a small space outside of it, and 
nearly a quarter of the circle inside next the door. There is a 
step, 6 inches deep, from the doorway down to the floor of the 
circle. 

The next structure is so indistinct that the plan of it cannot 
be made out. It seems to be rectangular rather than circular. 

The next is a rectangular foundation, 10ft. from east to west, 
and at least 12 from north to south. There is a doorway, which 
may have been from 3 to 4ft. wide, near the east end of the 
north side. There is no pavement. The wall exists on the 
north side, and for the length of 1 or 1 2ft. on the east and west 
sides, but does not remain on the south side. 

The farthest west of these four structures is a circle from 20 
to 2 1 feet diameter. The south half is cut into the slope of the 
ground. The north half is supported by a face wall, with the 
material which has been dug out of the south half apparently 
filled in behind it. The door is as in all the other circles to the 
east, but it is too incomplete to admit of its width being ascer- 
tained. Nearly half of the circle is paved, as well as the door- 
way, and a path 12 feet long by 6 feet broad leading from the 
doorway down a steep slope. 

In the extreme north-east corner of the outer rampart is a very 
distinct circle from 16 to 18 feet diameter, but on its being dug 
into no wall or building was found. There is also the appear- 
ance of another but somewhat smaller circle, 30 feet to the south 
of the largest of the subsidiary structures, but on being dug 
into, it too showed no remains of building. 

There does not now remain in any of these subsidiary struc- 
tures what is properly a built wall, unless it be the retaining or 
supporting wall of the eastmost of the four, which are situated 
between the ramparts. What has been called walls in the fore- 
going description is only a row of single stones on each side of a 
narrow mound, which is composed of earth and smaller stones ; 
and in none of them is there any remains of actual building on 
the top of this rude foundation, nor is there debris to show that 
building of any extent had ever existed. 

From the entrance through the ramparts on the south-west of 



96 On Edin's Hall, by John Turnbull. 

tlie camp or enclosure, a wall runs westwards and northwards 
for a distance of about 180 yards, losing itself in the ravine or 
narrow glen forming the west boundary of the platform or 
shoulder on which the remains stand. A good many of the 
stones forming the face of the wall still remain tn situ so that its 
breadth and direction can be quite ascertained ; but the ground 
on each side of it has been ploughed, so that if any road ran 
alongside of it, all traces have been destroyed ; but on the un- 
cultivated ground further west is a road which is still used, 
though overgrown with turf. It stops on reaching marshy 
ground, which, except in very dxj seasons, will not carry a cart. 
It can, however, be traced through this bog to firmer ground on 
the other side, and for a considerable distance westwards till it 
is lost at the side of the Whitadder, near where the Allerburn 
joins that river ; and fully half a mile from Edin's Hall. It 
may have crossed the river by a ford, but there is no appearance 
of it on the other side. The greater part of this road is not used 
now, nor has been in recent times, but it is impossible to say 
whether it was in any way connected with Edin's Hall. 

Within the enclosure or camp there is no well or water supply, 
but on the hill, a few hundred yards above it, is a good spring. 
Dr Hood, of Suhnyside and Mains, states that when he first ex- 
amined the remains, there was a cut or conductor from this 
spring to the camp ; the water from which was discharged by an 
opening in the steep bank below the north rampart, where a 
break in the bank still remains ; but as the ground through 
which this conductor passed has been ploughed for many years 
there is now no trace of it. There is no path or road from the 
enclosure down to the river. 

On the top of Cockburnlaw is one of the circular camps so 
common in the neighbourhood, and on its slopes are several 
other remains, which have never been described, but these do 
not faU within the scope of this paper. 

The articles found during the excavation were : — 

1. A stone ring or whorl, 1^ inches diameter. 

2. A hone or sharpening stone, 4f inches long ; 1 inch broad ; 

f inches thick. These were found in the chamber outside 
the main building. 

3. Piece of a ring apparently of jet ; 2^ inches in external 

diameter. 



On JSdin's Hall, by John TurnbuU. 97 

4. An amber bead, of a brownisb-yellow colour, J inch in 

diameter. These were found outside of the building, near 
the base of the wall on the south side. 

5. Stone knife or implement found in chamber on north side of 

doorway. It may be doubted if this is not simply a water- 
worn stone. [Mr Joseph Anderson says this looks as if it 
had been used as a whet-stone.] It is 7^ inches by 2|- and 
f inches. 

6. A quantity of bones, teeth, &c., most of which were found in 

the chamber outside the main building ; although both 
bones and teeth were found occasionally in all parts of the 
main building. 

7. An oyster shell. 

8. Fragment of a translucent glass armlet. 

9. A small bronze [or brass] thimble. '' This," says Mr Ander- 

son, "seems to be the head of a brass nail, such as was 
used for Highland shields, &c., but more conical." It is ^ 
inch high ; f inch in diameter. 

10. Octagonal buckle of bronze or brass [more probably the 
latter], 2 inches in diameter, with traces of ornamentation. 
These two articles cannot belong to the earliest occupants of 
the stronghold. The brooch was found in cutting a trench 
through one of the earthen ramparts in order to wheel away 
more conveniently some of the rubbish from the excavations. 
It has been examined by Mr Albert Way and Mr Franks 
of the British Museum. Mr Way writes : — " I thought 
that it might be early fifteenth century, but Mr Franks, on 
whose opinion I have great reliance, will not give it a date 
earlier than the close of the century ;" and in another com- 
munication he says — *' I wish I could have sent you a more 
detailed note on the brooch, or referred you to a similar ex- 
ample. I know that one has fallen under my observation. 
I feel, however, no hesitation in following my friend Franks' 
opinion of the date of the relic, which bears indeed the 
evidence of its age in its style of workmanship." 

All these articles [8 excepted] have been deposited in the 
Museum of the Society of Antiquaries in Edinburgh. 

11. Various fragments of querns. 

Mr Fergusson, in his Essay on Brochs (1877), says, that there is 
not so far as he knows, " any example in any part of the world 

M 



98 On Edin's Hall, by John Turnbull. 

of so numerous a class of buildings, wbicb. show so little differ- 
ence in design or dimension," and he then gives a general 
description of a Broch, as follows : — 

" They are all circular, about 60 feet in diameter externally, 
and contain internally a court yard 30ft., more or less, in 
diameter. The walls of this inner court are practically perpen- 
dicular, while the external walls slope inwards at a considerable 
angle so as to give the towers the form of truncated cones. The 
walls of the towers are consequently about 1 5 feet in thickness 
at the base, and in them on the ground floor are generally found 
two or three large apartments following the curve of the walls, 
which were apparently the living rooms of the inhabitants. 
Above these, still in the thickness of the walls, are generally to 
be found a series of low apartments, divided by horizontal slabs 
into berths like those in our passenger steamboats and used 
apparently for the same purpose ; but higher up, where the 
walls get thinner, they could only be used as store places or cup- 
boards for the custody of provisions or valuables. All these 
apartments were lighted from the interior by openings looking 
into the court yard, which, at least, originally never appears to 
have been roofed. In addition to these there is always a stair- 
case—also in the thickness of the walls — leading from the base- 
ment to the top of the building and giving access to these 
various apartments. In none of the Brochs is there any opening 
externally, except the doorway. That is always on the level of 
the ground, low and narrow, and leading by a passage of about 
the same section as the doorway, but 1 5 feet long, to the interior 
court of the building. There were always apparently two door- 
ways in this passage, and between the outer and inner either 
one or two ground chambers, which formed very efficient defences 
against any one trying to penetrate by this entrance to the in- 
terior. * "^^ ^' They are all so much alike '^ * that we 
may certainly assume without fear of error, that they were all 
erected by one people for one purpose, and within a very limited 
space of time, say two, or at most three, centuries from the 
earliest to the last." 

, From the particular description which has been given of 
Edin's Hall, and Mr Fergusson's definition of Brochs, it is evi- 
dent that Edin's Hall is a Broch ; but that it differs from Brochs 
in general in three particulars. ( 1 ) It is the largest Broch in 



On Edin's Hall, by John TurnbulL 99 

existence. (2) It is surrounded or defended by important out- 
works. (3) It is accompanied by other buildings which evi- 
dently belonged to and were dependent on it. And (4) it is 
further remarkable by being furthest south of all Brochs, and 
by being one of a very few which are found out of what may be 
called the native country of Brochs ; namely, the north and 
south-west of Scotland, and the Orkney and Shetland Islands 
and the Hebrides. It is estimated that there are in exist- 
ence, the remains of about 500 Brochs altogether ; and of these 
there are only five beyond the boundaries mentioned. Of these 
five, there are two in Forfarshire, one being on each side of Dun- 
dee, one in Perthshire, and one in Stirlingshire situated on the 
top of two hills, about 8 miles apart, looking at each other across 
the Forth, and the fifth is Edin's HaU. 

To what influence we are to ascribe these isolated examples, it 
is impossible to say, and is a question of the same nature as that 
which arises with regard to the round towers at Abernethy and 
Brechin, being the only examples existing out of Ireland ; or in 
regard to the stone on the Castle Hill of Edinburgh, which is 
the only one with incised symbols found in Saxonia. 

The tradition of a giant which has been alluded to as con- 
nected with Edin's Hall is, that such a person lived there, and 
maintained himself mostly by plunder. On one occasion, return- 
ing from Blackerston (a farm on the other side of the Whit- 
adder j with a bull on his shoulders and a sheep under each arm, 
he crossed the river at the " Strait Loup," and in ascending the 
slope towards Edin's Hall, he found a pebble in his boot. 
Taking it out he tossed it from him on the wayside, where it 
still lies as evidence of the truth of the tradition. It is a boulder 
between one and two tons weight. 



100 

Notice of Squirrels colonizing a District in South North- 
umberland. By Rev. J. F. Bigge, Stamfordliam. 

The first Squirrel seen here, was about twenty-five years ago. 
I met a man one morning, and lie told me the day before, that 
he was riding over the bridge at Corbridge, and he saw two 
Squirrels running along the parapet of the bridge northwards 
veri/ early in the morning. Two days after a farmer told me, 
that he saw two Squirrels sitting on the roof of his byre, at 
Muckeridge ; the next day they were seen at the Birness, and 
within a few days after they landed at Dissington, the residence 
of Mr CoUingwood ; where they used to lay down nuts for them ; 
and they are still there, and in the neighbouring woods at 
Cheeseburn Grange and Matfen, 



On an Ancient Phial, found at Kelso. By Francis 
Douglas, M.D. 

Dtjring the summer of 1878, the foundation was being dug 
for a new Public ' School at Kelso, in the vicinity of the Abbey, 
and on a portion of ground, which, from the numerous remains 
of stone sarcophagi and bones, must have at one time been used 
as a burying-place. About five feet below the surface, and in 
close proximity to a perfect stone sarcophagus, was found a small 
glass phial, which happily attracted the notice of the contractor, 
was secured by him, and subsequently presented to the Kelso 
Museum. The phial is one inch and three-quarters in length, 
with a narrow neck, expanding again to a funnel-shaped lip. 
The greatest circumference is three and a half inches, that of the 
neck one inch and half — colour greenish, semiopaque and par- 
tially iridescent, like Yenetian glass. , The phial is of consider- 
able strength, and has a base hollowed out like a wine bottle of 
the present period. The sarcophagi found at the same spot be- 
long to the 11th or 12th centuries. 

On comparing this phial with others in the Museum of the An- 
tiquarian Society of Scotland, in Edinburgh, I found no speci- 
mens at all resembling it in form, excepting one which was very 
much larger and slighter. The obliging Curator and Dr Mitchell, 



On Ancient Interments, by James Hardy. 101 

who carefully inspected the pMal, were of opinion that it was of 
Grecian manufacture, and about 700 years old, a date which 
nearly corresponds with the building of Kelso Abbey, by King 
David of Scotland. Such phials are believed to have contained 
unguents for the anointing of the dead. The drawing which 
accompanies this brief account was made by my friend, Mr 
Erain, whose name is a sufficient guarantee for its correctness. 



On Ancient Interments in a Tum^ulus, called the Fairy 
Knowe, near Stenton, East Lothian. By James Hardy. 

A DISCOVERY of a funeral urn and accompaniments was made 
in a cairn or mound, on the 20th January, 1878, on the farm of 
Meiklerig, near Stenton, East Lothian, the property of Lady 
Mary Nisbet Hamilton, and farmed by Mr Stewart. For the 
particulars, and a sight of the articles then disinterred, I am in- 
debted to the Eev. George Marjoribanks, minister of Stenton, 
who was not aware of the circumstance of any such operations 
being proceeded with, or of anything being found, till after- 
wards, when the most interesting portion was removed. 

The mound for generations stood in the middle of a flat field, 
and was supposed to be composed of rock, with a thick layer of 
earth covering it, and stones led from the fields piled about it. 
The name of the mound was the Fairy Knowe ; and in former 
times it was a source of fear to the children of the parish, be- 
cause of the fairies who danced round it. Whins and broom to 
shelter the " good people," when tired with their frolics, grew 
on its skirts. The tumulus was 110 yards in circumference; 
and from 10 to 12 feet high in the centre. As the mound 
covered a good large space of valuable ground, the farmer was 
induced to remove, at least a portion of it. The constituents, on 
being tested, proved to be entirely of stone and boulders, without 
a rock nucleus. Hundreds of cartfuls of stones were led away. 
When the workmen had got beyond the outer stones — the accu- 
mulation of ages from the field itseK — they came to a much 
larger size of boulders, forming quite a circle round the heap. 
These were with difl&culty got into the carts. 



102 On Ancient Interments, by James Hardy. 

It was at tlie east end that they commenced their operations. 
They had not gone far into the cairn proper, till they came to a 
small square cist, placed near the level of the original surface. 
The cist was formed of red sandstone slabs, which are native to 
the district, and inside the cist was an Urn. The slabs contain- 
ing it were very carefully arranged, the top slab or cover being 
a few inches above the urn, so as not to press upon it. Ee- 
moving one of the side slabs first, the urn appeared quite entire. 
The urn was placed like a flower pot upside down, and when 
lifted was found to cover icinerated bones and ashes. Of these 
the urn was quite full. A most ludicrous remark was made by 
one of the men at this stage : *' Here's a' richt noo," he said, 
"there's the grey-beard." They had not been over-careful 
with the " grey-beard," for during its removal part came away, 
exposing the ashes of the dead, bones, etc. Not being carefully 
looked after, the urn got smashed into fragments, most of which 
were subsequently collected. "Within about a foot they came 
upon another cist. This was about four feet long, and contained 
a few pieces of a cranium. [The remains of a spine are also 
mentioned, possibly found here. It is evident that a grave four 
feet long would not be constructed for the skull alone.] This 
cist was built entirely of white sandstone, which could not have 
been got in the neighbourhood. The slabs in neither case were 
large. Mr Marjoribanks, whose report, in two separate letters 
here combined, I chiefly follow, says : ''Both this cist and the 
urn-box (if I may so caU it) lay north and south, not east and 
west as graves are made now." Both were reckoned by the on- 
lookers to be one interment, but I believe there were two burials 
here, and not only so, but that they may have belonged to very 
distinct periods, one of them being intrusive. The remains of 
bones were reckoned to be those of a fuU grown man. Along 
with one or other, I cannot ascertain which, a small flint-knife 
and miniature whet-stone were obtained ; most likely with the 
cranium. 

The earthen-ware urn was of large capacity, and stood up- 
wards of 12 inches high ; being broken, the diameter across the 
mouth could not be ascertained. Its general design was a very 
large sub -triangular vessel, moulded into three divisions. The 
upper and widest was 2^ inches high, and projected all round 
above the next division, from which it was separated by a 



On Ancient Interments, by James Hardy. 103 

strong rim. The next was contracted in circumference into a 
concave, this space being 3f inches high. It then shewed a 
bulging rim or rib, and below this the remainder diminished in 
breadth triangularly and appeared exactly in shape like a flower- 
pot. This third portion ended in a flat-bottom with a slightly 
protuberant margin, the bottom diameter being 4 inches, and its 
thickness 1 inch. This third division was 6 inches in height, and 
looked as if it had been shaped with a knife, or some cutting in- 
strument. The external surface of the urn was well smoothed, 
and displayed on the two upper divisions a considerable amount 
of ornament of a simple kind, but very rude. The lip round the 
mouth, which sloped inwards, was f inch broad, and had two 
rows of irregularly running double lines, which had been im- 
pressed by plaited thongs of leather, or by plaited rushes. The 
upper division of the urn shewed a lattice or trellis pattern of 
double oblique lines of impressions of plaited thongs, crossed 
mostly by single similar lines ; the two forming rhombs of which 
there were five in each series. A double plait-formed line en- 
circled the urn at the top of this design ; a second passed round 
it in the middle ; and the projecting rim below presented two 
similar encircling bands, both from a double impression. The 
ornament on the concave area was differently disposed. This 
was divided into broad, but not equidistant, spaces, which were 
occupied for the most part by sets of double perpendicular and 
horizontal lines, arranged alternately. There were first 7 upright 
double lines of thong-impressions; then 10 horizontal; then 6 
uprights followed hy horizontals ; then 8 uprights, and the 
horizontals again; and then these lines were piled up aslant, 
one against the other like slabs, forming a kind of inverted Vs ; 
while again after the interposition of the horizontals ; the lines 
were impressed in lattice work, with larger openings than on the 
upper division. There was no pattern on the under portion. 
The urn was clay-coloured ; in the interior it was much blackened 
with ashes. At one time, a boss of some reedy grass, had been 
enclosed within it, while the clay, of which it was composed, was 
still soft. The impressions left by this were very like the leaves 
of Eeed-Oanary-Grass {Phalaris arundinacea). 

The oblong-sharpening stone with blunt ends, has four faces, 
which are smoothed, but had never been rubbed on. It is 3 
inches long, f inch broad, and ^ inch thick. It is of primary 



104 On Ancient Interments, by James Hardy. 

clay slate, of fine grain, of a grey colour, and shews specks of 
mica. It had been a fragment selected from the boulder-drift 
of the district, in which rolled portions of a similar stone occur. 
Near one end on each side there is a small perforation of no 
great depth, the size of a gimlet hole. The use of this diminu- 
tive article is unknown. It might have sharpened needles or 
prickers. 

The small, thin, neat knife-blade is of a grey-brown flint, and 
had no marks of ever having been in use. It is 3f inches long, 
and f of an inch broad ; semi- elliptical in shape, with a blunt 
point, and a truncate base. It is formed of a chip, of which one 
side shews the smooth original fracture ; the convex side is finely 
chipped to a serrate cutting edge. It is thinned out by chipping 
at the base, where it would enter the haft, the edge there being 
blunted. 

It is unfortunate that the articles had been confused, because 
we have here probably (1) a burial of the Stone Period; the 
body being placed in a folded up position, with stone imple- 
ments ; and (2 ) an urn of a subsequent age, introduced as a 
secondary interment ; the one surrounded with stones from the 
calcareous sandstone, and the other with red-sandstone slabs. 

Everything suggestive is gone now; the venerable tumulus 
with its mysterious consignments ; the sprightly assemblages of 
rural fays with the belief in them ; the tasselled broom and 
golden-bloomed furze ; and the linnet-nest which they sheltered 
and concealed. The ploughshare has crossed the place, and the 
field is now one dead level. 

The objects described have been deposited in the Museum of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 



105 

The Catrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch in 1880. By James 
Smail, F.S.A., Scot. 

There is no great wall, or road, or ditcli, of ancient date about 
which so little reliable history is extant, as the Catrail or Picts- 
Work-Ditch. In point of fact it has no authentic history. Its 
ancientness is undoubted ; and although historians do not agree 
on several matters connected with it, no disputes have ever 
arisen in which its antiquity was called in question. No war- 
weapons, implements, coins, or other relics have ever been found 
in its course, or in the forts or camps, so-called, through which 
it runs, by which its makers could be traced, or the exact time 
fixed when it was made, hence the difficulty of historians to give 
definite information regarding it. And yet its length from end 
to end is, or was rather, 48 miles — in Selkirkshire 28, and in 
Eoxburghshire 20. The crow-line length of the Catrail in the 
former county is only 18 miles — from Torwoodlee "Eings" to 
Hoscote ; and from Hoscote to Wheelrig at the Peel fell, on the 
edge of Northumberland, the crow-line (in Eoxburghshire) is 
nearly 15 miles. The Catrail must thus have been well known 
to a large number of inhabitants of the Borders for many genera- 
tions ; and it is therefore both odd and perplexing that so little 
is known of its history. So far as I can learn it is not men- 
tioned in any of the many Eoyal and other Grants or Charters of 
lands in its, vicinity. My friend, Mr Craig-Brown, of Selkirk, 
who is writing a history of Selkirkshire, and who has had access 
to nearly all the charters and papers of the county families, has 
informed me that he has in no instance found the Catrail men- 
tioned in any of these documents ; and yet there are miles of the 
Catrail still strongly marked in the county. 

■WKITERS ON THE CATRAIL, OR PICTS-WORK-DITCH. 

/ Alexander Gordon, A.M., was the earliest writer on the Cat- 
rail, in "Itinerarium Septentrionale," London, 1726, fol. He 
thought it a boundary-line of the era of Severus, between the 
Eoman Province and the Caledonians. He seems to have been 
the only writer who traced it nearly from end to end. He made 
several mistakes, however, as to places, and in a few instances 
he seems to have travelled backward a little ; and he names some 
places where he said he found it on which the Catrail could not 

N 



lOG The Catrail, or Picts-WorJc-Ditch, by James Small. 

possibly be found, the places named being miles from its track. 
He must bave erred in the latter case from baving taken some 
similar roadway for it ; and in tbose days be would bave no maps 
indicating its course. Many old road-lines similar to tbe Cat- 
rail exist at tbe present day, botb in its vicinity and on otber 
parts of tbe Border bills, wbicb, but from maps and enquiries 
made on tbe spot and at well-known old residenters, migbt bave 
been looked on as sections of Catrail by tbe writer. 

He states tbat "tbe first vestiges of tbis work appear at tbis 
day about a mile to tbe west of Gallosbiels, in tbe sbire of Sel- 
kirk, and two from Melrose in Teviotdale, at a place called tbe 
Eink Hill." Every one now knows tbat tbe nortbern end of tbe 
work, "tbe first vestiges," still very deeply marked, and un- 
doubtedly Catrail, is on tbe wooded bill above Torwoodlee 
mansion, at Galasbiels, fully tbree miles from tbe Eink bill. 
But be adds a little furtber on, tbat "tbe wbole lengtb of tbis 
boundary from Pirle fell (Peel fell) in Cumberland (tbe Peel 
fell divides Northumberland and Eoxburgbsbire) to tbe town of 
Gallowsbiels is 22 miles ; from tbe last of wbicb places I am con- 
vinced, Grallow water served as tbe rest of its limit." Many 
parts of tbe Catrail bave disappeared since be visited it ; but 
wbat remains of it from Eink to tbe southern end is on the 
whole, and with tbe exception of tbe errors referred to, very 
accurately laid down by him. Some parts of it are nearly as 
deep and broad as at the time of his visit, nearly 160 years ago. 
The names of some of the bibs and burns given by him bave 
now passed away ; and be names several farms or places of abode 
which are totally unknown at tbe present day ; but tbis, doubt- 
less, has arisen from tbe fact of many farm dwellings and 
shepherds' houses of bis day having been removed, and their 
names and respective situations forgotten. But although be 
pretty accurately describes the Catrail and gives its measure- 
ments with apparent care, it is a matter of fact tbat very many 
well-defined stretches of it, which he saw and described, are 
now totally obliterated. 

Chalmers, in bis Caledonia, gives an account of it ; and the 
late respected Eev. Dr Douglas, Galasbiels, spent some time in 
tracing it, and be furnished Chalmers with data as to its line of 
route and its markings. One writer, however, tbe late Mr Nor- 
man Kennedy, Hawick, an intelligent and shrewd observer, 



The Catrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch, by James Smai]. 107 

familiar with tlie Catrail in his district, says of Dr Douglas, in 
connection with his account of it : — *' There can be no doubt that 
he must often have been imposed upon, while making enquiries 
of individuals resident in its neighbourhood, ^' '^' '^' as many 
isolated trenches running in a contrary direction are still pointed 
out as portions of that work, although unconnected with it ; and 
as they are identical in appearance, his ignorance of the locality 
would prevent him detecting the unintentional mistake." This, 
in the present writer's opinion, seems probable. 

Chalmers calls the Catrail a "dividing fence between the 
Eomanised Britons of the Cumbrian kingdom and their Saxon 
invaders on the east." 

Sir "Walter Scott in his Border Antiquities, 1817, p. 23, says : — 
" All good antiquarians allow that the remarkable trench, called 
the Catrail, was intended to protect the native inhabitants of 
Strath-Clyde from the too powerful Saxon invaders." In a letter 
to George Ellis, he speaks of Drumelzier, many miles above 
Peebles, as on the Catrail route. It seems somewhat singular 
that Sir Walter had paid little or no attention to the "remark- 
able trench," which he could almost see from his windows at 
Abbotsford, and is still strongly marked on the hills on which 
he delighted to roam behind Yair. 

Here is a rather sad paragraph : — " This was for him the last 
year (1825) of many things ; among others of Sybil Grey, and 
The Ahhotsford Hunt. Towards the close of a hard run on his 
neighbour, Mr Scott of Gala's ground, he adventured to leap the 
Catrail — that venerable relic of the days of — 
' Eeged wide 
And fair Strath-Clyde.' 
He was severely bruised and shattered ; and never afterwards re- 
covered the feeling of confidence without which there can be no 
pleasure in horsemanship. He often talked of this accident with 
a somewhat superstitious mournfulness." — Life of Scott, vol. viii., 
p. 105. 

Mr Wilson in his Annals of HawicTc, 1850, gives it a notice 
similar to Chalmers. 

Mr Alexander Jeffrey, the historian of Eoxburghshire, writes 
at considerable length on the Catrail, and other peculiar and 
ancient roadways of the Borders, including the Devil's Cause- 
way, the Maiden Way, and the Wheel-Causeway, the last of 



108 The Catrail, or Picts-Work-DitQh, by James Small. 

whicli (by the way) passes the south, end of the Oatrail, and is 
still, 1880, strongly marked, and is in shape the exact counter- 
part of several sections of the Catrail, He states that these 
''war fences were constructed about 446;" but like all other 
writers on the subject, he cites no authority for his opinions. He, 
however, states that ' ' the honour of the discovery of this impor- 
tant remain is due to Gordon, who visited this part of the king- 
dom in 1720;" and that " nearly ninety years passed between 
Gordon's survey and that of Dr Douglas." He further says: 
"The object of this ditch maybe learned from its name: Cat 
signifying conflict or battle, and Rhail a fence ; a war fence or 
partition. This gigantic undertaking was carried through by 
the Ottadini and Gadeni people after the Eomans left, to protect 
themselves and possessions from the Saxons, who were advancing 
upon them from the north and east. It would also serve as a 
screen, under cover of which the tribes could pass from one place 
to another without being seen by the enemy. In the same way 
their flocks and herds might be conveyed without being ob- 
served." 

The late Mr William Kemp, Galashiels, wrote an excellent 
paper on the line of the Catrail, in the neighbourhood of Gala- 
shiels ; and he noticed at some length the so-called forts on its 
route. 

The late Mr Norman Kennedy also wrote a very good paper 
on it, particularly in connection with the Roxburghshire part of 
it. The paper was read at a meeting of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, Edinburgh. 

The writer of the account of Cavers parish in the "New 
Statistical Account of Scotland" bestows only a few lines of 
notice on the Catrail ; and Dr Chambers, in his excellent History 
of Peebleshire, gives a short account of it. Mr Hardy has, be- 
sides, informed me that Dr J. A. H. Murray had, many years 
ago, read a paper on the Catrail to the members of the Hawick 
Archaeological Society, but this paper I have not seen. It is also 
adverted to in Chatto's Rambles in Northumherlmid, pp. 171-175, 
which furnishes also a reference to other works of the kind else- 
where. 

THE CATRAIL, OR PICTS-WORK-DITCH, AS IN 1880. 

It may be right to mention here, that I passed ten days, and 
several parts of days in tracing, and trying to trace, the Catrail 



The Catrail, or Picts-Worh-Ditch, by James Small. 109 

from end to end, and that in tMs I was greatly aided in my re- 
searches in Selkirkshire by my friend, Mr Craig-Brown, who ac- 
companied me during four days ; and my friend, Mr Elliot, 
HoUybush, who was with me five days, four of them in Eox- 
burghshire and one in Selkirkshire. The Ordnance Survey and 
other maps were used ; and found very useful. The Catrail, as 
laid down in the Ordnance Survey maps pf Roxburghshire is, in 
my opinion, correct, or nearly so ; but in some places it is not 
correctly indicated in the Selkirkshire maps. This must have 
arisen from the surveyors having been misinformed by resi- 
denters ; for of course the surveyors in many cases as to land- 
markings had simply to enter what they were told by shepherds 
or others. 

The northern end of the Catrail is on the wooded hill fully 
half-a-mile above Torwoodlee mansion-house, two miles from 
Galashiels. There has been a large camp on the spot, and the 
deep trench of the Catrail partly circles the camp, which is itself 
circular ; and many stones belonging to it, and deep indentations 
connected with it may still be seen. This camp, with the accom- 
panying part-circles of the Catrail, has long been locally called 
'• the Eings." The Catrail cannot now be traced down the field 
leading from the camp ; but it is faintly traceable in Torwoodlee 
policy. It passed Eedburn foot into the wood o^^posite The 
Birks gate ; and at the south end of that wood it is clearly and 
deeply marked ; and is quite visible from the public road leading 
alongside the wood. From this wood its line ran towards Knowe 
Park, and on to Mossilee homestead, which stands on its track, 
and a few hundred yards south of the homestead it appears on 
the edge of the field road, and is nearly filled with stones. 
Twelve years ago its track was plainly seen by me in the field 
adjoining the steep field leading up to the young plantation on 
the north end of HoUybush farm, through which the public foot- 
way leads to Fernielee. On the steep field mentioned it is 
plainly marked. It leaves the field and enters the wood through 
which the footway above mentioned passes. After crossing the 
wood it leads into the field above, and is easily traced along two 
fields to an old quarry at the end of the wood on the hill im- 
mediately above HoUybush farm-house. In this wood it is very 
deep and wide ; and it is nowhere in its course more strongly 
marked than here, being 20 feet wide and nearly 6 feet in depth 



110 The Catrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch, by James Small. 

at the deepest part. Twenty -tlii-ee years ago, the late Major 
Scott of Grala planted the woods now on the heights along HoUy- 
Ibush farm. They were planted for shelter for the farm, but Mr 
Elliot, the tenant, suggested to him that by carrying along a 
strip of the plantation on the line of the Catrail, the ditchway 
might thereby be preserved for many years. The hint was acted 
on, and hence the still well-defined Catrail on these heights. 

From the last-named wood it cannot be traced for several 
hundreds of yards ; but it comes strongly into view on a field near 
the British Camp on Eink hill. This section of the Catrail can 
be seen plainly at a distance of several miles. It apparently did 
not enter the camp ; and the late respected tenant' of Eink, Mr 
Eiddell, who had lived many years there, told me he did not 
think it had entered the camp ; but Mr Jeffrey affirms that it 
did. Its line passed along the slope below the camp about 100 
yards, and it is very deeply marked in the wood fully 100 yards 
below the camp. 

Although I do not mean to notice the very numerous so-called 
camps, forts, or resting-places in the track of the Catrail, the re- 
mains of the fine camp on Eink hill must not be passed without 
a word. It is British, and the well-grown fir wood planted over 
it, about 1812, for the double purpose of protecting the camp 
lines, and affording shelter to the fiocks and herds, has helped 
much to preserve its remains. I do not know of any camp so 
well marked. It is an oblong circle 90 yards by 60 within the 
walls. It had two defence ditches ; and even now the fosse is 
upwards of 30 feet wide, and in several places about 20 feet 
deep. Hundreds of tons of the old wall stones are lying moss- 
covered in the fosse. 

From the cultivation of the land the Catrail is not traceable 
from the wood below the Eink Camp to the Tweed, which it 
crossed at Howdenpot burn foot on to Sunderland Hall grounds. 

The late Major Plummer, of Sunderland Hall, wrote me in 
February, 1879, that "The Catrail can be traced on Sunderland 
moor for about 700 yards." After leaving the Tweed it passes 
along a wood on Sunderland Hall grounds and then enters the 
"moor," most of which is now under cultivation. Mr Craig- 
Brown and I traced its line through the lands of Sunderland 
Hall on to Linglee hill, where, near its top, it is very deeply and 
distinctly marked. This part of the Catrail, from Tweedside to 



The Catrail, or Pids-Worh-Ditch, by James Small. Ill 

■where it is lost on the soft land on Linglee, measures a mile-and- 
a-half ; but mucli of it is very faintly marlred, and will shortly 
disappear. After leaving Linglee hill it disappears on soft 
ground for about three-quarters of a mile ; after which we caught 
it up without difficulty and followed it with certainty, although 
it is not deeply marked, for many hundred yards. At this part 
it crosses a portion of the Peatlaw, and a wire fence runs along- 
side of it for several hundred yards ; and near this fence it 
crosses the bridle-path that leads from Yair on Tweed to Broad- 
meadows on Yarrow, at the sj^ot where Sir Walter Scott and 
Mungo Park bade farewell, just before the latter last sailed for 
Africa. The incident is mentioned by Lockhart in his Life of 
Sir Walter. 

Prom the bridle-path mentioned, we traced it a mile on the 
Three Brethren hill ; and after losing it we also ourselves got 
lost, from a dense fog, which darkened all around. After a good 
deal of bewilderment, for the pocket-compass of each seemed to 
point the wrong way, we found ourselves when the fog cleared, 
about three miles out of our reckoning. 

After it leaves the Three Brethren hill, behind Yair about two 
miles, it runs westward for about four miles, nearly as high as 
the watershed between Tweed and Yarrow, but on the Yarrow 
side of the watershed. It then reaches Wallace's Trench where 
it is fairly well marked ; but in the space between Three 
Brethren hill and this there is very little of it to be found. 
Prom Wallace's Trench until it reaches a part of the farm of 
Whitehope on Yarrow, nearly five miles, almost no traces of 
the Catrail can be found. The course from Wallace's Trench 
was westward on to the south-east end of Minchmuir, " the hill 
of hills," along the ridge of which a jpart of Montrose's defeated 
army retreated from Philiphaugh. It then curved to the south 
and crossed the uplands through Lewinshope and Tinnis to 
Whitehope hill. Mr Lindsay, the respected tenant of White- 
hope, kindly accompanied us to the Catrail ; and it is very 
plainly marked on his hill for a few hundred yards. He pointed 
out where it was said to pass in the direction of Henhole and 
Minchmuir ; but as I have said, almost no traces of it, if any, 
can be found in that direction. He also pointed out its reported 
line towards the Yarrow, and the same on the further side of the 
river. 



112 The Catrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch, by James Small. 

The distance, soutliward, between the Catrail on Whitehope 
and the Catrail on the north of Grirnwood farm, where the shires 
of Selkirk and Eoxburgh meet, is twelve miles, "across country." 
Mr Craig-Brown and I spent two long days on the reputed track 
of the Catrail in this locality, or rather on the first nine miles of 
it southward of Whitehope. "We had with us written accounts of 
its track, and maps old and new to guide us ; and we had also the 
company and guidance over a goodly part of the distance, of 
farmers or shepherds who had known the district from boyhood ; 
but, sad to relate, the Catrail has now totally disappeared from 
that wide stretch of country. We at times, but only two or 
three times, came to lines that we thought might turn out Cat- 
rail ; but in no instance were we satisfied that we had really 
found it. Our first day was spent on the track between Ladhope 
and Gilmanscleuch on Yarrow and Ettrick waters respectively ; 
and the next day we traversed the same district from Sundhope 
to Gilmanscleuch ; and from Gilmanscleuch southward to Clear- 
burn Loch. We faithfully and literally wandered, often zig- 
zag, over these fine hills ; and had both weather and guides in 
our favour for finding the ancient way ; but it is not to be found. 
Seventy years ago, Dr JJouglas was told by the farmers in 
Ettrick Forest, when he was tracing the Catrail, " that the re- 
mains had greatly diminished in their remembrance, and that 
the traces were becoming less visible every day. Nearly ninety 
years passed between Gordon's survey and that of Dr Douglas." 
Most of the land in the part under notice is very soft, hence the 
tendency of the Catrail to become so rapidly less visible ; and 
here it has at last disappeared. 

The line from Whitehope to Clearburn Loch ran through Cat- 
slackburn. Yarrow Eeus, then crossing the Yarrow it ascended 
Sundhope Height, and after " crossing the very top of Singlee 
Burn it descended and crossed Inch Burn, and Gilmanscleuch 
Burn, and entered the Ettiick at the School. It then ascended 
the west side of Deloraine Burn, and passed near the foot of the 
Stanhopelaw over to Clearburn Loch, also on the farm of De- 
loraine. 

Erom Clearburn to Henwoody, on the north of Girnwood, 
the distance is somewhere about three miles. In Gordon's 
time, even, there seem to have been no traces left of the 
Catrail in this part of the country ; for he says " passing hence 



The Catrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch, by James Small. 118 

(from Stanhopelaw) to the southward I lost its track for two 
(5 ?) miles, the ground being full of bogs ;" and my friend, Mr 
Scott, Girnwood, who is familiar with the Catrail, corroborates 
the above, there being no vestige of it in the place indicated. 

The Catrail enters Eoxburghshire at Hoscoat Burn, but after 
a nearly two miles course again crosses a narrow point of Sel- 
kirkshire at Hoscoat, and then enters the former county. From 
Hoscoat Burn, along the lands of Girnwood the track is wider 
than on any other part of its coiu'se. It is fully 28 feet wide, in- 
cluding the ramparts or ridges on each side. This part of the 
road has been long in use as a drove road, and from this cause 
it has perhaps become broader than it was originally made. 
The mound or ridge on one of the sides is much higher than the 
one on the other side. Altogether it is a fine section of the old 
ditch-way in question ; and except in two newly reclaimed fields 
at Girnwood homestead, its course can be traced without a break 
for a mile-and-a-half . It passes the gate at Girnwood farmhouse, 
and enters Hoscoat wood a few hundred yards below Girnwood. 
It is not traceable up Broadlee Burn ; but to the east of Broad- 
lee Loch it is very distinct, broad and deep, for upwards of a 
mile on Woodburn farm. From that point to Teviot water it 
cannot now be traced ; but its course was south-south-east by 
Teindside Burn ; and it again appears on the south side of the 
Teviot, about a mile-and-a-half behind Northhouse farmhouse. 
It there ascends the hill to Doecleuch, and is easily reached, as 
it is on the edge of the road leading from Northhouse to Priest- 
haugh. Mr Elliot and I were indebted to the hospitable tenant, 
of Teindside, Mr Govenlock, for valuable information ; and he 
saved us some miles of rough walking, by telling us where to 
go. On Doecleuch, on Skelfhill farm, the Catrail measures from 
the centre of each side-ridge, 18 feet in width, and it is 4 J feet 
in depth. From Doecleuch it cannot now be traced to the 
Whitehillbrae Hill, on the south side of Allan Water, where it 
is next visible, the intervening land being partly under cultiva- 
tion and the moorland soft. It ascends Whitehillbrae Hill, a 
steep one, in an almost direct line, and is very distinct there, 
and can be seen from a long distance. Crossing the ridge of the 
hill it descends, and enters a flattish moor near a well-marked 
camp called the Pyot's Nest, which is fully half-a-mile west from 
the peak of Penchrise Pen. 

o 



114 The Catrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch, by James Small. 

Though, pretty tired, and knowing we had still some six miles 
to travel through deep spret and bent-grass, and across mossy 
land, sometimes mid-body deep among fern or wet rush- 
clumps, we could not resist climbing to the peak of this remark- 
able hill ; and the view from it down Teviotdale amply repaid us 
for our hard work. The peak or summit of Penchrise is very 
small ; but it has been strongly fortified. Some 20 yards below 
the peak two well-made ramparts, what would now be called 
half -moon batteries, are nearly as plainly marked now as they 
could possibly be when made. All this part of Penchrise, 
though grass-covered, is composed of rock to within a few inches 
of the surface, so that ramparts once made on such a place, were 
certain to last for ages. 

Eeturning to the subject of the Catrail : from the summit of 
Penchrise we had a fine view of it in the direction we had to 
travel. Prom a point near to the before-mentioned Pyot's Nest, 
it runs through some flattish soft land for about a mile, on which 
it is traceable only here and there. It then ascends the Pike 
hill, called the Carriage HiU by Gordon, 1516 feet in height, in 
a broad deep straight line ; and passes over its highest point and 
descends on the other side in the same way. This is by far the 
best part of the Catrail at the present day. It is so deeply 
marked, and from this, and the Pike hill being so high, it can be 
seen distinctly six or eight miles off. Mr Elliot and I saw it as 
plainly as the Pike itself from Mid Hill, some five miles to the 
south of it. Gordon says of it here : "It mounts the Carriage 
Hill, and is more conspicuous here than throughout its whole 
track, being 24 and 26 foot broad, and very deep; the ramparts 
on every side, 6 or 7 foot in perpendicular height, and each of 
them 10 or 12 foot thick, the whole being great and visible." 
The above measurements are niuch too great for this part of the 
Catrail at the present day. But from the hardness of the Pike 
hill, and from the depth and breadth of the Catrail still to be 
found there, I have no doubt whatever but its lines will remain 
clear and strong on this hill for hundreds of years to come. 

Next day Mr Elliot and I crossed from his farm, Langburn- 
shiels, over the ridge of Shankend hill, and caught up the Cat- 
rail at the southern base of the Pike. From that point we 
traced it with ease to Poberts-linn, a distance of nearly three 
miles. We came to a few short blank spaces, where the land 



The Catrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch, by James Smail. 115 

■was very spongy, but the blanks were so diminutive that it may 
be said to be almost continuous for the above named distance. 
At the foot of the Pike it crosses Langside Burn, and then 
passes by the east, at the foot of what Gfordon calls "the re- 
markable Hills called the Maiden Paps " — a well-known land 
mark, 1,677 feet in height, being a spur of Greatmoor, 1,964 
feet. We walked to the top of the first named height, which is 
remarkably steep, from which we had a fine view of mag- 
nificent and almost countless hills, rising tier on tier as far as 
the eye could reach. After passing the Maiden Paps the Catrail 
crosses Harwood Burn, where it is lost for a short space, and it 
then runs through a somewhat flat bit of ground lying between 
Shankend hill and the Leap Fell, until it reaches the Waverley 
line of railway, which cuts through it about a quarter of a mile 
from the Shankend Railway Tunnel. It can there be seen from 
the windows of a passing train. From the railway it runs in 
almost a direct and in an unbroken line to Roberts-linn, on 
Langburnshiels, at the Limekilnedge road. It is plainly marked 
in all the flat land just mentioned, but is shallow, and only from 
12 to 14 feet bi-oad. Even where it is level, the line is easily 
traced, for along its whole course the bent grass is lighter in 
colour on its track than the surrounding grass ; and, on the other 
hand, on cultivated land, where much soil has been ploughed into 
its track the grass is generally greener on the line of the Catrail 
than on the surrounding parts. Snow also lies longer on even 
the flat parts of the Catrail than on the other flat land ; and in 
" a griming o' new fa' en snaw '' the flat parts are more easily 
traced than at any other time. 

From Eoberts-linn to near the Abbey, a sweet spot at the foot 
of Cliphope Burn, a distance of 4 miles, it is not now traceable. 
"We came to only one short part of it ; and I was not really cer- 
tain that it was the Catrail, near the very top of Laidlerhope 
Burn — north side. At Cliphope it is very probable that the Cat- 
rail has been turned into the " Galloway road " for some dis- 
tance, and the same on Dawston-rig, for that road is in the track 
of the Catrail. 

The GaUoway road was used for a long period of years 
as a highway for carrying coal to Hawick from the edge 
of England. The coal was carried in bags on the backs of the 
well-known GaUoway ponies — hence the name '' Galloway road." 



116 The Catrail, or Pids-Work-Ditch, by James Small. 

It was a common thing for one man to drive a string of 8 to 10 
of these ponies, coal-laden, across the hills on this road, which 
was much used for this purpose up to the early part of the cen- 
tury. A similar mountain road, used for a like purpose, runs 
from Northumberland across the fells by Kale water head and 
Eiccalton to Jedburgh. 

At the Abbey, the Catrail is visible and broad, and the road 
above-mentioned is on its exact line. Across the Dawston-rig 
we could not find it, although the southern part of the Dawston- 
rig is hard land. We found it, however, at the southern edge 
of the Dawston-rig, where it dips into the Liddel water ; and 
here it makes an abrupt curve, and runs to the north-east, up 
the land called Wormescleuch, and crosses the burn of that name 
on to Wheelrig, where it is strongly marked for a few hundred 
yards. Here it terminates, in the neighbourhood of the site 
of the Wheel Church, but not before it is crossed by the Wheel 
Causeway or Eoman way, which runs north from this by Needs- 
law and Wolfelee, and south " alang by the Dead Water Stank." 
The Peel tower, at the foot of the Peel Fell, stood on the other 
side of the Peel Burn — opposite this southern end of the Catrail. 
Where it ends there are several curves and lines of a peculiar 
kind, the lines resembling the Catrail in form, and the whole 
much like the lines and curves, " the Eings," at the northern 
end of the Catrail at Torwoodlee. I was much aided, at this 
part of the Catrail, by my friend Mr Scott, the proprietor of 
Peel; and also by one of his shepherds, who has been long 
resident at Wormescleuch. 

THE WHEEL CHUECH. 

I must say a few words about this church of ancient days, 
although there is not a stone of it standing, nor yet are there any 
stones lying where it once stood. Its foundation lines are, how- 
ever, quite as distinct, as is also the form of the churchyard, in 
which neither grave nor tombstone can now be seen, as if the 
walls of each were still erect. The fine short dark-green grass 
on the site of the church and churchyard shews the exact 
size and shape of each. The church was an oblong square, some 
20 feet long ; and the churchyard is on the west of the church site, 
but adjoining it, and is circular, a wheel in form. The writer 
of the Old Statistical Account states that the Wheel Church was 
" pretty large," a decided error. Jeffrey says : " After the sack 



The Catrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch, by James Small. 117 

of Berwick in 1296, Edward I. performed a pilgrimage to St. 
Ninian's slirine in Galloway, and lodged two nights here, one 
night in going and one night in returning.*" It is difficult at 
the present day, even to imagine where the worshippers in this 
church lived." The '' Old Statistical Account " (Eev. Mr Arkle), 
1793, also states that, " Many grave stones appear in the church- 
yard, yet when standing on this spot, at this time there are only 
three farm houses in view, taking in a circle of many miles." 

In reference to these quotations I may remark that it is per- 
fectly evident, on the spot, that the Wheel Church has been very 
small ; and as I have carefully gone over the immediately sur- 
rounding land, and have found the remains or sites of a con- 
siderable number of dwelling-houses on Wheelrig, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the church site, I have no doubt in my own mind 
that the worshippers lived on Wheelrig, and in some of the farm 
places near it. Friends of mine, who know more than I of the 
place, are of the same opinion. There must have been a hamlet at 
Wheelrig. It is a sweet and very solitary spot, well sheltered by 
the surrounding mountains. But of the people who lived and died 
there, nothing whatever is now known. A small field adjoining 
the site of the church has been walled round ; and many of the 
stones show that they have of old been under the mason's chisel. 
These stones have, doubtless, been taken from the ruins of the 
church and the neighbouring houses. We saw one half of a 
quern stone at the side of this field. It was of a very large size, 
and might once have been in general use among the inhabitants 
of Wheelrig. It is of too large a size to have been for the sole 
use of only one house or family of the period. 

THE NAME — CATRAIL. 

Writers do not aU agree on the derivation of Catrail. 
Chalmers in his Caledonia caXis it "the dividing /^wce" or ''par- 
tition of defence ;" Jeffrey " a war fence," stating that Cat signi- 
fies conflict and Bhail a fence. Then we have elsewhere Cater a 
camp, and Cad a ditch, with Ehail in each case given as a fence. 
The learned Mr Mackenzie of Delvin says : " That the newly 
discovered Boimdary was originally designed as a limit of separa- 
tion is evident from the etymology of Catrail ; which comes from 

* ["On the fifteenth day, being Wednesday (May 23), Edward went to 
Jedborough ; on the Thursday to "Wyel, on the Friday to Castleton, on the 
Sunday afterwards back to Wyel ; on the Monday to Jedborough." — Journal 
of the Morements of King Edward, Documents Hist. Scot., ii., p. 27.] 



118 The Catrail, or Picts- Work-Ditch, by James Small. 

an old Highland word signifying Vallum separationis, a wall or 
ditch of separation." — Gordon, p. 104. Gordon also states, when 
he speaks of it as crossing Borthwick water, he having traced it 
across Selkirkshire to Borthwick water head, on the edge of Eox- 
burghshire, ''here it is known by the name of the Catrail, but 
northward of this place it is called the Picts-Work-Ditch.'' In a 
ballad describing a Border fray one personage is described thus : 
" The next ana was ane careless scemp, 
Moss-mudded head and tail ; 
Ye might trowed him the ghaist o' a' gurly Pict 
"Wha had sheughed i' the grit Catrail." 

Then we have several places in the neighbourhood of the Cat- 
rail bearing significant names. A few miles to the north of Tor- 
woodlee, we have Muckle Oatpair and Little Catpair, two estates. 
On the farm of Tinnis in Yarrow Water there is Cat Crag ; and 
the Catrail crossed the higher part of this farm. Further on the 
Catrail crossed the Gatslack Burn ; and close to Yarrow Feus 
there are some indentations called the Cat Holes. In Roxburgh- 
shire the Catrail crosses Harwood Burn, into which falls Gatlee 
Burn. 

And may not " the Eings " at the northern termination of the 
Catrail have by the name a colateral connection with the Wheel- 
rig at its southern termination ? Eings and wheels are in some 
cases somewhat similar terms in the south of Scotland. Besides, 
as I have before stated, the vestiges of rings or wheels at each 
termination of the Catrail exhibit a verisimilitude. Of course 
the Wheel Causeway is ancient, and crosses the Wheelrig, and 
may have been the means of originating the name both of that 
part of land and of the Wheel Church. But who can tell ? One 
writer thinks the Wheel Causeway was so named because its 
centre was rounded, and composed of large stones which sloped 
downward toward the respective edges of the road something like 
a wheel ; and another states that the name was api)lied because 
it was a road along which a machine with wheels could travel. 

The Maiden Way which " leaves the Eoman wall between the 
Sol way and Tine," runs many miles and then crosses Dead Water 
on to Wheelrig, where it assumes the name of the Wheel Cause- 
way. There is, therefore, doubtless some perplexity as to the 
origin of the names " the Rings," Wheebig, Wheel Church, and 
Wheel Causeway, and at this time it would be a very difficult 
matter to clear up the peculiar ramifications. Many theories 



The Catrail, or Ficts-Work-Ditch, by James Small. 119 

could be deduced, because there are data in plenty, but of sucb 
a complex and peculiar nature, that theorists, I suspect, would 
probably have to romance a little in order to bring matters to a 
logical conclusion. 

WHAT WAS IT MADE OR USED FOR ? 

This is a point on which great diversity of opinion has been 
shown. After reading the productions of many writers on the 
Catrail, I have had no difficulty in coming to the conclusion that 
several of them have simply followed the theories of those who 
preceded them. A considerable number of writers disagree as to 
what it was made or used for, and they also differ in their accounts 
of its width and depth. Those writers who looked on it as a de- 
fence, notice conspicuously the numerous forts and tower-sites 
along its course, while some of those who considered it to have 
been a boundary line, and others who thought it was simply a 
ditch-road used for peaceably driving cattle and sheep from place 
to place without exposure to marauders, say next to nothing 
about the forts, &c., along its lines. 

Unless perhaps in the neighbourhood of Galashiels, I do not 
think the forts and strengths much more numerous in the vicinity 
of the Catrail, than on several of the Border districts known to 
me. 

I have little or nothing of a theory to offer on the subject of 
its use. I certainly disagree, however, with Gordon and others, 
who thought it a boundary line between either kingdoms or 
tribes. I have traced its course on a map which I have sent to 
the Club's respected Secretary, Mr Hardy, and anyone examin- 
ing it will at once see that as such a boundary line it would 
have been most eccentric, and indeed absurd. As an illustra- 
tion I may mention that the Catrail so curves in its course 
between Torwoodlee and the south-east point of Minchmoor that 
it describes the outline of a large cul de sac. The crow-line from 
Torwoodlee to the place indicated on Minchmoor is 6 miles in 
length, and the Catrail line is nearly 12, and it must be re- 
membered that in that course of twelve miles, besides making 
the general curve alluded to, it, in many places, and over a 
large portion of the distance, shows just about as many windings 
and twistings as an ordinary parish road. The smaller curvings 
were doubtless made in most cases to avoid rocks or damp, 
very wet land. 



120 The Gatrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch, by James Small. 

As a defence it -would present a strong barrier to an enemy on 
either side of it, but the total absence of all war-like weapons or 
instruments in or near its precincts, for none have been found, 
goes some way, at least, to show that the purposes of warfare had 
not been especially considered along its route. 

For my part, I am inclined to think that it would be used 
much oftener as a road than a defence, although I also think, 
from its construction, it in many places and cases might have 
answered well for both. In those wild marauding days the resi- 
denters in the district might find it useful and convenient to have 
a secret road of this kind, more for the peaceable removal of 
their herds and flocks from place to place, than for enabling 
those living on the one side of it to protect themselves from 
those on the opposite side. Besides, under its covert of from 6 
to 12 feet in depth, and hidden by its many windings and curv- 
ings as already described, large numbers of men, for war or 
other purposes, would, with a little caution, be able to move 
along it unseen, unless from distant points here and there, 
chiefly on the hills. 

What many writers call forts on its course, I am inclined to 
caU resting-places or shelters ; but those were so formed and 
placed as to enable those under their protecting walls to defend 
themselves when necessary. These shelters have been in most 
cases very small, and are not by any means to be confounded 
with forts or camps like those at Eink, Pyot's nest, or Dawston's 
Rig on Liddell water-side, and others. It must be remembered, 
too, that had the Catrail been made chiefly as a defence, it 
would have proved a better barrier had it been constructed on 
the flat lands, where it would have been filled with water; 
whereas it has been, as a whole, run through wonderfully dry 
land, which would make it aU the more useful as a road, along 
which to drive sheep and cattle. 

In the neighbourhood of several of the forts or shelters there 
have been small spurs of Catrail thrown out, and such spurs have 
also in a few instances been made where no resting houses or forts 
had been placed. These spurs would answer as sidings, into 
which flocks could be driven, either to allow flocks travelling in 
another direction to pass, or for refuge in storms, or for a lair at 
night, or even for temporary concealment. Traces of the sidings 
can be seen at Hollybush, Eink, Girnwood, Wormescleugh, and 



The Catrail, or Picts-Work-Ditch, by James Smail. 121 

other places. They have puzzled several antiquaries ; and I, of 
course, admit freely that my idea as to their use, and the Catrail 
having been made and used chiefly for protecting from marauders 
the flocks and herds of residenters when driven from place to 
place, may be just as incorrect as the theories of others. I am 
also aware, too, that several of the writers with whose ideas 
I do not agree were much better acquainted with archaeology 
than I am. At the same time it may be considered in favour of 
my remarks that I have actually spent many days tracing the 
Catrail from end to end, and before doing so I had made myself 
conversant with all the writings I could get on the subject. I 
had also a supply of excellent maps, government and others ; 
and had, besides, the aid of my friends, Messrs Craig-Brown 
and Elliot, over nearly all its course ; and we had the pleasure 
also of receiving kindly aid from many intelligent and hospitable 
farmers, and from many shepherds both in Selkirkshire and 
Eoxburghshire. On the whole, E have endeavoured to collect 
all the information I could on the subject of the Catrail ; 
and I regret that my work has really brought out nothing very 
new or definite about it. I have written from what I saw, which 
was an advantage. 

I must state that over and above the gentlemen already re- 
ferred to, I have been greatly indebted to my friend, Mr Hardy, 
for data ; and for the many letters he has written first and last 
on the subject, I beg to thank him heartily. 

I may close by stating that any one interested in the Catrail, 
and fond of rough upland walking, would, in the summer 
months, find enjoyment in tracing its lines through the fine 
hills of both counties. I am certain that the delightful 
wanderings over hill and valley, that my friends, Messrs 
Craig-Brown and Elliot and I had, in trying to trace that 
wonderful and mysterious ditch-way, will ever be pleasantly 
remembered by us all. 



LIDDESDALE '' KILN POTS." 

In Upper Liddesdale, on the estate of Peel and on Myredykes 
farm, which is divided from the former by the Peel Burn, there 
are a large number of peculiar holes or hollows locally called 
" Kiln Pots." They are very often found singly ; but in some 
places they form a sort of chain, and give the ground a very 
peculiar appearance. The hollows are many of them of the size 

P 



122 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

and shape of a huge circular potato pit inverted, viz., a con- 
cave, and some are irregular in shape, but all are of course 
hollow and they vary in depth from four or five to about twelve 
feet. But change is always in operation, though slow in its 
nature ; for moderately deep holes are, almost imperceptibly it is 
true, gradually growing deeper, and new hollows are ever and 
again beginning to show themselves. The grass or heather and 
surface soil gradually sink along with the soil or rock beneath ; 
and the hollows therefore are either grass or heath-covered. 
Here and there an irregularly-shapen hollow shows a deep side 
hole filled with delightful spring water, and water can be heard 
running beneath many of the " Kiln Pots." The cause of this 
peculiar sinking of the land is water. The rock below is mostly 
of limestone or soft sandstone ; and on those rocks over a long 
course of years there has been a constant action, more or less, of 
water, moving under the soil ; and as the softer parts of the rock 
decay the land, being soft, also sinks. When the " Kiln Pots '' 
are full of melted snow it is rather a dangerous affair to walk 
amongst them. Shepherds, however, know them well, and 
easily keep clear of them. 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1878-9 on Animal and 
Vegetable Life on the Borders. 

BEEWIOKSHIRE. 

1. — Oldcamhus hy Coclchurnspath. By James Hardy. 
The inadequacy of my own limited resources for drawing up a 
Eeport on the infiuence of the severe and long-continued winter 
of 1878-9, over a wide district, has induced me to have recourse 
to those members of the Club who had experienced its effects, or 
to others who took an interest in such inquiries. I will not at- 
tempt to summarise the returns, or compare them with other 
statements. Dr John Duns in the " Transactions of the Eoyal 
Physical Society of Edinburgh," Mr J. A. Harvie-Brown in the 
" Transactions of the Natural History Society of Glasgow," and 
Col. Drummond Hay and others in the " Scottish Naturalist," 
have made excellent contributions applicable to various parts of 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 123 

Scotland, and what is now presented is only a portion of an ex- 
tensive subject, wbicb. would rec[uire some otber labourer to 
make a combined view of. 

I will chiefly confine myself to my own observation of passing 
events, and with this I shall incorporate my notices on the 
arrivals of migrants, as these depend very much on the tempera- 
ture prevailing when they make their advent, and that again as 
a resultant upon the weather of the antecedent months. The 
sufferings that animals endured, I attribute chiefly to the long 
continuance of extreme cold, rather than to a deficiency of what 
has been called a natural provision for their support. . Hips and 
haws were left untouched to wither on the branches, while ivy 
berries, a very full crop, clustered on the twigs in sheltered 
places, till they dropped disregarded into the soil. Worms, 
shell-snails, slugs of all sorts and degrees, and Tipula grubs, 
were most abundant, had there been any birds left to disengage 
them from their retreats, when the ground became mollified, and 
the snow began to dissipate. The rigorous cold had no appre- 
ciable effect in diminishing the numbers of vermin of this sort. 

On the 9th October, 1878, the wild ducks began to resort to the sea for 
their winter quarters; 60 being counted. After a heavy gale on Oct. 31, 
two fieldfares arrived ; and the sea-pipits had been leaving a few days pre- 
viously. On Nov. 5, after a series of northerly gales, considerable flocks of 
fieldfares frequented the old grass fields, which were increased on the 1 1th 
and 12th, on which last day snow fell. Redshanks and lapwings, as if pre- 
admonished, had already resorted to the sheep folds. Nov. 9. Wild geese 
passed from the north. Nov. 14. Fieldfares continued to frequent the fields, 
and on that day a single snow-flake, much exhausted, was observed on the 
post-road near the Pease Bridge. Capt. Norman noticed two snow-flakes on 
the 15th, on the road on Halidon Hill, Berwick. Nov. 18th, the weather 
was milder, and the bands of fieldfares were joined, on the fields, by wood- 
pigeons. Three grey- wagtails, the last for the season, flew sportively round 
a pond, in beautiful feather ; grey linnets had not then left. Towards the 
end of the month, the weather be3ame milder. A wren and dipper were 
noted on the 20th; fieldfares had disappeared on the 21st, and birds on the 
coast became few ; red-breasts and sea-pipits were on the sea-banks on the 
22nd. Dec. 4th, the frost commenced, and on that and the previous day, the 
fieldfares began resorting to sheep-folds and recently-ploughed fields. Dec. 
9th, snow-storm commenced, and continued more or less on the 10th, when 
in the evening great assemblages of fieldfares arrived from the surrounding 
vicinage, to roost among the furze in the lower part of Oldcambus dean ; 
these were mingled with thrushes and blackbirds. The metallic tinkle of the 
snowflake's call-note was heard, and a flock passed at gloaming. I was not 
abroad every day, but on the 14th the snow lay deep on the ground, and 



124 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

extended in one continuous sheet to the sea-side, except where washed by the 
tide. There was a keen frost. Fieldfares in want of insects and worms 
were greatly distressed, and from their dishevelled feathers appeared to be 
pinched with the frosty air. Many of them kept in the folds all the day, 
hollowing out with their bills turnips that had been broken by the sheep ; or 
fluttering about weakly ; or fighting with each other, for the fragments 
picked out. Others were turning up the soil, which the sun had thawed on 
warm inland banks, or on the coast. In these last resorts the redwings were 
mixed with them, reduced to a still more pitiable condition, tamed by starva- 
tion so as to allow any one to approach them ; either hopping just to get out 
of the way of the observer, or flying a short distance, and alighting with de- 
pendent wings, when they appear like two birds instead of one, among the 
snow. The fieldfares were still able to maintain a bold flight. Two birds in 
beautiful feather and fair condition were picked up dead, although this was 
. only the fifth day of the storm. The thrushes were still procuring shell- 
snails by wall-sides. The grey linnets had left in a body at the setting in of 
the frost. Redbreasts came to the windows to be fed, and entered houses. 
The green finches attacked the heads of burdocks in neglected places, and 
dismembered them for the seeds. Hundreds of wood- pigeons crowded to the 
fields of Swedish turnips, and stripped them of their leaves. Dec. 16th, 
more dead fieldfares; several mountain-finches came to the stack-yard. 
Dec. 17th, frost still severe. Fieldfares were following wood-pigeons in the 
turnip fields, to profit by the morsels they left, when picking holes in turnips. 
They were in great extremity, hopping before me, and tumbling over, with 
low dragging wings. Sometimes they would in flyiug, dash themselves 
down before me, as if supplicating relief. Passing a woodside, their mutilated 
remains, as well as those of the redwing, were strewn wherever a sunny bank 
had tempted them with an offer of support. The carrion-crows, dark 
messengers of fate, were flying about silently over the white frozen surface 
of the snow on the outlook for falling birds. Few were left undevoured ; I 
even saw a thrush picking the bones of a fieldfare ; but thrushes still con- 
trived to procure snail-shells at the wall-sides and under furze. Three or 
four thrushes, however, had become victims to the cold, at a hollow on the 
sea-banks where sheep had rested at evening, having sought shelter among 
the flock, but in vain. Elsewhere other thrushes had succumbed, and had 
been eaten by the carrion-crows. Two blackbirds had perished. No missel- 
thrushes were seen here during the storm. To-day I witnessed a most busy 
scene on some of the sea-banks facing the south, where the sun's rays had 
suflicient efi&cacy to penetrate the frozen soil ; hundreds of dusky birds, 
mostly redwings, were labouring away for the dear life ; their little heads 
bobbing up and down, when assiduously digging for worms ; or having ex- 
hausted one spot, they took short flights to break up untried ground, uttering 
as they rose a feeble call-note. This scene was presented for about half-a- 
mile along the sea-banks. There was considerable slaughter of redwings at 
a sandy beach, called Greenheugh shore, their carcases being piled up among 
the sea-weed landed by the tide. Starlings were associated with the red- 
wings and fieldfares in excavating the banks for food ; but for the most part 
they were taking advantage of the sea's retreat from o£E the kelp -weed 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 125 

covered rocks, and were searching for food beneath, the fucoids. Kedshanks, 
curlews, and golden plovers also make this platform their feeding -ground. 
A young starling and two rooks were found dead. On this day there were 
several wrens observed stealing out and in among huge black blocks of rock, 
uncovered by the retiring tide. After this the wrens wholly disappeared 
from this part of the coast, and not a single bird has been detected since, 
where a visitor at all seasons was always sure of meeting with them more or 
less ; and among the stone -walls that encircle the fields, from whose aper- 
tures they were constantly issuing, as if in lively pursuit of their prey, not a 
bird is now visible ; and in our deans and woods the wren's silvery voice is 
seldom now heard. They probably migrated, as no remains have been 
observed in hollows or anywhere ; except that Mr Muirhead at Paxton saw 
three during the storm, and afterwards found them dead in a hole of a wall. 
Dec. 25th, the snow remained undiminished. Four or five fieldfares alone 
survived in the turnip fields. The rest had either perished, or along with 
the redwings departed to another district. The ground under furze-bushes 
was strewed with the wings and skeletons of these birds. Starlings com- 
menced to follow the sheep's evening resting-places. Eooks attacked corn- 
stacks, and wood-pigeons continued to flock to turnip-fields on the coast, 
where the leaves surmounted the snow ; and when driven off, hid themselves 
on the sea-banks. 

At Bowshiel during the storm, the servant lad used to set out the remains 
of his porridge for the cats, when three or four blackbirds regularly came to 
help themselves, whenever the weather was unusually severe. Starlings in 
vast numbers assembled in the stackyard ; and greenfinches and chaffinches 
were very numerous. 

Jan. 10th, 1879, the ground already sealed up, acquired a fresh coating of 
snow. A pair of fieldfares still persisted to frequent the sheep-fold ; cushats 
continued their attacks on the turnip-foliage. Lapwings had gone ; but the 
golden-plover still kept to the coast. Jan. 22nd, frost and snow still held the 
supremacy, curlews frequented the margins of inland pools ; two fieldfares 
still shewed themselves, and a snowflake was heard. Three titmice (ox-eyes), 
hitherto absent, came to the window to be fed. Black-headed gulls were 
noticed on the coast to-day and on the 23rd. On the 23rd, eight eider ducks 
appeared at sea ; there were two fieldfares still on the fold (it is to be re- 
marked that the sheep were fed with cake in addition to turnips) ; and a 
flock of starlings came to the stackyard. Jan. 31st, the snow had been 
further increased on the 30th and 31st, but the curlews on the shore were 
uttering their spring-tide notes on the 29th and 30th, prematurely as it so 
happened. A kestrel hovered about, and a raven made his advent on the 
far-spreading white scene, marked at once by his great bulk, his breadth of 
wing, and his strong flight, interrupted at intervals by curious diving move- 
ments, and by his repeated liollow barks or croaks. Rooks were attracted to 
the carcase of a dead horse ; and for several days had resorted regularly to 
feed among the sea -weed on the kelp -covered rocks, bared at low tide. 
Starlings cluste-i ing on the old grass leas, have sounded with their bills, for 
worm or lurking insect, all the projecting tufts of grass ; and have diligently 
with the same object, turned over all the sheep-droppings. Several still 



12G Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

return to the stack-yard. Three blue-tits and three greater tits come to the 
window for crumbs. The blue-tit was victor over the other birds then being 
supplied with food, and to-day one snatched a piece of bread out of a robin's 
bill, and flew off with it. A missel-thrush seen to-day. 

Feb. 1. Starlings now betake themselves to banks where the snow had 
been melted off by the sun ; much congratulation going on among them 
meanwhile in their own language. Two long- tailed field-mice {Mus 
nylvaticus) found dead in the snow in the garden. Carrion-crow, for part of 
the day, now searches, soHtarily, the bared rocks along the sea's most distant 
margin. No thrushes to be seen. Hawthorn trunks appearing above the 
snow have been barked by rabbits. Chaffinches fed on crumbs keep up a 
continual fight ; the females are the boldest. There is no separation of the 
sexes in this quarter, during the winter, into separate flocks. Feb. 5th and 
6th, a thaw, with the wind W. and N. W. A blackbii'd noticed at carrion. 
A sea-pi]Dit appeared on bared ground. Feb. 7. The ground bared by the 
melted snow now revealed some of the places where the havoc had been 
among the birds, that had been unable to extricate themselves from the in- 
clement conditions in which they had become environed, by not timeously 
shifting their position. The spot examined to-day was a burn side adjacent 
to a turnip-field, which finally terminates on the sea-side. Wings and re- 
mains of more than a score of fieldfares were come upon here, wherever there 
,had been the likelihood of a piece of soft ground to perforate with their bills ; 
■ and also among some whins on a sunny bank, where they had slept at night, 
after distributing themselves over the turnip-field by day. Besides these 
there were found dead here, one blue pigeon of the sea-stock, two or three 
redwings, one golden plover, two blackbirds, a partridge, and a woodcock. 
A water-hen had fallen a victim on the sea-coast. There were very few dead 
birds on the sea-banks. One of these was a thrush. To-day the larks were 
hovering in the air. Feb. 8th, snow disappearing ; three blackbirds appeared 
in the garden, the only ones left ? ; and a thrush was afterwards seen in a 
ditch on the coast. Redshanks and curlews were scarce, but wild ducks 
were numerous in the sea. Black-headed gulls in their winter dress were 
flying about ; also a great black-backed gull. Larks were again hovering 
about. In the evening a pair of corn-buntings appeared on the garden fence. 
No lapwings had been visible for a long period. Groing along the coast 
northwards, I found at the Bents shore, a razor-bill, Alca Torda, driven in ; 
probably in Dec. or Jan. I found another on Feb. 14 ; other two on Feb. 
25 ; other two and a dead gull on Feb. 27, at other parts of the coast. Dead 
redwings and fieldfares were less numerous here, than on our more exposed 
situation. Feb. 9. The runs of the long-tailed field-mice about the roots 
and clumps of the cocks -foot grass, which were much eaten, and cut through, 
became now manifest at wall-sides, when freed from the deep snow. Long 
tracts by hedge -sides, and by the footpaths in the woods were, after the thaw, 
seen to be hollowed out, and ploughed by these mice ; the poor animals when 
covered up by the snow, in order that they might not go far from their nest, 
being reduced to feed on the roots and shoots of the creeping kinds of grass. 
The woodmen call them " Shear-mice," perhaps from their cutting the grass 
into short lengths, to place in their retreats. A railway bank was noted to 



Effects of the Winter 0/ 1878-9, by James Hardy. 127 

be quite perforated with, apertures, whence these mice had their outlooks 
during the storm. In a cottage garden in the wood, the crocus flowers and 
leaves were eaten by a short-tailed field mouse ; and at Bowshiel I heard of 
nineteen that had been trapped, which had come out of an old wall to feed on 
crocus roots. I suspect the species was Arvicola glareola, Schreb. [A. riparia, 
Yarrell). It was described as having a dark back and a white belly, and a 
thick head. I know that this species eats cabbage plants in gardens. From 
Feb. 15th to 19th, more or less snow fell; and on the last of these days the 
snow once more extended to the beach. That small birds resort to the coast 
during a storm to feed is a circumstance that never happens here. In a 
storm of moderate severity, there is as much snow on the coast as inland, 
although perhaps it does not lie so long. In the coast stackyards there are 
not even so many birds in winter, as are congregated about inland steadings 
in the vicinity of woods. When birds disappear from inland localities, they 
probably migrate. To-day several missel-thrushes frequented the margins of 
pools, and appeared to be pairing ; the sea-pipit also came to the open pools. 
A small company of golden-eye ducks (?) appeared in Siccar bay. Grey- 
backed crow, rooks, jackdaws, and common gulls were frequenting carrion. 
Feb. 20th. Thrush still visible in its favourite ditch. Feb. 25th, on a field 
partially bare of snow, a flock of about thirty snowflakes appeared, most of 
them dark-coloured. About forty-two golden-eyes (?) at Siccar-bay. 
Ploughing was tried, and two lapwings came in the evening to the ploughed 
ground. "Wild ducks were still prevalent at sea. Feb. 26th, ploughing con- 
tinued, although the air is still frosty ; four or five lapwings are now on the 
ploughed portion ; a missel thrush seen. Feb. 28th, fresher ; curlews 
venturing inland ; golden-plover heard ; missel-thrushes singing ; great 
collection of wild ducks all round the shore ; no thrushes to be seen. 

Mar. 3rd. Large flock of lapwings appeared ; 170 wild ducks were counted 
ofiE the rocky coast here. A thrush among furze ; hedge-sparrow singing. 
Mar. 6. Several larks in small flocks in the fields, as if arriving from a 
diiierent district ; while the resident larks keep separate, and are in song. A 
thrush in song. Mar. 8th. Being at Dunbar, I noticed the remains of several 
dead fieldfares in the woods at Lochend ; also near a plantation that shelters 
the farm house at Skateraw ; and again near Linhead onstead. I heard that 
on one evening during the storm fieldfares repaired in a dense body to the 
shrubbery at Thornton-loch, which is adjacent to the sea-side, and were 
nearly all lying dead on the ground in the morning. Also, one night, a 
great crowd of starlings roosted in one of the shrubberies at Ayton, and were 
so numerous and heavy that they broke down the bushes on which they 
settled. The corn or common bunting was seen at East Barns. There were 
many lapwings in the fields, waiting for the clearance of the Lammermoor 
edges, on which they nestle. Larks and the greater titmouse were in song. 

March 11. Water-hens returned to the inland pools. March 17, after two 
days snow, a great collection of lapwings and golden plovers appeared on the 
leas near the coast, having been driven from the upland country ; but ducks 
were now scarce at sea. A thrush seen. Mar. 18th, first pied wagtail; 
missel thrush in song ; redshanks, hitherto few, are now assembled in a con- 
siderable flock. 



128 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

March 19th. Visited "Woodhall in Innerwick parish. Its late proprietor 
had allowed this farm, and the adjoining woods, to he overstocked with 
rahhits, and the effects of this winter's deprivation of food, had driven them 
to attack the trees, and hark the thorn hedges to a degree and extent that I 
never before witnessed. Those acquainted with the place said there had not 
been such a severe storm experienced there for the previous 18 years. Rood 
after rood of the thorn and beech fences was gnawed bare ; the broom and 
whins even were peeled several feet high, wherever they could be reached, 
and much of both was killed. Even bramble was eaten off by the snow- line, 
and the shoots peeled. Brier-bushes, wild gooseberries, black thorn, they 
also fed upon ; shewing little discrimination ; except that laburnum was 
untouched. Branches cut down in the woods in f eUing trees, were completely 
barked ; and even the stumps of cut trees were bared to the timber. After- 
wards I remarked that on the Halls farm many old oaks that had been cut, 
never had been allowed to spring, by the over-prevalence of these destructive 
rodents. Coppice oak in a scrubby state having been drifted full of snow was 
peeled, 3, 4, and even 5 feet high. Elms, ashes, oaks, ivy, birch, mountain- 
ash, hazel, holly, sycamore, and even firs were attacked, either by strips 
being peeled off, or having rings cut all round the stem. Where the snow 
had held down the points of the branches, the rabbits had climbed up to 
attack the upper parts of the trunks, which they could not otherwise have 
reached. A shepherd had come upon one rabbit that had got hanged in a 
sloe-bush, while thus feeding aloft. It lay across a dean, and the rabbit had 
ascended the stem by a buttress of snow, and had been stretching down with 
its head between a cleft, to reach some twigs anchored by the snow, when 
these becoming released by its efforts to browse on them, the animal was 
launched into space, with its head fixed between the forks, where it remained 
suspended at 9 feet high. I noticed several large oaks that had been climbed, 
by the aid of the snow, in order to be at the young twigs. Of trees killed 
by them, firs, hazels, and some young ashes were observed. A large ivy that 
had been killed overhung a rock, and the rabbits had probably obtained 
access to the stem over a snow bridge. Hollies were gnawed even at the 
people's doors to a certain height, the rabbits standing up on their hind legs 
to strip off the twigs. They even ventured on to the ice-covered ponds and 
peeled the wiUows, which were left a crop of white wands. They did not 
relish snowdrops, but ate the crocuses all over. Greens and green-beds in 
the gardens were cropt by them ; leeks were cut level with the snow ; and 
cabbage stalks peeled. Here many thrushes were singing in the evening, 
and lapwings and curlews had settled in the fields near their breeding places, 

March 22nd. In the Pease dean, hips are still adhering to the branches 
uneaten; and many haws were afterwards observed in a variety of places. 
It is noticeable that fieldfares leave haws till they are reduced to extremities ; 
and with regard to hips the redbreast obtains the greater share of them, and 
not the thrush kind. March 26. After bitterly cold weather, the baffled 
lapwings were driven to the ploughed fields and the coasts, and curlews re- 
gained the sea-shores. Wild ducks had left the rocky coast. Mar. 28. One 
grey linnet returned. The f urzy dean here was once notable for the number 
of these linnets that bred in shelter of the bushes ; but only three or four 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 129 

birds were visible during the summer ; and it is doubtful if any bred . They 
were plentiful in the preceding autumn. The scarcity was noticed elsewhere. 
Flying for refuge to the South of England, immense numbers became victims 
to the bird-catchers. Six thrushes on a warm part of the sea-coast, where 
the sun's rays had melted the frozen soil, had associated to dig for worms, 
&e., as their congeners had done in the depth of winter. These were 
probably all the neighbourhood could supply, as they are quite thinned out, 
the migrants not having returned. Several lapwings were noticed to-day 
going off to the hills in a body ; others spread down to the sea-side on the 
coast-fields. On the 29th, which was fresh and sunny, they had disappeared, 
as well as the curlews and thrushes. 

On April 1, wild ducks were again numerous at sea, but the golden- eyes (?) 
had left, except a single bird. No redshanks were seen, nor afterwards did 
they appear. April 2. No thrushes anywhere. Long-tailed field-mouse 
dead in the open field. Turned out the skeletons of two redwings that had 
crept into an aperture under a stone wall, and perished. Three pied wagtails 
present. April 4th, two grey wagtails arrived ; fourteen eider ducks seen in 
a flock at sea. April 5th, a wheatear arrived. April 7th, another grey 
wagtail ; four or five wheatears on the coast ; another party of six more to 
the north ; nine or ten wild geese passed. Sea very stormy. April 12, three 
thrushes seen ; a single wren visible. April 13th and 14th, snow fell ; on 
the 15th the coast fields were cleared of snow. A single gold-crested wren 
was seen among furze in Oldcambus dean. This was the only one visible for 
the season. The fir-tree tops were tenantless during the summer, so far as 
regarded this bird. One ring-ouzel appeared ; and several more wheat-ears. 
Ten eider ducks at sea, male and female equal in numbers. A very large 
flock of wild geese passed in the evening, the largest seen for many years. 
They haunted the fields at Penmanshiel and Howpark for three weeks, doing 
much damage to the grass. 

April 16, I went to examine some miles of wood, on the banks above the 
Pease burn. Birds were almost absent, and only one thrush was heard. It 
appeared like a deserted part of creation, waiting to be repeopled. One was 
reminded of an Irish record of the year 903, when there was such a mortality 
of beasts and birds, " ut non audita fuerit vox merulse aut turdi hoc anno." 
{Annales Inisfalenses). Some of the hedges were peeled with rabbits, and 
they had attacked the holly, ivy, sloe, wild brier, ash, mountain-ash, hazel, 
and elm, but not to any extent ; silver fir and larch branches cut down were 
peeled, as well as those of other trees. Only the remains of one dead bird 
noticed, a fieldfare, nor were there any by the foot-paths. They had avoided 
the woods, which were deeply covered on the ground with snow. A greater 
tit seen, but no other kind of titmouse. April 17th, a single blue ox-eye 
seen ; first humble bee appeared. 

April 18th, examined the sea-banks between Eedheugh and Dowlaw Moors. 
Dead fieldfares were scattered by the burn- sides, and among the beds of 
woodrush, and the willow-scrubs. They had resorted there at night, after 
passing the day on the turnip fields above, and had perished. A dead lark 
and grouse were observed. There were no wrens on the coast, this being a 



130 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

favourite residence of these birds. More pied wagtails arrived. Sea-pigeons 
scarce. Meadow-pipit and reed-buntings on the moors. 

April 21st. On the river Eye from Eeston to Coveyheugh, birds were 
scarce. A single dead blackbird and fieldfare were noticed. Birds had been 
dealt more leniently with here. Two wrens were seen, and several 
redbreasts ; the missel-thrush was building. The reed-bunting and the 
greater tit, single birds, were noted. Several bladkbirds visible ; a thrush 
heard in the evening. Dead wheat-ear on the moors. April 25th. On the 
sea-banks before rain, five bank martins and two of the common swallows 
seen. A flock of about thirty rock pipits, an unusual circumstance, this not 
being a migrant ; but it had probably been to some extent this season ; this 
convocation being the returning wanderers. April 27th. Swallow appeared 
in the valley of the Eye. AprU 28. Middle wiUow wren {Sylvia Trochilus) 
arrived near Eenton House, and on the 29th near the coast. 

May 1. Swallow seen, but not on the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th. Two whin-chats 
near Cockburnspath. May 2nd and 3rd, solan geese commenced passing up 
and down the Frith of Forth. May 3rd, a very large number of queen 
humble-bees {Bombus terrestris) have survived the winter, and frequent at 
present the willow catkins ; this was observed by Mr Currie also, at Linthill. 
One day I counted about 100 on one willow. Three golden-eyes (?) remain 
at Siccar-bay. 

May 5th. Good day. Visited Dunglass. Two martins on the coast ; 
wheat -ears, new arrivals ; pair of swallows in the valley of the Pease. Bank 
martins at Dunglass Mill. No thrushes at BUsdean, which is in a weU- 
sheltered seclusion, and even common sparrows were scarce there. There 
were some blackbirds at Dunglass among the shrubs, a single thrush and 
missel thrush, where one might have seen them in scores in ordinary years. 
The remains of two redwings and a fieldfare by the side of a walk. Pair of 
whin -chats on the fallow land. May 9th, very cold, no swallows. May 
10th, two bank martins, and two wheat-ears appeared. May 11th, willow 
wren began to be widely diffused in hedges and woods ; cuckoo seen. May 
12. Four swallows at Pease Mill ; whinchat seen ; general tale is the want of 
thrushes to enliven the year. No wrens or tits in the Pease wood ; two 
creepers seen. A blackcap warbler, and two of the wood wrens have arrived. 
First wasp visible, and first white butterfly [Rapm). Rock-pipits pairing. 
May 13th, mild and fresh. Willow wrens well diffused, the three kinds of 
swallows seen ; and four fresh wheat-ears. Grey and black slugs are par- 
ticularly numerous, as well as shell snails ; and the grubs of Tipula oleracea 
are as plentiful as if they had not felt the winter. May 15th, dotterels 
appeared on the moor edges. May 21st, martins and swallows began to in- 
crease in numbers ; white-throat arrived. 

May 22nd. This was a most remarkable day amongst the migrants ; a rush 
had taken place, and a variety of species had appeared in company. The 
common willow wrens predominated. Trees, whin-bushes, sloe-brakes, 
hedgerows, and even the grass were lively with birds in search of food, and 
leaping up and down after flies. The willow wrens had very little song, and 
were greyer than the early arrivals ; perhaps these late birds were mostly 
females. They were very hungry ; and at evening were occupied like the 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 131 

common wrens in prying into the hollows of stone walls for lurking spiders. 
At night they roosted in the whin- bushes. The next largest constituent of 
this swarm, was the grey flycatcher. There were three or four blackcap 
warblers also ; several sedge-warblers in full song ; some redstarts ; one or 
two whitethroats ; and a considerable contingent of wheat -ears. Martins 
had increased in numbers also at their sea-side residence. Two swifts were 
seen. May 23, most of yesterday's arrivals had left, there remaining a pair 
of flycatchers, a pair of wood wrens, not observed then, a few whitethroats, 
a sedge-warbler, as well as some of the wheat-ears. Swallows took up their 
residence. May 24th, grey slugs very numerous in the fields. May 26th, 
more flycatchers had arrived keeping in little bands of seven or eight. 
Another company of wheat- ears, of from eight to ten, in a very tame 
condition were • also present. They had come with a south wind, the air 
having become quite mild. 

On May 27th, the first swallow had got up to the Lammermoors at 
Boonsley above WoodhaU, East Lothian. A shepherd here remarked to me : 
"There's something no richt wi' the birds the year— there's the lav'rocks — 
they're no singin'— they get up into the air as they used to do, but they've 
nae sang, naething ye may say but theii- winter chirp." 

May 28th. Wheat-ears had mostly left. June 2. In a dean near 
Oldcambus, where the fieldfares had fallen so numerously, an ivy bush was 
quite loaded with full-grown berries ; and I noticed the same circumstance 
at Houndwood house ; not ©ne of them had been touched by the birds. Slugs 
and snails were extremely numerous on clover leas, and almost everywhere. 
In gardens they ate up lettuces, and the flowers iu greenhouses. The grubs 
of Tipula oleracea were very noxious to oats on several farms in the neigh- 
bourhood ; and many were turned up by the turnip hoers. The frost had 
had no effect on them. A cold, moist, damp season appears to increase their 
vitality. 

June 5, a late arrival of grey-wagtaUs, two females, and a male. 

Now in the spring of 1880, thrushes, blackbirds, missels, wrens, redbreasts, 
tits of aU kinds, gold-crests, grey linnets, and stone-chats have never re- 
covered their old numbers, and several of them are extremely scarce. 
Yellow-hammers and hedge-sparrows are as plentiful as ever ; and the same 
may be said of the house-sparrows ; but there were fewer greenfinches and 
chaflSnches during this last winter, and only a limited attendance accom- 
panied the sower, to pick up the uncovered grain. It will probably be some 
time before the blank becomes refilled by migrants, or restocked by those 
that have remained attached to the locality. "We have had no fieldfares or 
redwings during winter of 1879-80. A mere handful were noticed on Nov. 
13th, but they never returned. 

With regard to vegetation, so long as the snow covered the majority of 
plants, they were pretty safe ; but the cold was so lengthened and extreme, 
that several perennials that I had planted in the borders during autumn, 
which had to depend only on the strength of their own vitality, never grew. 
On Feb, 1, whins had not been touched by frost, and were full of forming 
blooms. On the snow departing from the garden on Feb. 6, Penstemons and 
Antirrhinums were withered to the roots, and they nearly all perished in 



132 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

subsequent black frosts. Garden and lemon thymes were both f^ost-bitten. 
Old plants of stocks and wall flowers were killed ; Nepeta grandiflora, was cut 
to the ground. Feb. 26, Fuchsia Eiccartoni commenced casting much of its 
bark. Here it attains in the open upwards of 6 feet in height, and is very 
hardy. The frost of Dec. 1879, however, has nearly killed one of the 
bushes. Many of the garden roses had to be cut over. On March 3, the 
winter aconite and snow-drops were in blossom, and some Christmas roses ; 
catkins appeared on the hazel. On March 8th, at Lochend, near Dunbar, no 
injury had happened to shrubs. In the cottage gardens, wall-flowers and 
the Bass mallows were reduced to bare poles. At Diuiglass the Portugal 
laurel was much blackened by frosts ; at Dryburn bridge in the open it was 
in full flower. The turnip fields in East Lothian had been deprived of their 
entire foliage at the snow-line. At Oockburnspath the young cabbages in 
beds came safely out from beneath the snow, but while still flabby and moist, 
the frosts that followed the snows, penetrated them, and the heads came ofE 
entirely in a piece ; the snow had only pressed them down. Greens and 
green-beds of the cottagers were annihilated. Of calceolarias in cold frames, 
there were few escapes. On March 25th and 26th the cold frosty winds 
were much felt ; furze became sore withered, and some of the branches were 
killed. Snowdrops and winter aconites were flattened to the ground, and 
the flowers of the first withered ; Alpine cress was nipped ; flowers appeared 
to shrink together ; ivy on walls was pinched ; the Sweet Williams grew 
withered ; crocus ready to blossom, kept its flowers closed ; but they opened 
to the sun on the 29th, when the coltsfoot bloomed. April 2, blue Hepatica 
bloomed ; and whins were in bloom. 

April 21. Near Lemanton and Houndwood the furze was extremely 
flattened by the pressure of snow, and the twigs were more than usually 
browned. Very little damage had been done to shrubs in the policy at 
Houndwood. Eseallonia macrantha was hurt, and a narrow-leaved species 
had its twigs pruned. Guelder rose had been much hurt in the twigs. 
Ehododendrons had escaped. Some budded roses had been destroyed, and 
other kinds had to be cut down. Cabbage plants and broccoli escaped. 
Garden thyme was much bitten. Near the public road where much exposed, 
hollies were singed, a cotoneaster was much shattered, and garden thyme 
was nearly destroyed. At Horsley, which stands high, several yews were 
nipped, Mahonla aquifolia was much blasted. Whins were sore tarnished, 
and curiously twisted and flattened by the snow. April 28th, at Eenton 
House, some recently planted Ehododendrons were hurt, and Arbor -vitses 
were killed ; some of the Coniferaj were browned. 

May 2, reported from Coldingham, that border pansies kept fresh all the 
winter, till the cold thaws came, when they seemed to wither up. Many 
young double wallflowers and Antirrhinums planted in autumn, had at the 
above date, become mere skeletons without bark (a fate that befell the entire 
lot of my own). In the beds only small cabbage plants survived. 

May 5. Furze was sore blasted on the sea banks at Bilsdean ; MaJionia 
aquifolia was much scorched in the nursery. At Dunglass, lauristinus was 
much withered, and also the Arhutus, near exposed walks. Near the Man- 
sion House, on the south side, a larger and smaller leaved variety of 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 133 

myrtle, wWch had grown to a considerable height, had the foliage shrivelled 
Tip. In the winter of 1879-80, these have been still more damaged. Escal- 
lonia onacrantha was sore cut down. Eoses had been cut to the ground. A 
Garrya elliptica had its bark peeled off ; the Mahonias were much injured. 
Pampas grass, well sheltered, had the tops of the leaves converted into a 
withered wisp. Araucaria was in good condition, but was greatly browned, 
1879-80. 

May 27, at Crowbill, Innerwick, the winter has cut down common laurels, 
Mahonia, lauristinus, and a trained yew. Thyme, as a border plant, stood 
the winter unafEected at Innerwick Eailway Station. 

June 6th, at Chirnside and vicinage, Oarrya elliptica, at the station, was 
stripped of its leaves and bark, but, being pruned, it was again springrug 
at the base and on the branches. Whins were very much killed near Black- 
adder Mains. Mr Boyd remarked that with him, at Ormiston, some of the 
tender foreign kinds of ivy had been much cut down, and great quantities of 
shrubs. Dr Stuart's conclusion was that where things were dry the least 
damage occurred, but damp and re-freezing did the mischief. At the Paper 
Mill, Prmius lauro-cerasus was much hurt, lauristinus blasted. Ivy was much 
injured at Allanbank. At the Pistol Plantings and Allanbank the hawthorn 
hedges were considerably peeled by rabbits. 

June 19th, in the manse garden, at Oldhamstocks, a very flourishing 
Australian blue gum tree (Eucalyptus) had perished. Much damage had 
been occasioned in the shrubbery, particularly to trees and shrubs planted in 
the preceding autumn ; many young Scotch pines were killed ; common 
laurel was much withered ; a double cherry was half killed ; Fuchsia Riccar- 
toni was killed to the ground, as had also happened to it elsewhere in the 
village ; several Thuja orientalis and yew were killed ; butcher's broom was 
much hurt ; Portugal laurel was killed to the ground ; hoUies had stood 
well uninjured. 



Chirnside and its Vicinity. By Dr Chaeles Stuakt. 

Writing 6th March, 1879, Dr Stuart says : — 

The winter has been unprecedentedly severe and protracted. Your idea of 
comparing the vitality of plants in the garden, which have withstood the 
severity of the season, is good. The green vegetables have suffered severely, 
when not covered with snow. The cabbages of any size became like soap, 
and the broccolis not much better. Brussels sprouts and Savoys have held 
out bravely, and furnished the only dishes of greens for the table obtainable. 
The winter spinach, being well covered, is quite safe ; and comes in hand by 
and bye. On my rock garden, last year at this time, I had the Himalayan 
primrose {Primula denticulata) , in beautiful flower, with eleven spikes of 
bloom open at once. I see the plants are throwing up their flower stems 
vigorously, and are quite safe, but cannot flower till the end of the month, or 
April. A large-leaved blue Hepatica, perhaps angulosa ? is the only flower 
on the rock-work out ; it is a very pretty blue, quite diff'erent from the 



184 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

ordinary forms of that plant. Cyclamen Htsderifolia, a true British, plant, is 
also quite fresh. Sisyrinchium anceps and Bermudianmn, two early liliaceous 
plants, are shooting up their grass-like foliage. A fine patch of Saxifraga 
hirculus, which I was very anxious about, is beginning to show signs of life ; 
and Frimula Scotica has stood out bravely. This is quite a gem, to my mind 
the most interesting of British plants next to Linncea borealis. The Azalea 
procumUns from Cairngorm and Braeriach is untouched by frost, and all the 
Scotch Alpines seem safe. 

In the flower garden, roses, especially standards, have suffered severely. I 
have a smaU collection of tea-roses in a spare roof -frame without heat, which 
have withstood the cold well, the frame being during the worst of the 
weather buried in snow. There are actually flower-buds on some of them, 
and others are sending out new growth. Penstemons are killed. 

As regards birds : I noticed the rooks at Ninewells, on the 28th February, 
building their nests, carrying sticks, and making a great noise, preparing for 
the coming breeding season. I have seen considerable companies (one con- 
taining 22) of the long-tailed titmouse, a bird, that though plentiful here at 
one time, I have failed to observe for some years. I saw one family at the 
Pistol Plantings, Blackadder ; another in the parish at Harelaw. They are 
a very singular bird. Although very shy, I got within ten yards of some of 
them. The keeper at Edington has observed the goosander on the Whit- 
adder this winter ; and I have noticed flocks of golden plovers since the fresh 
began. Grey plovers, with the common pewit, were seen by the Edington 
keeper. The blackbirds and thrushes have got a great thinning ; I fed them 
regularly every morning after breakfast when the snow was on the ground. 
I have not observed them since the fresh, but on Sunday night, when visit- 
ing at Chimside Station — I heard the mavis in full song distinctly. The 
red-wings and field-fares left this district when the snow begun, and have 
not been seen since. 

16th March. Owing to the protracted snow storm, wUd animals were 
driven to great straits for food, especially hares and rabbits. At one period 
of the storm, the tui-nips were deeply covered with snow and not to be got 
at. At this time these animals attacked the bark of the thorns, and 
especially the crab -apples in the hedges, laying them bare ever so high up 
the stems, which it will take years to recover from the damage done. I have 
often before in severe seasons observed the barking of the hedges, but never 
to the same extent as has been done during the late storm, whole Hnes of 
hedges being greatly damaged. I was also struck with the preference 
shown to crab-apple bark ; next the thorn ; and strange to relate, the labur- 
num was extensively barked, as well as the common holly, both very bitter, 
if not poisonous. The seeds of the laburnum are undoubtedly poisonous — 
but I cannot be sure of the bark. The Scotch firs were also extensively 
barked— where branches had been blown off, or young tender trees accessible. 
The rabbits became sTcin and hone, and were an easy prey to dogs and other 
enemies. The wood-pigeons came into the gardens in the middle of the 
village here, and in front of the windows ate the broccolis, Brussels sprouts, 
and other greens they could get near. In some gardens where the hares 
could get in, especially at Fishwick Mains, they barked the wall trees so as 
completely to ruia them for ever. 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 135 

7th April. When driving to-day between the Pistol Plantings and Cross- 
rig, in the Parish of Hutton, I saw a cuckoo, which had evidently just 
arrived. It took short flights, alighting again and again on the hedge bank 
alongside the road. I was within two yards of it on several occasions ; and 
it seemed tired, and unwUling to rise. It could hardly have come in a more 
dreary day ; for a more soaking persistent day of rain we have not seen for 
some time. 

May 3rd. The swallows, sand and house martins appeared at Allanton 
Bridge in flocks, on the 25th April, nine days later than last year. None 
have been seen since that day. The Sylvia trochilus, I observed at Hutton 
Bridge on the 28th in fvdl song. Mr Evans from Scremerston visited me on 
the 21st April. He came to inspect the heronry at Pistol Planting. He 
found 50 nests in a colony, full of young birds ; the old ones carrying large - 
sized fish to them for food— the young emitting a peculiar grunting cry of 
satisfaction. He watched their operations for three hours. The cold 
weather does not seem to have affected the nesting of the hardy birds. He 
got the young of the tawny owl, and young dippers in Cheviot, a few days 
before he was here. He was close to the peregrine nest in the Henshole. 
End of May. The sand-martins appeared on the 16th AprU at Whitadder 
Bridge, Allanton. The cuckoo was heard on 1st May at Swinton House 
woods. The swifts were first seen on 5th May ; the redstart on 2nd May ; 
and the corn-crake on the 20th May. 

May 3, the frost has fatally damaged Araucarias and Wellingtonias in 
many places. Garrya elliptica and Berberis Barwinii are in instances killed, 
never having been previously tried by a severe season. Laurels, Portugal 
laurels, and the common whins are killed to their roots in many places. 

At Broadmeadows, Hutton, where there is the finest collection of roses in 
the county, aU the plants budded on the dog-rose— short and tall standards — are 
MUed. Those budded low on the Manettii stock are safe. I was there yes- 
terday, and Mr Macbraire showed me the damage. He has lost 300 plants of 
rare quality. At one time he thought there would be 600 kUled. 

At NineweUs the frost was very severe, and the same may be stated of the 
roses there, as at Broadmeadows ; also the evergreens. I lost few roses, 
mine being dwarfs on the Manettii. You are right about the scarcity of 
smaU birds that are insect and grub feeders. 

July 2, when at Fishwiek Mains, on Monday, my second son and I ob- 
served the blasted condition of several oak trees, not a single green leaf, nor 
appearance of any. We came to the conclusion that the frost of last winter 
could alone have been the cause. The laurels and evergreens generally at 
Ninewells are completely killed to the ground. The Mahonias seem to have 
escaped, but Berberis Barwinii is completely killed where it grew as a shrub. 
(Jn the wall it is aU right. It is a pretty shrub. Garrya elliptica, which has 
stood the winter for twenty years, is quite killed, but sprouting from the 
root. Fuchsia Riccartoni, which has stood the winter for twenty years, is 
killed to the ground, but is coming from the root. I also notice the common 
privet very much blighted, the leaves coming in a blighted form. 



136 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

Ayton Castle Gardens, 2nd July, 1879. 

Mr BowHiLL supplied the following report, furnished by the 
Gardener at Ayton Castle : — 

Whins killed to the ground. Portugal and Common Bay Laurel, a good 
many injured ; but none killed outright. Broccoli, only 60 plants saved 
out of 500 ; greens nearly all kiUed. Feas sown on 29th November, 1878, 
quite uninjured and blooming beautiful. Birds and Slugs seen as plentiful 
as ever ; I think I never saw more slugs than I have this season. Caterpillars 
more abundant than ever on gooseberries. Frost severest on the morning of 
14th December, 1878 — 29°. Average temperature all winter never ex- 
ceeded 35«. 



Kimmerghame and Dunse. 

Mr Campbell Swinton writes, April 3, 1879 : — 
My gardener assures me — and my own observations confirm his report — 
that our plants and shrubs have suffered much less from the very severe 
winter than was to be expected. Our chief enemies have been rabbits, who 
have attacked many plants, which I never knew them injure before. The 
laurels are much browned on the younger shoots, but a little pruning will 
restore them to excellent condition. The only trees which I can mention as 
having been killed — or nearly so, are an Arauearia, which has all its ends 
bitten hopelessly ; and a variegated WelUngtonia, which looks very bad; 
but was unfortunately planted in a position unusually exposed to frost. 

Mr John Eergctson writes from Dunse, May 2, 1879 : — 
In the few walks I now take, I seldom see a thrush, and several observers 
have remarked to me that they seem almost extinct. 

The newspapers recorded a great slaughter of blackbirds, &c., during the 
storm, by some of the people in the vicinity of Dunse, for the purpose of sell- 
ing the dead birds, I suppose, in London. A cockney appears to eat every- 
thing that has feathers on it ; but there is no need for Scotch people supply- 
ing this craving to the disregard of the dictates of mercy. 



Report on the damage done to Trees, Shrubs and Plants at Paxton 
House, in the Parish of Kutton, Berwickshire, hy the severe frost 
in the months of December, 1878, and January, 1879. By George 

MUIRHEAD. 

The winter of 1878-79 will be long remembered in the neighbourhood of 
Paxton, as one of the most severe and protracted which has been experienced 
during the present century, for the oldest people in the village say that they 
do not recollect of a winter of such extraordinary severity, or of the snow 
lying so long upon the ground without a thaw. For nearly nine successive 
weeks in December, January, and February, snow lay deep all over the 



I 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 137 

ground, and the ponds and brooks were frozen. During that time, also, the 
Tweed was three times frozen over from bank to bank opposite Paxton 
House, so that men could walk across the river on the ice. The hardest 
frost occurred on the night of the 13th and early morning of the 14th De- 
cember, when the thermometer at the height of four feet from the ground, 
and fully exposed to the open air, marked no less than 40 degrees of frost, 
or 8 degrees below zero. 

At 10 o'clock at night on the 13th December, the thermometer fell to 5° 
below zero, and at 9 o'clock on the following morning the indicator of the 
thermometer showed that the temperature had fallen other three degrees 
during the night, for it stood at 8** below zero. 

At the Meteorological Society's Station, in the garden at Paxton House, 
the thermometer did not fall lower than 2" below zero on the night men- 
tioned. It is not placed in the open air, but in a covered wooden box with 
louvre boards at the sides. 

During the month of December last, 203 degrees of frost were registered 
at Paxton garden ; in January, 155; in February, 63 deg. ; in March, 25; 
in April, 14 ; and in the first week of May, 7°. 

The damage done to the trees and shrubs by the severity of the frost has 
been very great. 

Fine specimens of the Conifers, such as Cedrus deodara and Cedrus Libani, 
5 and 6 feet high, have been killed, as well as Taxodium sempervirens, 
CryptoiMria elegans, and Japonica, in some cases. Ciipressus elegans, Pinus 
nohilis, Pinus cembra and Pinus pinea, Andromeda procera, and Salisburia 
adiantifolia have also been destroyed ; and Wellingtonia gigantea, and Thuja 
gigantea have been injured. 

Evergreen shrubs have suffered severely. Great Bays and Portugal 
Laurels, 10 and 12 feet high, and 20 feet thick, have been killed to the 
ground; as well as common ivy on walls and trees, Lauristinus, Aucuba 
Japonica, Cytisus, Cotoneaster, Garry a elliptica, white Jasmine on walls, com- 
mon Privet, double flowering and common whins. Daphne Laureola in many 
instances, and some Cotoneaster microphylla on walls. 

Common rhododendrons in some cases have been injured on the points of 
the shoots, and a good many hybrid kinds killed to the ground. 

Even the common hollies and yews have not escaped — the points of the 
shoots being browned. 

The gardener at Paxton House has remarked that the bays and yews under 
the shade of large trees, especially beeches, seem to have suffered more 
severely than when fuUy exposed. 

The whole of the standard H.P. roses have been killed, but the dwarf 
H.P.'s have not suffered much. Tea roses on walls have been all killed to 
the ground, although in many instances well protected with spruce fir 
branches. 

Peach trees on walls have been injured, in some cases, as much as 2 feet, 
from points of shoots being destroyed. 

The flower buds of apricots have been much hurt. 

Vegetables have sustained great damage— Broccoli especially, for none of 
it ha8 been left alive. Savoys, parsley, lettuce, and Brussels sprouts have 

R 



138 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

been injured. Fruit trees, flowers, and vegetables are about a month or six 
weeks behind their usual this year. 

In a subsequent note, of 8th July, 1879, Mr Muirhead remarks : — " I 
notice the oaks here are affected the same way as at Ormiston House (Mr 
William Boyd's) ; a great number of their smaller branches being killed, and 
the ground below them being littered with dead twigs." 



Ladyhirh Souse. By Mr Alexander Scott. 

The late winter has been the most severe we have had since I860, the frost 
then being 36, and last December 35 degrees. During the winter there were 
often from 20 to 30 degrees. Owing to the severe frost and the long con- 
tinued snow, vegetables and many kinds of shrubs have been badly hurt. 
Cedrus deodara, Araucaria imbrieata, Wellingtonia gigmitea, common and 
Portugal laurels, lauristinus, ivy, clematis, Euonymus variegata, hoUies of 
variegated sorts have all been less or more hurt ; and about 50 per cent, of 
tea, hybrid perpetual, China, noisette roses have been entirely destroyed. 
Spring and winter vegetables are nearly all destroyed. Broccoli, Brussels 
sprouts, cabbages, savoys, and greens have been most hurt. Some of the 
late sorts of apples are very much hurt, both the blossom-buds and spurs, 
are destroyed Since the end of November there have not been two weeks 
free of frost ; and lately it has been severe for the season of the year, causing 
seeds to germinate badly, and it will cause a bad succession of garden crops. 
Blackbirds, thrushes, linnets, squirrels, and the brown-backed garden mouse 
have been reduced in numbers very much. Not a third remains of their 
usual number. Slugs also are not nearly so plentiful as they are in most 



Ladyhirh, llth May, 1879. 



Notes as to the Effects of the late Winter, 1878-9, at The Hirsel, 
Coldstream, the seat of the Earl of Some. By Mr John Cairns, 
Hirsel. 

The grounds and gardens at The Hirsel are comparatively low-lying, and 
are bounded on the south-west by a lake of considerable extent. The Leet 
runs through the grounds from N.W. to S.E. I am not quite sure as to the 
height above sea level, but should suppose about 50 to 60 feet. 

As being of first moment to the subject at issue, I give the lowest tempera- 
ture, and number of days in each month in which the thermometer was 
below the freezing points : — 

LOWEST DAYS BELOW 



MONTH. 


DATE. 


TEMPERATURE. FE 


EEZTNG 


November . 


29th 


9° of frost 


22 


December . 


14th 


2° below zero 


30 


January 


24th 


29° of frost 


30 


February 22, 


24, 25, and 26 


11° „ 


20 


March 


20th 


17° „ 


20 


April 


19th 


9° „ 


14 


May 


Ist 


9*^ „ 


6 



t:fects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 189 

We have not many Coniferse here, but such as we had have stood the 
winter very well ; roses have suffered very much, Standards of the hybrid 
perpetual family, from their being more exposed suffered most, so much so 
that we may say none were left. No doubt a few struggled through, but 
their vitality was of short duration. The dwarfs of the same type suffered 
less, from their being easily protected ; but even of these about half died. 
Tea roses were cut down to the ground, but where on their own roots are 
now coming away quite strong. We had a large plant of Marechal Niel 
entirely killed, though it had the protection of a wall, while the well-known 
Gloire de Dijon, in good situations, came through unskathed. 

China roses, even on walls with southerly aspects, were cut down. On the 
same wall the sweet bay, Laurus nohilis, Berberis Darwinii, and Buddlea 
globosa, shared the same fate. Lavender was killed outright, as also Globe 
Artichokes ; the Gynerium argenteuni (Pampas grass) has suffered much, 
though well protected ; the plants may come round yet. Another grass, 
the Arundo conspicua, seems hardier, having fared better than the above. 
Tritomas of sorts are almost killed out, though they stand our ordinary 
winter without hurt. 

Of shrubby plants the common Bay Laurel suffered most, the young im- 
matured shoots in many cases being quite killed, though the general vitality 
of the plant will not be permanently iujured. The Portugal Laurel has 
suffered, if anything, very little ; and as interesting and suggestive, shewing 
how situation more than distance above the sea has much to do with plant 
life, at Lees, the seat of Sir John Marjoribanks, the Portugal Laurel is 
very much hurt. The same applies with stronger force to the Bay Laurel — 
one can almost account for this owing to the lowness of the situation, being 
only a few feet above the level of the Tweed. The Lees from here is not 
over a mile as the crow flies ; but as at variance with the above theory, at 
Newton Don (Mr Balfour's), 8 or 9 miles from this, and almost due west, 
and much higher above the level of the sea than here, the Laurels are much 
hurt by frost ; so much so that many have had to be cut down. Such facts 
are noteworthy, and deserve the attention of those whose business it is to 
solve such seeming contradictions. 

Some of the rhododendrons have been injured by the frost ; they are of the 
more tender kinds, evidently hybrids, having either parent from a warmer 
clime. Clematis on the open has in some cases been killed. Aucubas have 
had their foliage hurt ; but the plants not permanently injured. 

Jwne 12, 1879. 



Rosy-lanh, Coldstream. By William Cunningham, Esq. 
I have, in my place, sustained a certain amount of damage. The 
Jasminum (white and yeUow) which covered a considerable part of the front 
and east end of the house has suffered materially, and also a large Wistaria 
and other shrubs in front of the house ; while a climbing Clematis, a Gloire 
de Dijon, and a Wellingtonia in and about the same situation, have retamed 
their vitality. In the garden Spircea hella, Laurel, Rhododendrons, Ayr- 
shire climbing Koses, large White Broom, Privets, large Lavender Bushes, 



140 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

Carnations, &c. , have all been greatly injured. Other shrubs in the garden, 
however, such as Weigelia, Yews, &c., have weathered the storm, and pre- 
sent a healthy appearance. 

The feathered tribe also suffered severely. I, from time to time, came 
upon a blackbird that had succumbed to the storm. I have still, however, 
several survivors, but there is scarcely a thrush left. There is one, however, 
at present hatching in an ivy bush, whose progeny, I hope, may be spared to 
enliven us. 



Marchmont. By Mr Peter Loney. 

Writing May 7tli, 1879, Mr Loney says : — 

We have no swallows, thrushes, wrens, tits, or grey linnets yet. In fact 
I never saw fewer birds at this day of the month and year. Then as to 
vegetation it is very far back, the larch is looking a little green, thorns are 
budding, horse-chestnuts and oak and ash are barren as winter. Elm in' 
several instances in bloom, but generally speaking our woodlands have a very 
wintry aspect. Grass has made but little growth, and where stocked is very 
bare — it is a serious job on stock ; ewes and lambs are suffering severely 
from inflammation, I believe caused as much by frost on the grass, as with 
the scarcity of bite. In some instances hoggs are going down from the same 
cause. The effects of the late winter with me have not been so disastrous as 
with many. Oiir shrubs have stood well ; I have lost a few roses, but not 
more than usual. 



Note of the Lowest Temperatures and the effects on Vegetation, at 
Thirlestane Castle Garden, during the winter 1878-79. By Mr 
James Whitton. 

Thirlestane Castle Garden is 558 feet above sea level, and is situated va. 
the middle of an oblong valley, with hills enclosing it on the North -East, 
West, and South- West, which rise to the height of about 1,000 feet. 

The lowest temperatures registered during the past winter are as follows : — 

THERMOMETERS 
IN AIR AND BLACK BULB 







PROTECTED. 


ON GRASS 


878.— Dec. 


14 


1" 


0-3° 


,, 


15 


2 





,j 


20 


2 


0-1 


879.-Jan. 


20 


7 


1 


jj 


21 


8 


5 


5> 


23 


8 


I 




24 


5 





J, 


27 


5 


1 


Feb. 


20 


8 


4 


Mar. 


14 


7 


0-4 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 141 

The following plants were all killed unless where well covered with snow : 
Hybrid Perpetual and other fine 'Ro&QS—Menziesia poUfolia, Ferncttya 
mucronata, Arundo conspicua, Tritomas and Globe Artichokes; also all the 
Brassica family. 

Those growing on walls which shared the same fate were Uscallonia 
macrantha, Tea Roses (except Gloire de Dijon), the white and light flowered 
Clematises ; while the dark varieties were not in the least injured, and 
Jasminwn nudiflorum growing by their side was but slightly checked in its 
flowering by the severe frost of 14th of March. None of the wood of our 
fruit trees was in the least injured ; even Peach trees in pots plunged in the 
open border did not suffer in the least. 

In the pleasure grounds some of the Common and Portugal Laurels have 
suffered very much, especially those growing in the shade of trees, a good 
few of which are killed. Some of our common Yews are also pretty sorely 
injured ; while Wellingtonia, Gedrus Beodara, and some of the Barberries 
are slightly hurt. 

The following have received no injury whatever :— Rhododendrons, Box, 
all the Thujas, Thuiopsis horealis, and dolabrata, var., Cupressus Lawsoniana, 
and Ficea amabilis, nobilis, grandis, magnificat Nordmanniana, lasiocarpa, 
orientale, Douglasi, Sec. 

I do not know of anything more to add, unless to state that judging from 
present appearances our fruit crop on walls appears to be all but a complete 
failure, though I don't know what share the past winter may have in it, as 
the blossom was plentiful and good to appearance. 

2lst June, 1879. 



Harry-hum, Lauder. By Egbert Eomanes, Esq. 

My own garden and grounds He in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Thirlestane Castle gardens. I fancy they are close upon 575 feet above sea 
level. A stream called " Harryburn" flows between the garden and the 
house; and we are about 700 yards west from the "Leader" water. The 
garden is well sheltered, and has a southern exposure ; but we suffer much 
more severely from frost than places which are much higher, and have a 
colder appearance, and this I suppose is owing to our stream. The conse- 
quence, however, is that we do not attempt to grow delicate plants ; and 
have, therefore, comparatively little harm to lament in a severe winter. 

My gardener says that the last winter has been more injurious than any 
since 1860 ; that the whole of our evergreens have suffered to some extent ; 
namely Yews, common and Irish Bays, Laurels, and Ivies ; almost every 
leaf has fallen from the large plain leafed Ivy— while the smaller leafed 
Ivies, and those more serrated have suffered less. Some of the flner Roses, 
such as tea scented, have been kUled ; and the wood of 1878, of the 
commoner kinds, has gone— and none of the buds put in last year have 
started. The blooms of the finer varieties of Rhododendrons have been 
destroyed. The Arbor- Vitses are the plants that have withstood the 
severity of the winter best. 



142 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

EAST LOTHIAN. 

Tyninghame House Gardens. By Mr E. P. Beotheeston. 

I think the extent of damage caused by frost during the late winter is now 
fully patent. Of vegetables, Globe Artichokes were badly damaged, old 
Cabbages entirely destroyed, most of the Broccoli the same. Endive killed, 
Brussels Sprouts rendered worthless, Parsley just now is beginning to come 
away again ; Spinach and Beet are much damaged, also Leeks, Onions, 
Scotch Kale, Spinach, and young Cabbages, Cauliflowers, and Lettuces ; 
Lamb's Lettuce and Turnips -v^ere not damaged to any appreciable extent. 
Celery was somewhat the worse for the snow which, caused a deal of rotten- 
ness after the thaw set in. Many Roses were damaged to the surface of the 
soil. The dark foliaged variety of Ajuga reptans, and the variegated 
Dactylis glomerata were very badly cut up ; Dahlias and Salvia patens left in 
the ground were entirely killed. Agapanthus umbellatus and Tritomas were 
completely cut down, but will spriug again; Fuchsia Riccartoni was cut 
down, and Lonicera flexuosa was killed. In the hundreds of other flowers 
grown there is no damage apparent, but there is a singular lateness in bloom- 
ing and starting into growth. Shrubs which have suffered are Benthamia 
fragifera and JEscallonia macrantha only ; on a wall where Tea Eoses were 
badly handled the only shrub damaged was a Ceanothus. Escallonia sanguinea, 
Desfontainea spinosa, Azara microphylla, Clematises, &c. , were not damaged at 
all. Garry a elliptica is in full flower at present. 

Whin is killed to the ground in some positions. The rabbits have caused 
a vast amount of permanent loss through, barking trees, shrubs, and hedges, 
killing and disfiguring to a large extent. 

All kinds of birds are very scarce. In former years the daUy concerts 
they got up were quite deafening, but this year it is almost possible to dis- 
cern the individual songsters. 

It may be of interest perhaps to let you know the state of the fruit crops, 
in prospective, of course. The Plum show is very sparse, so are Apricots, 
though quite a sufficient number for a good crop are setting. Some Pear trees 
are well budded, others but very sparely so. Apples in general look ex- 
tremely well. Cherries and all small fruits are showing exceedingly well. 
There has been a fine show of spring flowers, but most extraordinarily late, 
and as a matter of course their display has not been so long continued. 

May 3rd, 1879. 



NOETHUMBEELAND. 

Berwich. By Mr Geoege Bolam. 
The following extracts are derived from various communica- 
tions of Mr Bolam. They suifi.ce to furnish a general idea of the 
state of matters in the neighbourhood of Berwick. Other par- 
ticulars with regard to bird life on that coast, may be found in 
the "Proceedings" of the Club for 1878-9. On March 27th, 
1879, Mr Bolam remarks: — 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 143 

" In Berwick, though some people have lost a few roses, &c., T do not 
think the frost has done so much harm to vegetation as in the country, the 
sea air having probably a good effect." Feb. 27th. "Yesterday and to-day 
the blackbirds and thrushes have been singing in the garden, so also have 
the larks m the fields ; it is quite spring-like. There are still a few thrushes, 
redwings, and fieldfares left, but their numbers have been sadly diminished 
by the storm." March 8th. " Yesterday there were 15 eider ducks off shore 
here, as well as several flocks of mallards and scaup ducks ; also a few solan 
geese." April 28th. " I got a ring dotterel's nest last week. The redshanks 
were in considerable force along at Goswick, but I did not succeed in finding 
a nest. Blackbirds and thrushes, and in fact all our small birds are very 
much diminished in numbers this year, and in the fir plantations, where last 
year every good place held a nest, they are this year comparatively scarce, 
and the thrush's song is very seldom heard. The swallow was seen here on 
the 25th inst., very late." 



Tweed Villa, Norham. By Miss Dickinson. 
8 large Lauristinus all killed to the ground ; 17 Laurels (15 killed to the 
ground, 2 not quite so bad) ; 5 Aucuba Japonicas all much injured ; 1 Gum 
Cistus killed ; 7 large Hollies (2 killed quite to the roots, 3 much injured) ; 
8 small Hollies unhurt ; 7 large Portugal Laurels all much blighted ; about 
one half the Eoses killed to the ground, or very much hurt; 1 Ayrshire Rose 
dead, the Eoses sheltered from the north-west least hurt ; 4 large Lavender 
Bushes (2 killed, the others broken a little by the weight of the snow). 
1 Plum (standard) killed. 1 young Pear killed. A pink Fuchsia nearly 
killed ; all the red ones as usual, only later. The Deutzia and Weigelia, all 
unusually good. The other shrubs much as usual. 

Rose Bank Villa. 
Much the same as the others, except 1 large Deodar kUled, and 2 injured. 



Pallinsburn. By Ed-ward Willoby, Jun., Esq. 

In answer to your enquiries regarding the destruction caused by last 
winter's frost, to Shrubs, &c., at Pallinsburn, I find that Bays, Hollies, and 
Portugal Laurels have suffered extremely, especially those upon cold wet soil. 

Trees of the Cedar class have stood the winter remarkably well. 

Great destruction has also been caused to small birds— in fact thrushes and 
blackbirds are rarely to be met with. 



Ford Castle. By Mr Henry Trotter. 
I am sorry that I only kept a register of the frost for ten days, during the 
severest of the winter. I never found anything like the morning of the 14th 
December in my life ; at Millfield the thermometer was 7° below zero ; at 
Paston it was 6" below zero. The winter has cut down mostly all the com- 
mon Laurels, while the Portugal Laurel has suffered very little. "We have 
lost a great many Standard Eoses ; the dwarfs have not suffered much, 



144 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 



I have enclosed an account of the frost that I kept 
1878.— Dec, 



13.— 29 de 


grees of fr 


ost at 4.30 p.M 


14.-41 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 


15.— 6 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 


16.- 7 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 


17.-211 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 


18.— 5 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 


19.— 4 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 


20.-26 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 


21.-23 


ditto. 


at 7.30 A.M 


22.— 8 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 


23.-12 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 


24.-15 


ditto. 


at 7 A.M. 



CMllingham Castle Gardens. By Mr Egbert Bowie. 

I regret that I am unable to give you an authentic account of the weather 
here during the winter, not being in the habit of keeping a regular register. 
1 may, however, say that we have had nothing to equal it in severity since 
1855 ; at that time we had 5° more frost on one occasion than at any time 
diiring the winter just past. The lowest degree at which I saw the ther- 
mometer this season, was at mid-day on December 14th ; then it was 8° 
below zero, on an open part of the garden and on the north side of a post, 3 
feet from the ground. The long continuance of a low temperature was, in 
my opinion, the cause of the injury done to trees, &c., being greater than 
usual. No doubt the snow we had at the time of the severest frost was a 
considerable protection to what was completely covered. I however find 
that things of a large size are killed quite to the ground, where their tops 
were above the snow, more particularly in low lying situations ; the same 
kinds of trees and shrubs in the park, where exposed to the wind from all 
quarters, have not sustained any injury whatever. 

May 2Zrd, 1879. 

Writing July 3rd, Mr Bowie says : — 

I notice that shrubs and trees of an evergreen habit have generally sus- 
tained most injury ; more particularly in low and damp situations, and that 
the same varieties out in the open and higher parts of the park are not 
materially hurt, at least nothing like so much as they appeared to be three 
weeks or a month ago ; many oaks of large size were, only a fortnight ago, 
more like dying than not ; now, however, I am pleased to say it is an excep- 
tion to see any that are not in (almost) fuU leaf ; and although I have for 
more than 50 years been pretty well informed in much, very closely con- 
nected with ChUlingham Park, I have no recollection of having seen it look 
so well as it does at the present time ; no doubt there are some sad blanks, 
more especially in and about the Castle, but in time, I hope that from what 
has been done by way of replacing what had been rendered an eye -sore from 
the effect of frost, there may not be great reason for regret. 

I was over at Fowberry Tower a, few days ago ; it is only some three or 



Effects of the Winter 0/ 1878-9, by James Hardy. 145 

four miles north, from here ; the death-rate there amongst trees has been 
much greater than with us. Several oaks I noticed, which must have been 
planted early in the last century, all but killed. 

List of a few trees and shrubs that have been killed or injured here by 
frost during the past winter : — Killed to the ground— Hollies of different 
sorts ; Laurels, common and Portugal ; Ehododendrons (hybrids) ; Roses ; 
much injured, but are, I think, recovering— Yews, common ; Ivy, various 
sorts ; Conifers of various kinds are much hurt, some all but dead. 

Mr Gregson of Lowlynn, of date June 18tli, 1879, when trans- 
mitting the two last notices, which, he favoured me in obtaining, 
remarks : — 

"The 14th of December seems generally to have been the most severe 
night. Here we had ^3 degrees of frost, and that was our lowest ; 24 at 
Haggerston; 8 "below zero" at Chillingham and Milfield; and 6 at 
Paston. I was at Ford the other day, and walked through the pleasure 
grounds, and there I saw all the shrubs below the Castle, cut to the ground. 
I noticed a Pinus excelsa almost killed ! I have never known that Pine cut or 
injured before. The Ivy too on the Castle waUs is very much injured, and 
much of it wUl not recover. Here we have not suffered at all, and I may say 
the same of Haggerston." 



Cowpland, Castle. By Matthew T. Culley, Esq. 

I am glad to give such information as I can to your letter of enquiry, as to 
the effects of our late winter. Unfortunately, I cannot, at the moment, give 
you our height above the sea-level, nor can I give you the exact temperature 
of last winter, as I have not a registering thermometer ; however, I can tell 
you that on the morning of December 14th last, the thermometer stood at 
20 degrees in the entrance -hall, with all doors and windows shut. "We are 
near a river, but high above it, and the river is streamy and the soil light, 
warm, and gravelly, so we are not troubled with those nocturnal mists that 
are so destructive to vegetation in frost. Nevertheless, we did not altogether 
escape, though mercifully dealt with in comparison of our neighbours. 
Hollies suffered, but were not destroyed ; common Laurels were cut to the 
ground, as also Bays and Lauristiauses, but Portugal Laurels suffered com- 
paratively little. Ivy on trees was nearly destroyed ; the ivy with which the 
front of my house is covered, seemed dead for long, but has revived, and is 
growing vigorously, only a few shoots being actually killed. A great many 
rose bushes are cut to the ground. No forest trees have suffered but the 
oaks, and in a few cases — one before my window notably — the young twigs 
of these of the last two or three years' growth are quite withered, and have 
snapped off like tinder at the joints. I did not notice this tiU my cousin, 
George Culley of Fowberry, pointed it out to me ; he has suffered terribly in 
tliis way, but Fowberry lies low on the banks of a sluggish river. Most of 
my oaks liave escaped. 

Gorse (whins) are nearly destroyed, and so is much broom. 

S 



146 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hard5^ 

Peas and potatoes are so much delayed that I did not get a dish of the 
former till July 11th, and the latter till July 7th. 
July I6th, 1879. 



Fowlerry Tower. By George Culley, Esq. 

Winter of 1879; Effect of frost on some of the trees and 
shrubs at Powberry, on the river Till : — 

Trees, Deciduous.— Apples lost young wood. Oaks lost young wood, 
and look very miserable now at the end of July, with, in some cases, only a 
few tufts of leaves on stems and limbs. Some have apparently lost two years' 
wood, and there is a great difference between common oaks standing side by 
side. The same thing happened after the winter of 1860. Other ordinary 
deciduous trees, except Wych Elms, are in as good foliage as I ever saw 
them. In 1860 many Ashes, Limes, and Wych Elms were so split that you 
could put your arm into themj but nothing of that kind took place during 
last winter. 

Conifers. — Ce^rMs Atlantica, three specimens transplanted in 1860, lolled. 
Cedrus Beodara all killed, including two which survived 1860. Cedrus Libani, 
the only specimen I had, a tree of about 50 years of age, was killed in 1860. 
I lost all my Araucarias in 1860 ; I did not replace them. Cupressus Law- 
soniana, several fine specimens damaged in patches ; one large one near the 
river, I think, killed ; two good plants at Chatton Vicarage killed. No plant 
has altogether escaped. 

Taxus. — Common Yews terribly damaged ; I am afraid they will have to 
be cut dowh to snow-marks in many cases. As far as I remember the Yews 
were not hurt in 1860, and some of the plants now apparently killed are 70 
or 80 years old. Nothing has surprised me so much as the damage to the 
English Yews. Irish Yews all damaged. 

Thuja cmrea killed. Thuja gigantea, two near the river apparently killed, 
others all damaged. Wellingto7nas all badly damaged, and very unsightly. 

Evergreens. — Laurels— Bay and Portugal both killed down to snow- 
marks. Hollies nearly all killed down to snow-mark ; the only Holly unhurt 
is a smooth-leafed specimen, which also stood unhurt through 1860. As to 
Laurels and Hollies, the state of things is very like 1860, when plants, which 
must have been then 50 years old, were killed down to snow -marks. Ivy, 
all sorts damaged, some killed; about the same thing happened in 1860, 
when the Ivy covering the west end of the house was altogether destroyed. 

Box.- Several sorts badly damaged. Privet.— Many plants killed. 

Aucuba Japonica slightly damaged ; was kiUed to snow-mark in 1860. 

Rjiododendrons. — Fonticimi, several plants killed, others damaged ; Cataw- 
biense and some other Ehododendrons unhurt, but flowered badly. 

Some of the better Conifers, which are unhurt: — Abies Albertiana, Abies 
Canadensis, Abies Bouglasi, Abies Menziesi, Abies orientalis, Biota orientalis, 
Cupressus NootJcaensis, Cupressus Lobbi, Picea grandis, Picea lasiocarpa, Picea 
Zowi, Picea nobilis, Picea Nordmanniana, Pinus Austriaca, Pinus Cembra, 
Pinus Lambertiana, Pinus Laricio, Pinus ponderosa, Pinus radiata, 

July 2%th 1879. 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 147 

Lilhwn Tower. By Mr John Deas. 

I am just now busily engaged in cutting down shrubs that have suffered 
most here by the hard winter. They are chiefly Common Laurels and Rho- 
dodendrons. Cyprus and Red Cedars have also been hurt a good deal. 
Arborvitas are very much broken by the weight of snow ; even the Yews, 
hardy as they are, are very much browned, and likewise the Ivies The 
Portugal Laurel has stood almost uninjured. Roses : Standards all killed ; 
Dwarfs killed to the snow -line ; Biennials all killed ; Broccoli totally 
destroyed ; in fact little of the Cabbage tribe left alive, and I fear some of 
the fruit trees are injured, Pears especially. 



Lilburn Tower. By Mr Thomas Elliott. 

Feb. 3, 1879. A great many birds have perished with the severe storm. I 
found a great quantity of blackbirds after the last storm, that appeared to 
have been frozen to death with two nights of intense frost that we had here, 
as the birds were in good condition. The thrushes have all disappeared from 
this neighbourhood. Partridges and wood-j)igeons suffered very much. "We 
commenced to feed the partridges in the turnip fields, with hay-seeds, which 
saved a good many. There have been a great quantity of snipes, woodcocks, 
and ducks about the Aller Burn these last few weeks, 



RocTc. By Mr James Cleugh. 
Effects of last winter's frost on shrubs and trees : — 
Lauristinus most injured ; Common Laurels a little injured ; Sweet Bays 
much scorched ; Escallonia much scorched ; Menziesia banks much scorched ; 
Rhododendrons, in exposed places, much scorched ; Ehododendrum arboreuni 
(white) uninjured ; about 30 flowers coming out. Rhododendriim uUrodarcns 
(scarlet) , coming out full of flower ; Fhillyrca, a little browned ; Portugal 
Laurels not at aU injured ; Azores Laurel not injured. Some of the tender 
Roses cut down, many came again from the root. Wellingtonias, a little in- 
jured where exposed. Pines, the various sorts not hurt, except one, insignis. 
Fruit trees in general are promising. This, as far as I can see, is the extent 
of damage done. 
April 2Wi, 1879. 

Mr Bosanquet, in supplying this report, states, that they have 
not suffered much at Eock : — 

The thermometer has not, I believe, been below 13 degrees (19 below 
freezing), that was in the middle or end of January ; on the 13th of Decem- 
ber it must have been nearly as low. We have only a few Conifers, mostly 
of hardy kinds, in the pleasure grounds. The TFellingtonia will not stand our 
winds, several promising ones have become thin and bare ; only those in 
sheltered situations have a chance. The Cembra, Nordmanniana, Thuiopsis 
borealis, Thuja gigantea do capitally. The Laurus Azorica does well too. 



148 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

Subsequently Pinus Austriaca manifested symptoms of being harmed. On 
September 12, 1879, it was still quite brown, excepting just at the top, and 
looked as if it would hardly recover. Another P. Austriaca was somewhat 
browned, but a third has not suffered at all. The Pines in question are be- 
tween 30 and 40 years of age. Mr Bosanquet says, " they have always 
hitherto seemed quite hardy, so that I should think there must have been 
something unhealthy about the individual tree in question." 



Alnwick Castle. By Mr Coxon, Wood-Bailiff of tlie Duke of 
Northumberland. 

A great many of the Common Laurel cut down by the frost ; also Aucuha 
Japoniea ; and many of the Climbing Eoses. 

There is very little damage done to forest trees generally, but Larches in 
some districts are looking very unhealthy, but I think it is more from the 
ungenial summer than from the hard winter. Oaks have suifered very much 
in some parts of the country from the caterpillars, being completely denuded 
of their leaves. [The caterpillars probably of Tortrix viridana.'\ 

A good many of the Hybrid Rhododendrons are more or less hurt ; but 
Ponticitm is very little the worse. 

Many of the Conifer.© have suffered considerably. The Deodar Cedar has 
not lost many of its tops, but it looks sickly, and is not getting its foliage 
weU ; and the same may be said of the Araucaria imbricata, and Pimis Pin- 
sapo, P. Strobtis, and P. excelsa. The most hardy, and likely to make good 
timber trees, of those lately introduced, are the P. Nordmanniana, P. nobilis, 
and P. Douglasi, mere especially the last, as the timber, when matured, is 
one of the best in the market. In certain situations it is by far the fastest 
grower. We have them growing in the Park here, not more than fourteen 
years from the seed, 25 feet high. We also have them under 50 years old, 
with upwards of 100 cubic feet in them. 

[The Wellingtonia, which is as fast a grower as the Douglasi, though not 
considered so good a timber tree, has not suffered. — F. H.] 

The Gorse has been nearly all cut down. 

August Wth. 

From an Agricultural point of view. — Mr John Patten, of tbe 
Park Farm, Alnwick, remarks : — 

The past severe winter was very trying both to animal and vegetable life. 
Notwithstanding extra care and attention, animals of almost all kinds 
showed, at its close, unmistakeable signs of its severity. The feathered 
tribes, small birds in particular, have perhaps sustained the greatest havoc, 
owing to the intense cold, and their inability to reach their food. The 
silence of the woods, and the absence of marauders in our gardens substanti- 
ate this fact. 

The destruction of a certain class of animal life, which is a benefit rather 
than otherwise, is seen in the great diminution of grub [of Tipula oleracea] 
this summer, as compared with last, the larvee, no doubt, having in many 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 149 

instances, been destroyed. Vegetable life has also suffered. A portion of 
autumn wheat on cold clay soils perished, and the crop in spring presented a 
very unpromising appearance, while grass left, and intended for winter feed, 
was cut down by the frost. Turnips not stored, and intended for sheep 
feeding, before long rotted, and the value of the crop was considerably 
diminished. 
August Wth. 



ton, Cramlington. By the Rev. Ambrose Jones. 

With regard to the damage done by the late severe winter, in this neigh- 
bourhood, I have little to record of interest. The road in front of Stannitig- 
ton Vicarage is marked on the Ordnance Maps as 202 feet above the sea. 
The house faces due south. One large Gloire de Dijon Eose, on that side, 
was entirely destroyed, while another of equal size on the wall facing xvest 
escaped all injury. Two fine specimens of Cotoneaster, planted ten years ago 
on the south wall, suffered much, and some younger ones were killed. Some 
young Lombardy Poplars met the same fate. The Eoses planted in the 
open were a good deal injured by the frost, especially those budded on briars. 
They have now pretty well recovered, and are in better bloom than I have 
seen them for years. One shrub, the Escallonia rubra suffered in some de- 
gree. 

"With regard to the diminution of birds— robins, blackbirds, and thrushes 
— bf which we used to have great numbers, have almost entirely disappeared. 
Sundry robins took refuge in the greenhouse, and were able to go in and out 
through a hole, which I purposely kept open for them. They were regularly 
fed, but after a time died or disappeared. The house-sparrows weathered 
the storm, and are as plentiful as ever. There are also many chaffinches and 
bullfinches. On December 13th the thermometer stood 3 degrees below zero. 

August Ith, 1879. 



By Eev. J. F. Bigge. 

Towards the end of the year 1878, all the starlings disappeared, and so did 
the song thrushes. The wild ducks, which frequent the Whittle Dean reser- 
voirs for the supply of Newcastle, usually in a frost are to be found in the 
streams in the neighbourhood, but I have for long remarked that when the 
storm is going to be severe and last a long time, they go away, probably to 
such places as Seaton Slake, at the mouth of the Tees. Last winter, after a 
few days frost, they all disappeared. The greenfinch also went away ; I 
heard of 13 being picked up after a very severe frost under some stacks at 
Nellburn, Ovingham, on the Tyne. The only birds we had here during the 
storm were titmice, sparrows, chaffinches, hedge-sparrows, blackbirds, robins, 
wrens, and rooks. The robins have been sadly thinned ; they came into 
houses, and got so tame that they were pounced on by the cats, and I know 
of many that were killed in this way. 

As regards shrubs, the frost which was at zero two consecutive nights has 
done much havoc. 



150 Efects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

Killed to the Gkoond. — Anagyris Nepaulensis on a wall, Ceanothus Lobbi 
also on a wall ; Double Whin, Common Broom, English Laurels above snow- 
line ; Privet in some places dead. 

Partially Injured. — Portugal Laurels much singed, Sweet Bay, Yews, 
Fyrocanthus, Mahonia {Berberis) aquifolia, Heart-leaved Ivy. 

Untouched. — Wigelia rosea, Jasmine (YeUow). 

Birds' arrival at BtamforAham^ 1879 : — 
"Wheatear, April 16th; redstart, April 23rd; swallow, April 25; cuckoo, 
April 28th; sandpiper. May 1st ; sandmartin. May 14th ; swift, May 15th; 
corn-crake, May 18th ; flycatcher, May 25th. 



Hedgeley, Northumberland. By Ralph Caer-Ellison, Esq. 

J ust before the first hard weather last November, and during the whole of 
October, I had been surprised at the great activity and lively gracefulness of 
the common wrens {Troglodites), which seemed to be present at Dunston Hill, 
in unwonted numbers. Probably they were in more high plight than 
ordinary ; the insect world and their favourite spiders being doubtless 
numerous after the very high temperature of August and September. But 
after the first or second spell of severe weather, not a wren was to be seen or 
heard throughout the winter. They never came with redbreasts and 
"hedgies," blackbirds, tits, and sparrows to feed on crumbs, &c., at our 
windows any more than in preceding years. They do not seem capable of 
partaking of scraps of meat or fat, dressed or raw, like the tits, but are some- 
times found frozen to death in outhouses, whither they have gone in search 
of spiders. A few, and only a very few, have survived both at Dunston Hill 
and at Hedgeley, as I believe they undergo hibernation in cavities, chiefly 
under the foot-roots of large trees, such as are frequented by mice. And as 
wrens roost in haystacks in groups of half-a-dozen together, so I fancy they 
may seek mutual warmth in old mouse-nests through such a winter as we 
have had. There seems to be thus pretty strong evidence that our little 
Troglodite is capable of enduring torpidity in winter, for a time, if it retires 
whilst in good condition and in parties together, as we know it often roosts, 
for boys catch them so, when procuring sparrows at night in stacks. 

Blackbirds (all males but one) were fed with the robins on four sides of my 
house at Dunston HUl, two were repeatedly in my dining-room. They are 
almost as numerous as usual this spring, at least the cock birds, and singing 
merrily, but I believe the hens to have returned in but small numbers from 
their winter-haunts near our coasts. Thrushes are singing only here and 
there, at either Dunston Hill or Hedgeley. The missel-thrush came through 
somewhat better, wheresoever it may have wintered. One solitary missel 
used to come with our blackbirds for food, and I think lived by robbing 
them of crusts of bread which they carried away. In like manner lived a 
solitary jay, too sly to come quite to the windows. I also laid supplies of 
white peas for him, but am not sure that he took the hint. No doubt he had 
an eye to any sickly robin too. Chaffinches (all males) came regularly with 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 151 

the sparrows and wintered admirably by help of hemp- seed, which I got for 
the sparrows to save bread. Green-linnets are plentiful this spring ; they 
are very hardy against cold and pass the winter, as you will have observed 
about the foldyards and stackyards in the Lothians, the Northumberland 
coast -country, East Yorkshire, &c. Grey-linnets are never common either 
at Dunston Hill or Hedgeley, preferring the open coast- country and the 
links. But the little redpole breeds regularly around Dunston Hill. Its 
nuptial flight is extremely lofty, its song being delivered as it flies in large 
wide circles or excursions higher than the skylark goes. If I mistake not, 
it is abundant this spring. Skylarks plentiful this spring, also the tree pipit. 
Skylarks are described as wintering in vast numbers in the great vaUey of 
the Ebro, in Arragon. 

Columba mnas, the stock- dove, breeds for the third summer at Dunston 
Hill. It is not at all shy, likes to be near a house, but yet is very little seen, 
and its low quiet cooing excites hardly any attention. It is most heard early 
of a morning. I think it is this year nesting among thick bry. 

Quereus ilex is quite killed at Dunston HUl and Whickham. Arauearias 
have stood quite unhurt. Wellingtonia, Cupressus macrocarpa, and Thuja 
borealis all unhurt. Cryptomeria Japonica hardy and doing better than any 
thing on soils too dry and graveUy or shaly for the others I have named, or 
for Cupressus Lavjsoniana, which is also quite hardy and thoroughly 
naturalised by abundant seedlings. Mahonia aquifolia is hardy everywhere 
with us, except under shade. 

Berberis Barwini is, alas ! killed like the native whin, but is springing 
again from the root. Its fine orange inflorescence at this season is much 
missed. Sweet Bay killed down but ready to spring again. Garry a elliptica 
considerably hurt, but not so as to require being cut down, and it is budding 
forth readily. 

The beautiful Laurocerastis Azorica, nearly akin to the Portugal Laurel, 
has come very well through at Hedgeley. Arbutus half -killed. Portugal 
Laurel unhurt. Laurocerasus Caucasica very tall and robust at Hedgeley, 
and quite unhurt. Its blossom is like that of its near ally, the Common 
Pontic Laurel, and now very showy at Hedgeley. 

The Rhododendron ponticum is quite unhurt. Also many fine Hybrid Eho- 
dodendrons, scarlet, white, and crimson, uninjured, and now in lovely flower. 
I, June 16th, 1879. 



EOXBUEGHSHIEE. 
Sjpringwood Parh, Eelso. By Mr George Wemyss. 

The following is the temperature of the months of December, January, and 
February, for the last ten years— showing the mean mean of each month, and 
the mean of the three months of each winter . — 







MEAN 


MEAN OF THE 


JTEAR. 




MEAN. 


THREE MONTHS, 


1869. 


—December 


30«>.70 1 




1870. 


—January 


32 .51 


.. 320.27 




February 


33 .60 





152 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 





MEAN 


MEAN OP THE 


YEAK. 


MEAN. 


THREE MONTHS 


1870.— December 


30°.35 ) 




1871.— January 


28 .6] } 


.. 32°.78 


February 


39 .39 ) 




1871.— December 


33°.16 ) 




1872.— January 


36 .25 } 


.. 39°.52 


February 


39 .17 ) 




1872.— December 


35''.83 \ 




1873.— January 


38 .30 


.. 36°.15 


February 


34 .28 J 




1873.— December 


43^.54 ) 




1874.— January 


41 .71 


.. 41°.30 


February 


38 .67 ) 




1874.— December 


29°.97 i 




1875. — January 


39 .80 


.. 35°. 16 


February 


35 .71 ) 




1875.— December 


37°.57 i 
37 .95 
36 .98 ) 




1876.— January 


.. 37«.50 


February 




1876.— December 


39°. 34 \ 




1877.— January 


37 .18 ] 


.. 39°.44 


February 


39 .82 \ 




1877.-December 


39°. 62 ) 




1878.- January 


38 .42 ). 


.. 38°.19 


February 


36 .54 > 




1878.— December 


25°.75 1 




1879. -January 


28 .06 ' 


> .. 29°.01 


February 


33 .22 J 





You will observe bow low the temperature in December was tbe mean 
maximum being only 2°. 67 above freezing ; and the mean minimum on less 
than 15°. 17 below the freezing point, thus giving a mean mean of 25°. 75. 
The lowest point reached during the winter was on the 17th of the same 
month, when the thermometer went down to 3° below zero. 

As regards the disastrous effects of the low temperature on vegetation 
during the past winter, I find it difficult to speak, for as usual circumstances 
have so much to do with the results ; and I confess I have not given the 
matter that amount of investigation this spring it would require iu order to 
go into details minutely, which I had hoped to have been able to do. In the 
kitchen garden the Brassica suffered 'much, for example, broccoli, a third of 
it was destroyed, and what was left produced very small heads, which 
prematurely went to seed. 

The fruit-buds of some of the finer kinds of pears are destroyed. Peach 
trees on the open wall have escaped with a bare existence. All sorts of 
tender Roses are either killed or have been cut down to the surface of the 
ground. Laurels in low situations are a good deal hurt ; they are, however, 
putting forth young shoots from the old wood. The following may also be 
mentioned as having suffered.— Sweet Bay, Variegated Holly, Lauristinus, 
Cedrus Deodara, Aucuba Japonica, Garrya elliptica, &c. 

June 20th, 1879. 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 153 

Memorandum on the Effects of the past Winter on Gardens and 
Shrubberies as observed at Woodside, Kelso. By Charles Dotjg- 

LAS, M.D. 

Althougli not much above the level of the Tweed, and therefore subject to 
a temperature during the frosts of winter lower than our neighbours have in 
higher grounds, I think, now that summer is trying to declare itself, that we 
have suffered less than many from the past severe winter. I find, however, 
that the damage to shrubs is greater than it appeared to be two months' ago ; 
Laurels especially stUl shew dying branches, and the outside leaves and 
twigs in many places have stUl an unhappy look ; but as far as I have ob- 
served, the only losses in the shrubberies have been a Barberry, which was in 
great beauty last year, and an Evergreen Oak. Another of these Oaks was 
much pimished, but is now recovering, and the Laurels generally are throw- 
ing out vigorous shoots from the larger stems. 

Several of our climbing Eoses have been killed outright, notably a 
Mar^chal Niel, which, in a snug corner, had flowered in the open the two 
previous years. Our Eoses generally looked miserable, many apparently 
dead, but now most are coming away wonderfully, and with fine weather 
may still make a respectable appearance. There was a very fair display of 
Pear blossoms, but although the weather lately has been, in spite of N.E. 
winds, comparatively mild with no frost at night, I can scarcely see any fruit 
set, which is disappointing, as there seemed a fair promise of a good crop 
after two years of barrenness. The lowest temperature marked this month 
was 34** on the morning of the 1st, and the general average since the 1st, of 
the minimum has been 42**. 

The Apple trees are scarcely sufficiently advanced in fruiting to give a fair 
opinion of the prospect, but I am afraid, from the appearance of the blossom 
after late dashing rains, that the chance of a fair produce is also very small 
The Ehododendrons, of which we have only the later and hardier kinds, do 
not appear to have suffered at all. 

I have noticed that last year, Thorn hedges were shewing green on March 
3rd, this year they were no farther advanced on AprU 27th. Hawthorn 
blossom on trees was noted as partially out on the 15th May; this year on 
the 16th June. 

Last year Mahonia flowers were shewing on March 17th, this year on May 
18th. Last year Laburnimi was out on May 19th, this year on June 4th, 
Last year the common double white Lily was out on May 18th, this year on 
June 4th. Last year Apple blossom was well out on 18th May, this year on 
16th Jane, Last year Ehododendrons were shewing blossom on 1st June, 
this year on 15th. 

The lowest temperature registered during the winter was on the morning 
of the 13th December — 1" below zero. 

Jtme 19th, 1879. 



Eelso. By Mr Andrew Brotherston. 
March 10, 1879. — It is impossible, as yet, to judge with any degree of cer- 
tainty, the effects of the winter on plants ; but, so far as I can see, it will 

T 



154 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hard3^ 

not be so destructive as that of 1860-61, when most of the Laurels (both 
Portugal and Bay) in this district were either killed to the ground or so 
seriously damaged that they had to be cut over. The little damage they 
have sustained is chiefly confined to gross young shoots— the result of severe 
pruning - or to half-smothered plants, from which sufficient light and air are 
excluded. The previous summer and autumn have much to do with the 
maimer in which such plants stand the succeeding winter. If the young 
growth is weU ripened, they can resist a much greater degree of frost than 
when they make a late ill-ripened growth. If last winter had followed the 
summer and autumn of 1877, there would have been a different tale to tell. 
I may mention the effects on a few well-known plants. Araucarias are for 
the most part unhurt, but some are very brown. The leaves of many hoUies, 
especially the variegated varieties, are seriously damaged. Rhododendrons 
{B. ponticKm) and Aucubas are unscathed. [I have since seen some plants of 
Aucuba which were transplanted late in the spring that are much cut up.] 
Lauristinus is much cut up, the flowers aU destroyed. Oarrya elliptica, 
which usually stands the winter well, is very much damaged. I may say the 
same of Cotoneaster microphylla. Penstemons, Antirrhinums, "Wall-flowers, 
&c., many killed. Spring flowers are late. I have seen only one Daisy. 
Snowdrops, Winter Aconites, Christmas Roses, Hepaticas, and Bulboeodimn 
vernum, are now in flower ; but Crocuses are not yet out. 



Ormiston Souse. By W. B. Boyd, Esq. 

I have to report the following amoimt of damage done to trees and plants 
by frost during the last winter at Ormiston House, Kelso. Lowest reading 
of thermometer, 5 degrees below zero. A large proportion of the Oak trees, 
near the river Teviot, have the last year's wood killed off. Spanish Chest- 
nuts and old Apple trees much the same. 

Plants killed to the ground:— Portugal Laurel, Common Bay Laurel, 
many of the tenderer kinds of Ivy, Ceanothus dentatus, Escallonia macrantha, 
JEscallonia rubra, Escallonia Montividiensis, Fernettya mucronata, Cercis Sili- 
quastrum. Nearly all the Roses killed to the ground. Most of the points of 
Araucaria imbricata killed back three inches. Abies Bouglasi very brown, 
Cryptomeria elegans very brown. Thuja aurea very brown, Juniperus 
recurvus vqty ditto. All the blossom at least a month later than usual. 

\st July, 1879. 



On the Lateness of the Spawning of Salmon during the Spring of 
1879, Salmon Disease, Sfc. By Fbancis Eussell, Esq., Sheriff- 
Substitute of Eoxburgbshire. 

In compliance with your suggestion, that I should send to you some notes 
as to the unusual lateness of the spawning of Salmon in our rivers during the 
last season, I can give you what information I have on this curious and in- 
teresting point. I have not had many opportunities of personal observation 
bearing on this subject ; but I caught in the second week of April, in the 
Teviot at Sunlaws, a Bull trout of about 6| lbs., which looked in good con- 



Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 155 

dition ; and when opened, was found to be a female fish, as yet unspawned, 
but with the ova well developed, and plainly near spawning. In the 
sworn evidence of water-bailiffs, several instances were stated of salmon 
which had not completed their spawning as late as the first week in 
May. In like manner, the exceptional nature of the weather has this year 
retarded the development of the water-flies, and so late as the 17th May last, 
I saw the familiar " March brown" in some abundance on the Tweed at Mel- 
rose. The earliest appearance of this fly was unusually late ; but I can- 
not name the precise date of its first appearance. 

The salmon disease, known to naturalists as the Saprolegnia ferax, appears 
to have been very destructive in the Tweed and Teviot, in both of which 
rivers large numbers of dead fish are observed covered more or less with this 
ftmgus. It has also attacked Trouts, which I have seen swimming with this 
parasite on them ; and it appears to have been especially fatal to Graylings ; 
and I am told, also to Eels. With reference to Graylings, I may mention 
that I found, some weeks ago, a dead one on the channel opposite to Mer- 
toun House, shewing that this fish had advanced thus far up the Tweed. 

This peculiar disease is to be made the subject of a scientific inquiry, and I 
fear I can throw no special light on its causes. It is not new in the 
Tweed. I well remember a good many (perhaps about 6 or 8) years ago, 
when fishing in late spring for trouts about Old Melrose, to have observed 
Salmon, shewing a similar fungus growth on them, swimming about in a 
helpless condition close to my legs, as well as dead fish lying on the channel, 
or in the water, similarly marked. The fish had been detained in the river 
that season to an unusually late period. The number of Whitlings in the 
Tweed and Teviot this spring was very great, and they remained in the 
rivers much later than usual ; I mean fish that had spawned ; but, on the 
contrary, Salmon Kelts were unusually scarce ; and I was told at Mertoun 
that only two Kelts had been landed with the rod this season in that part of 
the river. 

As to the effect of the cold, long winter on plants, I have little to add to 
what you wiU have to state, or have already stated. The WaU-fiower plants 
were nearly all killed, unless specially protected ; and a considerable number 
of Eoses — nearly all Standard Hybrid Perpetual — were also killed. 

On the other hand, the Spring Flowers have been in great profusion and 
beauty ; Primroses especially ; and the Hawthorn, now coming into bloom 
here, is in greater abundance than I ever saw it before. On some of the 
branches the fiowers form a solid mass. 

June 23, 1879. 



SELKIEK8HIEE. 

On tie Effects of the Winter 1878-9 on Gardens and ShruUeries in 
the neighlourhood of 8elMrl. By the Eev. James Farqtjhar- 
soN, M.A., Selkirk. 

The six-months' winter of 1878-9 seems to have been much less injurious 
to vegetation in this high-lying district, than in many other parts of Scot- 
land nearer the level of the sea. Nor have the prolonged periods of hard 



156 Effects of the Winter of 1878-9, by James Hardy. 

frost, and the repeated heavy snow-storms been so hurtful as the shorter but 
more intense frosts of such winters as that of 1860-1. StUl, gardens aixd 
shrubberies have suffered a good deal, and the Club may find interest in some 
facts which I have either observed myself, or gleaned from a pretty general 
inquiry among persons likely to give accurate information. 

The first shower of snow fell here on October 29th, followed at an interval 
of a few days by a regular snow-storm ; the last snow, as far as I observed, 
fell on the 9th of May. Thus we had fuUy six months of winter ; and the 
period between these dates was characterised here as elsewhere, not by short 
sudden dips into intense cold, but by a uniform low reading of the ther- 
mometer, bringing the average maxima and minima much below what is 
generally observed. At Bowhill (elevation 595 ft.), one of the Scottish 
Meteorological Society's Stations, the average monthly readings were as 
follows : — 



1878. 


MAX. 


MIN. 


1879. 


MAX. 


MIN. 


October 


. 53.19 


43.26 


January , 


. 34.25 


23.58 


November . 


. 41. 1 


32. 6 


February . 


. 36.96 


28.57 


December .. 


, 34.09 


25.82 


March 


. 42.30 


31.23 








April 


. 47.10 


33. 8 



The lowest readings were— in November, 29th, 24° ; in December, 14th, 
10°, 24th and 25th, 19°, and 26th, 17°; in January, 20th, 6°, 24th, 7°, and 
27th, 10° ; in February, 25th, 18°, and 20th, 19° ; and in March, 14th, 12°. 
In April there was a sudden fall on the 19th to 23°. 

Down to the end of February evergreen shrubs seemed to suffer little, a 
fortunate result to be ascribed, perhaps, to the unusual stillness of the 
weather ; but when March arrived with its bitter N. and N.E. frosty blasts, 
they visibly yielded- to the fierce assault. But for the unusually severe 
March and April, I think we should not have found more injury done than 
in an ordinary winter. As things are, however, what I have noted is, that 
in flower gardens herbaceous plants have come through much as usual, and 
the freezing of the ground for a long period to the depth of 18 or 20 inches, 
does not seem to have affected hardy bulbs. Roses have been a good deal 
disfigured, — cut down but not destroyed, — the only Rose in my garden quite 
dead being an Austrian Briar. In the kitchen -garden there has been no 
little havoc, the whole Cabbage tribe having been well nigh annihilated, so 
that there is a dearth of spring vegetables. Broccoli, which never promised 
better in the end of autumn, was reduced to pulp ; Brussels Sprouts stood 
longer, but became useless ere the end of winter ; and autumn-planted Cab - 
bage (Macewen's) proved but a ragged regiment when the snow melted — 
most of the plants killed, and such as survived proving so weak that they 
never "hearted," but shot up into feeble flower stems. 

Among the shrubs about the Manse (530 feet above sea), the common 
Laurel [Prunus Lauro-Cerasus) and Evergreen Oak [Quercus Bex) have 
suffered most, none being killed, but the foliage much damaged, indeed 
stripped from large portions of the bushes, so that we must wait for the 
young leaves, which are growing vigorously, to clothe them again. Portugal 
Laurel, Solly, Aucuba, Mahonia, Weigelia rosea, Berberis duleis, and B. 
Darwinii, &c., are untouched. 



Effects of the Winter 0/ 1878-9, by James Hardy. 157 

Around Bowhill comparatively little injury has been done. The fine old 
Rhododendrons {R. ponticum) are untouched, and promise a profusion of 
blossom. Quercus Ilex has suffered there also, and the common Laurels, just 
as about this house, scathed but not ruined. The common Yellow Azalea 
is quite safe, and covered with flowers. But Laurustinus, Arbutus, Phillyrea, 
have been cut down, and show no sign of sprouting from the root. Escallo- 
nias of different species have also suffered much. 

At Sunderland Hall (under 400 feet) a fine Berberis Darwinii trained on 
the lodge, has been cut down to the ground, but is sprouting from the root ; 
and a like calamity has overtaken an old Fig-tree on a south wall, which has 
stood the frosts of upwards of 40 years. It, too, is showing life at the crown 
of the root. Wellingtonias and Deodars, with several other Conifers 
scattered over the grounds, are safe and vigorous, as is also a splendid collec- 
tion of Hybrid Rhododendrons, at present (June 'z4th) in magnificent flower. 
Portugal Laurels are for the most part safe, and Mahonias ; but I observed 
here plants of these two species quite dead in immediate proximity to others 
alive and flourishing. No difference in soil or shelter could explain this 
diversity, which, I fancy, must be due to differences in the vigour, or as one 
may call it, the " constitution " of individual plants. 

Throughout the country generally the Whin and Broom have been much 
damaged, in some places killed, in others greatly injured from the ground 
upwards, although now showing much blossom on the highest branches. 

The foliage of forest-trees, and blossom on such as flower conspicuously, 
i.e. Chestnut, Laburnum, Lilac, &c., are unusually massive and rich; as was 
the blossom on fruit trees in the garden and orchard. The six months' 
winter, fortunately, has not counteracted the wood-ripening processes of last 
year's splendid summer. 

Selkirk Manse, 2ith June, 1879. 



Galashiels. 

"Writing from Galashiels, Sept. 9tli, 1879, Mr James Wood re- 
marks on the scarcity of birds : — 

" In our glen we used to have several wrens' nests every summer. This 
year we have none. The birds must have all perished last winter. We used to 
have also a great many yellow-hammers and ox-eyes. We fed these for a 
good while during the winter, but their number got fewer and fewer every 
morning, until all had perished. I have not seen a yeUow-hammer or a tom- 
tit in our neighbourhood this summer." 

It was, perhaps, owing to the extremely cold summer consequent on the 
shadow cast by the dreadful winter over the entire season, that the following 
circumstance occurred, of which I owe the recital to Mr Smail, now of Kirk- 
caldy : — 

Gooseberries in October. 

On 7th October, 1879, I gathered Grooseberries from several bushes in 
Fernieknowe garden, Galashiels, belonging to Mr Cochrane. The fruit was 
no more than fairly ripe ; and was fairly well -flavoured, considering that it 
was gathered from the lower shaded branches. No artificial preservation 
had been tried. 



158 

Notice of Stone Cannon Balls, found in Parish of Siuinton, 
BeriuicJcshire. By David Milne Home, Esq., of Milne- 
graden, LL.D., &c. 

Happening to pass tliroTigli the village of Swinton one day 
last autumn (1878), I observed in a small garden plot adjoining 
the principal inn, what appeared to be a large Cannon Ball of 
Stone. 

On asking the innkeeper the history of it, he informed me that 
it was one of five or six which had been found together in the 
river Leet, in 1865, when its channel was being altered ; and 
that his idea was that they had belonged to the large cannon 
known by the name of Mens Meg. He added that when in 
Edinburgh lately he had gone to the Castle, and found that 
Mons Meg has a mouth large enough to admit the ball ; and 
that there were lying beside the gun several Stone Balls 
apparently about the size of the one in Swinton. He said that 
some one had told him it was known to readers of Scotch history 
that Mons Meg was at the siege of Norham Castle in the time of 
King James IV. 

The above six balls were thus disposed of. Mr Chalmers has 
one at Swinton Inn. The Eev. Mr Sherar, F.C., Swinton, has 
one. A third was got by Mr White, which is now at 
Milne-graden. Mr Hannan, of Dunse Castle, took away the 
other three. One of these is now at St. Mary's Cottage, Dunse 
Castle. Mr Chalmers thinks the other two were sent by Mr 
Hannan to Edinburgh. 

I went to Swinton House and saw there three stone balls — two 
are in the garden on a waU. The third is at the end of the 
house occupied by the farm steward. This last one I found has 
a girth of 58 J inches. He said it had been found in the river 
Leet, at the back of his house. The other two in the garden 
seemed to be of smaller size. Mr Chalmers did not know their 
history ; but he was sure they had been in the garden more than 
40 yeais. 

The ball at the steward's house has inserted into it a piece of 
iron, and a groove has been made at each side in connection with 
this bit of iron. It is probable that the object of this was to 
convert it into a heavy weight for a cheese press. 

There is another stone, somewhat smaller, at a cottage door in 



Notice of Stone Cannon Balls, by David Milne Home. 159 

Swinton village with a bit of iron in it, which is supposed to 
have been used for a similar purpose. 

On obtaining this information, I asked Mr Cossar, of Green- 
knowe, to have the goodness to enquire as to the exact spot 
where the Balls were found, and in what position they had been 
lying. 

He did make enquiry, and he writes to me, that when the 
channel of the river Leet was lowered in the year 1865, five 
Stone Balls were found at the side of a bridge over the yiver to 
the north of Swinton Mill, on the property of Colonel Trotter of 
Charter Hall. Mr Cossar says the Balls were at the S.E. side 
of the bridge, placed apparently so as to guide the water through 
the arch of the bridge. The bridge (Mr Cossar adds) was re- 
paired in the year 1745. 

I went to Edinburgh Castle and examined Mens Meg. The 
gun rests on a handsome iron carriage, bearing the following in- 
scription : — "At siege of Norham Castle, in 1497." 

On measurement, I found the mouth of the gun to be twenty 
inches across, and that the inside bore becomes slightly smaller 
towards the breech. The length of the gun is 1 6 feet. 

It has evidently been made with longitudinal iron bars, out- 
side of which other iron bars have been hooped round and 
across the former. 

I found six Stone Balls lying beside the gun, the largest of 
which is about 42 inches in girth. The others are 35 or 36 
inches. 

Having, through the good offices of Mr Cossar, obtained pos- 
session of one of the Stone Balls, I find that its girth is 56 
inches. It is apparently of limestone, as vinegar poured on it 
causes effervescence. 

The Ball at Swinton village has a girth of 58 inches, and is 
said to be of grey granite. 

Lately on visiting Norham Castle, I found near the porter's 
lodge a Stone Ball, with a girth of 57 inches, which I learnt had 
some years ago been found in the river Tweed, a few hundred 
yards to the west of the Castle. The spot where it was found is 
in a line between the Castle and Ladykirk village. An old 
grass field to the east of the village shows the remains of 
military ramparts, where artillery might suitably have been 
stationed for firing on Norham Castle. The probability therefore 



160 Notice of Stone Cannon Balls, by David Milne Home. 

is that Mons Meg had been brought to this field, and that a 
Stone Ball fired from it had fallen short of the Castle and fell 
into the Tweed, where it had lain till discovered on the occasion 
just referred to, when the river was unusually low. The Ball 
was drawn out from the channel by some of the Norham fisher- 
men, and was taken up to the Castle in a cart. 

Thinking that Scottish historical books might throw light on 
the subject, I went to the Library of the Society of Scottish 
Antiquaries, and obtained access to a book containing copies of 
extracts from the Scottish Lord High Treasurer's Accounts, in 
which all expenditure by or for the Scottish Executive Govern- 
ment is minutely detailed. There is a valuable preface by Mr 
Dickson of the Edinburgh Eegister House, which supplies the 
following particulars :— 

" Mons Meg'''' is supposed to have been constructed at the town 
of Mons, in Flanders ; and to have been brought to Scotland 
about the year 1455. At that time there was great intercourse 
between Scotland and Flanders, and many articles were ob- 
tained from Flanders. Prior to 1497, occasional references are 
made to the gun under the appellation only of Mons. In July, 
1489, it seems to have been taken to Glasgow to assist in the 
siege of Dumbarton. In the year 1578, the gun is still referred 
to in the Treasury Accounts, under the name of Mons. In the 
year 1650 it is referred to in these accounts as ^^ the great iron 
murderer Muchle Meg.'''' 

In the early part of the summer of 1497, preparations began 
to be made in Scotland for a siege of Norham Castle. It seems 
that the expense of military expeditions at that period was 
arranged in this way : — That the king made a proclamation of a 
raid having been resolved on, and that thereupon each district 
of country was bound to send a certain number of men, provided 
with arms and also with provisions to last 21 days. The cost of 
the artillery fell on the sovereign personally. 

Mr Dickson states that a tax called " Spear Silver" was on 
such occasions leviable from the inhabitants of towns ; but that 
in order to obtain exemption from supplying soldiers and from 
paying this tax it was allowable to contribute a slump sum of 
money. The following entries illustrate this point : — 

" 1497. July 18. — Received fra the community of the toune of 
Perth, for ane composition maid with thaim be the King, for leif 
to them to remain at hame/m the Eaid of NoremJ^ 



Notice of Stone Cannon Balls, by David Milne Home. 161 

"24tli July. — License was giffen to tlie toune of Dundee, to 
remane at liame, fra the liost at this time, for the soume of 450 
crowns of gold, giffen be thaim to the furth bringing of the 
King's artillery." 

To obtain the full sum necessary to defray the king's expenses 
in sending artillery to Norham, it is mentioned by Mr Dickson, 
(from entries in the State Accounts) that the king had to sell a 
certain ffreat chain of gold, and other personal ornaments. He 
appears also to have sent the hat round among the nobility, as 
in the State Accounts credit is given for many donations towards 
the raid ; one of £100 being from David Home, of Wedderburn. 

It appears that much expense was incurred in equipping 
Mons Meg for joining in the expedition. One hundred workmen 
and five carpenters and smiths were hired by Sir Eobert Ker, 
the master of the artillery, to pass with Mons alone, i.e. to attend 
to her exclusively. 

It will be seen also from the entries in July, 1497 (annexed 
hereto), that a cradil or carriage was made for Mons, and canvas 
to cover her—aa well as tows or ropes to draw her. 

At this time Mons was in Edinburgh Castle. After her cradil 
was made, she was drawn doune the gait — that is, the Canongate, 
to the Abbey of Holyrood, where the rest of the artillery pro- 
bably was collected. It had been made a public ceremony, as 
there is a payment to the Minstrels that playit hefore Mons, doune 
the Gate. 

The first attempt to start Mons for the Borders was unsuccess- 
ful. For, as Mr Dickson observes, "the great gun broke down 
before the outskirts of the town were x^assed." Accordingly 
there is an entry on 24th July for carrying trees to be Mons new 
cradil, to her at St. Leonards, where she lay. 

This mishap delayed the setting out of the expedition. The 
extracts show, that on the 6th August six horses were employed 
to draw Meg to " Norem." 

Mr Dickson says that the King, impatient of the delay, had 
started for the Borders on the 2Gth July, and repaired to Mel- 
rose, where there was to be a general gathering of troops. He 
probably started from Edinburgh on the 1 9th July ; for on that 
day there is an entry of a payment to a woman who brought 
strawberries to the King at Bryden, which is a village in Mid 
Lothian, on the way between Edinburgh and Melrose. 

U 



162 Notice of Stone Cannon Balls, by David Milne Home. 

On the 7th August, Mr Dickson says the King had established 
his quarters at Upsetlington, on the north bank of the Tweed, im- 
mediately opposite Norham ; and he is found there playing cards 
with the Spanish Ambassador, and others of his retinue. This 
was no good trait of the King, when he ought to have been 
looking after his troops, and planning the siege of a most formid- 
able stronghold. 

Mr Dickson observes that "the Bishop of Durham (to whom 
Norham Castle belonged) being forewarned of King James' ex- 
pedition, had garrisoned and strengthened the Castle so effectu- 
ally that the King found it impregnable. News at the same 
time came of the rapid advance of the Earl of Surrey with a 
numerous force. King James immediately withdrew into Scot- 
land. Surrey followed, hoping to overtake the retreating army, 
and failing in this, laid siege to Ay ton Castle." 

On the 30th September, 1497, a truce was entered into between 
" England and Scotland, to last for 7 years. It was signed in the 
Church of Ay ton, on behalf of King James by Andrew Forman 
(Prothonotary and Prior of May), Patrick Home of Fast Castle, 
and Mr Lawson, Justice Clerk of Scotland. Hostilities being 
thus at an end, orders were given for the home bringing of the 
artillery, and Sir Eobert Ker accordingly collected and brought 
back to Edinburgh the guns which had been placed at Wedder- 
burn. Home, and other strengths on the Borders." 

*' During the hostilities of this and the preceding year, the lands 
on the East March (holding of the Crown), had suffered so much 
that an abatement was allowed on the rents, — ''propter vastita- 
tum terrarum de Hersell, Gradene, Letheme, Grenlaw, et Birgham, 
vastatas per guerras Anglorum." 

Mons Meg was, in the year 1745, carried off from Edinburgh 
Castle to the Tower of London, where she remained till the year 
1825. It is understood that the gun was restored to Scotland, 
by means of a personal application by Sir Walter Scott to King 
George lY., when His Majesty visited Scotland. 

It is uncertain where the quarries were from which these large 
Cannon Balls were taken. The Treasurer's Accounts show that 
there were quarries belonging to government at Dunbar and 
Stirling. In the Lord Treasurer's Accounts, frequent reference 
is made to one Johne Quarreour ; this surname being synonimous 
with our word "quarry man;" and this Johne is also spoken of 



Notice of Stone Gannon Balls, by David Milne Home. 163 

in the Accounts as one of tlie gunners, whose duty it was to ob- 
tain Stone Balls for the artillery. In the Extracts of 5th and 6th 
August, payments are entered as made for " Gun-Stanes that 
were new made," to go to Norham, and which required six 
horses to draw them. 

It is evident, therefore, that the six Stone Balls found in the 
channel of the Leet were balls which belonged to " Mons Meg." 
How they should have been left there, can only be matter of 
conjecture. It is possible that when Mons Meg, with the rest of 
the Scotch artillery, was being brought bacli: to Edinburgh, the 
retreat may have been so hurried, that the balls were left be- 
hind. The passage of the Leet would, no doubt, be difficult for 
any carriage or vehicles which conveyed balls of such size and 
weight ; and one may have broken down so completely, that there 
was no way of extracting the balls from the moss or mud which 
abounded on the low flat through which the river Leet 
meandered. 

I heard a report that at or near the place where the balls were 
found the bones of a horse, and some iron bars were found. In 
that case the probability of this last conjecture would be 
strengthened. 

In Boston's Biography there is notice of a lake which, even 
in his time, covered a part of the meadow where the Stone Balls 
were found, and he mentions that on one occasion when he was 
fording this lake his horse laired in the mud, and it was with 
difficulty he got out. 



Extracts from State Accounts kept hy the Lord High Treasurer 
of Scotland. 
1496. — To Johne Quarriour, for correking of gun-stanes, £4 2s. 
1497. April 5. — To 4 miller quarreours at Dunbar, for stanes wynning. 

April 7. — To Johne Quarreour, for the redding of Dunbar, at the 
mason's mycht wirk. 
(Johne Quarreour was one of the gunners who had charge 
of the artillery) 
April 10.— Giifen to John Mawer, elder, in part payment of quhelis 

(wheels) making to the Bombards and to Mons. 
April 10.— (Another payment for same object). 

July 8.— One hundred workmen and 5 carpenters to pass with Mons 
to Norham, 
For 4 great trees to Mons, weighing 16 stones. 
July 9.— To seven weights for 2 J days, to mak cradill for Mons. 



164 Notice of Stone Cannon Balls, by David Milne Home. 

July 9.— To Lord of Hilhouse, for expense of coming hame for Mons. 

To stones weight of irne and clath for Mons. 

July 19, — To tlic wif that brocht straberries to the King fra Dri- 

dene, 14s. 
July 20. — To ane wif that brocht cheriis to the King, 4s. 
July 20. — For four gret towis (ropes ?) to Mons, weyand 16 stans, 
£4 5s 8d. 
, July 20. - To here them to the Abbey for Mons. 

July 24. - To pynouris (pioneers) to here ye tree, to be Mons new 

cradil, to her at St. Leonards, where she lay, 4s. 6d. 
July 28. — For 13 stanes of irne to mak graith to 3Ions new cradil, and 

Gavilokkis to go with her, 30s. 4d. 
July 28. — To the Minstralis that playit before Mons doune the gait, 

14s. 
July 29. — To 7 wrichtis for twa days, that maid Mons cradill, 23s. 4d 
For walking (watching } of Mons and uther artillery. 
To Robin Ker to fee workmen to pass with Mons. 
For 231bs. of talloune to Mons. 
For J gallone of tar to 3fons. 
For 8 elne of cammus (canvas ?) to be Mons claits to cover 

her, £9. 
For sewing of it, 4d. 

To twa wrichtis to pass wi Mons, for their owke's wages, 32s. 
August 3. — G iff en for wyne to the King at none and evin (noon and 

evening ?) 
August 5.— For 2 spikin nales to turs with Mons. 

For 6 carriage horses, to Norem fra Edinburgh with gun 
stanes that were new maid. 
August 6.— Giffen for 6 hors of carriage to Norem, wi ma (more ?) gun 

stanes, for ilk hors, 5s. 
August 7. — Giffen to the King to play at the Cartis with the Span- 

ziards at Norem, 20 unicorns. 
August 7 — To Eobin Ker for the artillery at Norem that day we cam 

away, £9 18s. 
August 1 0. — Giffen to the littill gunner that cam with the King fra 

Norem, at the King's command, 18s. 
August 11. — To Schir Thomas Gabreth, for paynting of Mons claith. 
To ane man of Sir Eobert Kerris, that brocht tithings 
to the King of the Inglismenn's coming. 
Sepi. 18. — To the workmen to bring hame Mons and other artillery 
fra Dalkeith. 



165 

Ornithological Notes. By Geoege Bolam, Berwick-on- 
Tweed. 

Honey Buzzard {Pernis apivorus). — The bird shot at Long- 
houghton Low Stead, on the 16th September, 1876, and recorded 
as a Common Buzzard (Buteo vulgaris) in the Club's Proceedings 
for that year, page 190, I have since had an opportunity of ex- 
amining, and find that it belongs to this species, a bird perhaps 
scarcely so rare in the district. It is one of the dark variety, 
and seemingly a young bird. 

Red-backed Shrike {Lanius Colliirio). — About the beginning 
of August, 1879, a boy killed a Eed-backed Shrike, with a stone, 
amongst some willows by the side of the embankment at the 
south end of the Berwick Railway Bridge, It is in the first 
year's plumage, and is now preserved in the Museum here. 
This Shrike is a rare casual visitor to the district, but several 
examples are recorded as having been captured during the last 
few years. In Scotland, generally, it appears to be increasing. 

Hoopoe ( Upupa Epops). — One was killed at Eyemouth in the 
beginning of May, 1879, and sent, for preservation, to a shop in 
Berwick, where, upon going to see it, I also saw another speci- 
men which had been shot at Holy Island four or five years pre- 
viously. During the spring of last year there were numerous 
newspaper reports of the capture of this bird in different parts 
of the country. 

Pied Plycatcher {Muscicapa atricapilla). — On the 16th of 
October last, I shot a specimen of this bird in the garden here. 
When first observed it was busily engaged catching insects, and 
this it did in exactly the manner of the Spotted Flycatcher, flit- 
ting about from branch to branch, or returning to the same 
position from which it had flown ; when sitting too, its likeness 
to the common species was very marked, in its habit of raising 
the wings and uttering a short note every now and again. 

Stock Dove {Columba CEnas). — I have to record what is, so far 
as I am aware, the first authenticated instance of the breeding 
of this bird in Scotland. On the 20th April, 1879, whilst walk- 
ing on the steep banks on the north side of the Whitadder, a 
short way above Hutton Bridge, a Stock Dove flew out some 
little way below me, and on going down to the place I was agree- 
ably surprised to find its nest, containing two eggs, a good deal 



166 Ornithological Notes, by George Bolam. 

incubated, placed a foot and a half down a rabbit hole ; after 
watching the bird for some time, and satisfjdng myself that I 
had not mistaken the species (for escaped tame pigeons breed in 
the banks in many places in the neighbourhood), I removed the 
eggs, and they now form an interesting addition to my collection. 
On re- visiting the place, about six weeks later, namely, on the 
3rd June, in company with Mr Muirhead of Paxton, we were not 
a little astonished to find that the nest contained two fine young 
ones, almost fully feathered, and we again saw the old bird leave 
the hole. — At Kyloe, in Northumberland, on 16th May of the 
same year, I took another nest of two eggs, and about the 
middle of April of the present year a third, on the banks of the 
Whitadder, near Edrington, also with full complement of eggs. 
The former of these nests was made in a rabbit hole, the latter 
in a slight natural depression of the ground, at the bottom of a 
whin bush and sheltered by long grass, which growing from 
both above and below, completely concealed it from view. This 
interesting species is fast becoming a rather common resident in 
the district, and may now be met with throughout the year, 
though most plentifully during summer. Its rapid increase may 
probably be traced as in the case of its congener, the Wood- 
pigeon, to the ruthless destruction of all so-called ''vermin" by 
the "game-preserver." 

Sabine's Snipe {Scolopax Sabini). — While walking over a 
marshy field upon Goswick Farm, in the beginning of February, 
1880, 1 flushed a specimen of this variety; it was wholly of a 
deep brown colour, and seemed to be a good deal darker than a 
Woodcock ; whilst flying past me, at a distance of perhaps 
eighty yards, it several times uttered the well-known " scrapi, 
scrapi," of the Common Snipe. In a game shop in Berwick, 
during November of last year, there was exposed for sale, 
amongst others, a Snipe of an unusually dark hue, being in fact 
almost midway in colour between Sabine's and the common 
variety ; the whole of the under parts, including the thighs, 
being blotched over with brown, and the pale margins to the 
feathers on the upper parts of the body being altogether want- 
ing — unfortunately it had been too long dead, and had received 
too much injury, to permit of its being preserved. 

Dunlin {Tringa variabilis) breeds sparingly on the Cheviot 
Hills, above Langleyford, seldom more than a single pair 



Ornithological Notes, by George Bolam. 167 

seeming to frequent the same marsh. "WTien the nest or young are 
approached, the old birds become very tame and run about with- 
in a few yards of the intruder, uttering their strange purring cry. 
Baetram's Sandpiper {Actiturus Bartramius. — A most beauti- 
ful specimen of this rare British bird was shot by Mr Jas. Grey, 
on the sea-banks at Longhoughton Low Stead, in the county of 
Northumberland, on the 21st November, 1879, and is now in my 
collection. It had been in the neighbourhood for about a week 
before it was killed, and was in the habit of frequenting the 
long grass or "bents," with which the links at Low Stead are 
covered. Mr Henry Grey, who had a very good opportunity of 
observing it while alive, and who spent a considerable time in 
watching its habits, informs me that it was not at all shy, and 
when amongst the tall grass lay like a Snipe or Woodcock, 
allowing him to approach within a few yards of it before rising, 
and when flushed, after flying for a short distance (seldom more 
than a hundred yards at a time), it would again drop into the 
long grass, or alighting on the bare sand would run off to some 
convenient place of shelter. When surprised in the open, with- 
out any covert at hand amongst which to hide, it ran very 
swiftly, frequently stopping behind a stone, or, after it had got 
some distance away from him, standing on a slight hillock or 
other eminence and watching his movements, its tail all the 
while moving up and down with a peculiar swaying sort of 
motion, not observable in any of the other Sandpipers. Its note, 
uttered for the most part when flying, was a shrill piping 
whistle. Very unfortunately it had not recovered from the 
autumnal moult, many of the feathers being only partly grown, 
while others are entirely wanting. On dissection it proved to be 
a female, and the day after it had been shot, when it came into 
my possession, weighed b^ oz., but as it was badly wounded and 
had bled a good deal, it must when newly dead, have been con- 
siderably heavier. Its measurements and description taken 
before the skin was removed were shortly as follows : — From tip 
to tip of fuUy extended wings, 22|- inches ; from tip of biU to 
tip of tail, 12|- inches ; middle toe and tarsi together 3^ inches, 
of which the tarsi measured 2 inches ; legs and feet reddish 
orange in colour, and bare of feathers for about an inch above 
the knee joint ; claws black and strong, and considerably curved. 
The tail wedge-shaped, the central feathers being 3|^ inches in 



168 Ornithological Notes, by George Bolam. 

lengtli. Tlie bill measures — to gape, If inches ; from front to 
tip, 1 1 incbes, and is slightly turned down towards the end ; in 
colour the upper half of the upper mandible is dark brown, the 
lower half and the under mandible orange yellow, except at the 
tip, which is dark brown for about a quarter of an inch in both 
upper and lower mandible. In colouring and general descrip- 
tion of plumage, this specimen agrees pretty closely with the one 
figured, and described by Mr Morris in his ''History of British 
Birds," except that in the latter case the outer feather on each 
side of the tail is said to have been white in ground colour, while 
in the present instance it is yellowish fawn like the rest of the 
tail. Professor Newton, to whose kind courtesy I am indebted 
for some interesting information on the subject, tells me that so 
far as he is aware "the Bartram's Sandpiper has, up to the 
present time, unquestionably occurred three times in England, 
namely: — One near Warwick, 31st October, 1851, Yarrell Hist. 
Brit. Birds— Ed. 3, vol, ii., page 633 ; one near Cambridge, 12th 
December, 1854, Yarrell, op. cit. — in the collection of Mr J. H. 
Gurney ; one near Falmouth, 13th November, 1865, Bullmore, 
Zoologist, 1866, page 37 ; and that Mr Murray Matthew states 
(Zoologist, 1877, p. 389) that Dr Woodforde's collection at 
Taxmton contains a sjpecimen said to have been obtained ' at 
least thirty years- ago,' on the river Parret, in the parish of 
Cambwick, Somersetshire ; while Mr Morris (Hist. Brit. Birds, 
vol. iv., p. 296) quoted from the Illustrated London News, a state- 
ment by a person signing himself ' N. S. E.' to the effect that 
he had shot one at Bigswear, on the Wye, in Gloucestershire, on 
the 19th January, 1855. As it is not known whether this last 
has ever been examined by a competent authority, the record 
can hardly at present be accepted. The species does not appear 
to have been obtained, as yet, in either Scotland or Ireland." 

Pupp {Ilachetes pugnax). — Occasionally occurs along the coast in 
autumn. There is a specimen in the Berwick Museum, which 
was killed in the early part of September, 1879, on Annstead 
farm, near Beadnell, and I have two others, the one shot at Gos- 
wick, on 12th October, 1877, the other purchased from a game 
shop in Berwick, on 4th September, 1878. and believed to have 
been killed at the mouth of the river Tweed. Two of these are 
in the winter plumage, the other is immature. In addition to 
the instances above mentioned, I have seen several specimens 



Ornitholofjical Notes, by George Bolam. 100 

wMcli were procured on the shore near Boulmer, and a few years 
ago shot one in that locality. Usually they are seen in company 
with small parties of Redshanks and other Sandpipers, but the 
Q-oswick bird was found on a grass field feeding with a large 
flock of Peewits and Golden Plovers. 

Green Sandpiper {Totanus ochropus). — Not unfrequently met 
with on the coast in autumn, appearing as early as the middle of 
July. It used regularly to visit the banks of the Till, near 
Weetwood, being generally found singly or in pairs in spring, 
and in small parties of from three to six in autumn. 

Grey Phalarope {Phalarojms hiatus). — A person named Eeed, 
living at Goswick, shot an example of this rare casual visitor 
during the autumn of 1877. When killed it was swimming on 
a small pool in front of his cottage, and was, he says, very tame. 

PoMARiNE Skua [Lestris Pomarinus). — A flock of Skuas, princi- 
pally composed of this species, visited us in October, 1879, and a 
great many were killed. One man, in whose possession I had 
an opportunity of examining eleven specimens, told me that "he 
had shot over a score to his own gun," on the 14th of that month, 
and that several other persons had killed almost as many, The 
greater number of those procured seem to have been old birds 
(or at all events not in the j^rs;^ plumage, in which stage they are 
most frequently found on our coast), and were nearly all of the 
pale variety, indeed I can only hear of two, in the uniform dark 
brown or black plumage, having been seen or obtained. In a 
young bird in the first plumage, the central tail feathers are 
scarcely half-an-inch longer than the others, while in some of 
the adults these two feathers extend as much as ?>^ inches be- 
yond the rest of the tail. Most of the birds obtained here how- 
ever, as I observe seems to have been the case elsewhere, had 
these long tail feathers broken. Three examples, shot by Dr 
Colville Brown the day before, were exhibited at the Berwick 
meeting of the Club, on the 15th of October last, but were then 
supposed to be Eichardson's Skuas. 

Buefon's Skua [Lestris longicaudus). — A single example of this 
Skua was killed at Eyemouth during November last. It is in the 
usual adult plumage, and has the central feathers 7 inches longer 
than the rest of the tail. I have not heard of any Great or Richard- 
son's Skuas being obtained during the past winter, in the district, 
and the above is the only capture of the Arctic Skua which has 

V 



170 Ornithological Notes, by George Bolam. 

come under my notice, but in other parts of England a few of each 
seem to have arrived with the flocks of Pomarine Skuas. 

Fulmar Petrel {Procellaria glacialis). — A person living in 
Spittal told me that he had shot a Fulmar in the middle of 
October, 1879, on the sands at Holy Island, and had seen 
another flying past a day or two afterwards. "The one shot 
was," he said, " of a creamy white colour all over, and came so 
close to him that he blew it all to pieces ; indeed, believing it, 
when flying, to be only a Gull, he would not have shot it but for 
its impudence in coming so near him." The man seemed so sure 
that he had not mistaken the bird, chiefly identifj^ing it by its 
peculiar bill, that I have little doubt it was really a Fulmar, and 
its extreme fearlessness, which at first attracted his attention, 
would seem to confirm this belief. A specimen was found in 
December by Mr Grey, on the shore at Low Stead, it had been 
washed up by the tide, and was when he picked it up partly 
destroyed by crows. The head, however, which is perfect, has 
been preserved. 

Glaucous Gull {Lotus glaucus). — Several mature birds of this 
kind were observed in the river here during the past winter, and 
one at least was killed. Another, which is now in my collection, 
was shot near the Berwick Eailway Bridge, in December, 1878, 
by a man then residing in Tweedmouth. Immature birds have 
been less common than usual this winter ; generally they are 
pretty frequent visitors to our harbour, and may, even at a dis- 
tance, be easily distinguished from the young of the greater 
black -backed and other Gulls, by their steady soaring flight. 

Ped-Throated Diver ( Colymbus septentrionalis). — A specimen 
in fuU. summer dress, now in the Berwick Museum, was killed at 
Holy Island, on the 25th October, 1879. Examples in this state 
of plumage are not uncommon o"n the coast early in autumn and 
late in spring, but this one seems to have been unusually late in 
changing from the summer to the winter plumage. 

Velvet Scoter ( Oidemia fused). — A male bird of this species 
frequented the rocks in the vicinity of Berwick pier throughout 
the summer of 1879. It was constantly seen by the men engaged 
at the salmon fishery there, and used often to allow their boat to 
pass quite close to it without any apparent alarm ; never more 
than one bird was seen at a time, and it remained in the neigh- 
bourhood until about the middle of September. 

Berwich-on-Tweed, 1st June, 1880, 



171 

On supposed Unpublished Verses hy Sir Walter Scott. By 
James B. Kerr, Esq. 

In the midsummer of 1877, a powerfully-built man, near 
seventy, yet active for his years, called upon me with a friend 
and asked me to negotiate for him a bill on America. This was 
at once agreed to, and, during the few minutes conversation that 
ensued, I detected a strong New York accent, varied with that 
of lowland Scotch, 

I was sufficiently interested to ask him in what part of Scot- 
land he was born. With much good nature, he informed me 
that for many years he had been a stable lad at the principal inn 
at Melrose. A beam of pleasure lighted up his face, as he told 
me that it was part of his duty to receive Sir Walter Scott when 
at Melrose, and that in giving help to the good Baronet to mount 
his pony on his return to Abbotsford, whilst many kind words 
were said to him, they were always accompanied by the gift of a 
shilling. 

His name was James Eiddle. In early life he had emigrated, 
and by steady self-denial, and hard work, had reached a com- 
petency. He was then on a visit to his native land. With 
marked reverence he related that he drove the hearse with four 
horses, which contained the body of Sir Walter Scott, to the 
burial place of his ancestors amid the ruins of Dryburgh Abbey. 

By a somewhat curious coincidence, in the summer of the 
following year, 1878, the niece of John Nicholson, who died at 
Kelso in 1841, called upon me to ask my advice respecting three 
documents, and some other articles connected with Sir Walter 
Scott, and belonging to her uncle at the time of his decease. 
Nicholson was well-known to have been in Sir Walter's house- 
hold from his boyhood, became afterwards his faithful valet, and 
Scott's family never mentioned his name without respect and 
gratitude. There can, therefore, be no doubt as to the docu- 
ments being authentic and genuine. They were : — 

1. Three supposed unpublished verses in Sir Walter Scott's 

handwriting, perhaps the last he ever wrote. The writing 
is very feeble. 

2. Passport in favour of Sir Walter Scott, signed by Prince de 

Polignac, the French Ambassador in London, and dated 
25th October, 1826, The passport bears Sir Walter's 



172 Unpublished Verses hy Sir W. Scott, by Jas. B. Kerr, 

own signature and address, viz : — Hotel Windsor, E,ue de 
Eivoli, No. 38. 

3. Diploma of th.e Society of Antiquaries of Normandy in 
favour of Sir Walter Scott, Bart., President of the Eoyal 
Society of Edinburgh, and dated A Caen, le 19 Janvier, 
1829, and bearing the signature of le President, le Sec- 
taire, le Secretaire adjoint, le Cusorier. 

What now follows in this paper refers to the supposed unpub- 
lished verses. 

The last words written by Sir Walter are said to be in the 
Gruest Book of a small inn in the Tyrol : — 

" Sir Walter Scott, for Scotland, 1832." 

In the verses submitted this day to the Club, some gentlemen 
are of opinion that they were the last ever written by him, and 
that no clean copy was made of them. I differ from this view, 
and think that a clean copy was made and presented to the 
Countess Wollenluss, and that the rough draft in my possession 
was cast aside, picked up by Nicholson, and preserved with 
many other relics of Sir Walter. 

In Lockhart's "Life" it is mentioned, that, when at Eome, a 
lady had requested him to do something which was disagreeable to 
him. He was asked whether he had consented. His answer 
was " Yes. Why,- as I am now good for nothing else, I think it 
as well to be good natured." Perhaps this anecdote may refer 
to the Countess of Wollenluss, and it would be interesting to 
trace where her family is, and if such a completed document is 
to be found in their possession. 

Assuming that there is no other copy in existence, these verses, 
as the first rough draft, are, no doubt, a literary- curiosity. 

The evidence is in them that they were written in Eome in 
April, 1832 ; and we know from Lockhart's "Life" to what extreme 
weakness Scott was reduced. Infirmity had checked his curi- 
osity. He was unable to walk. Only the aspect and society of 
Eome had for a moment checked his irritation and impatience, 
and it gave great pain to many of his old friends to see the 
ravages disease had made upon him, and that it was only when 
warmed with his subject that the light blue eye shot from under 
the pent-house brow the fire and spirit of other days. 

The hand-writing of the verses is feeble in the extreme. 
There are two mistakes in the spelling — eleven words deleted — 



Un'puhlislied Verses hy tiir W. Scott, by Jas. B. Kerr, 173 

and although, the mechanism is defective, yet there is still some 
of the glow of his early inBpiration. 

The last sayings and writings of men of genius have an in- 
terest for us all, as melancholy as it is lasting, To very many 
in his own land, and need I not say in other lands also, the ab- 
rupt pause in these verses will be touching. 

The hand that had so long swept the harp of Caledonia was 
paralysed in its effort to stir the chords again, and the re- 
sult is a tone, pure, full, and strong, suddenly checked, whose 
meaning is for ever lost in the depths of Sir Walter's own soul. 

The verses are without place and date, but being a rough 
draft, this circumstance may account for the want of them. If, 
as is supposed, they were the last Sir Walter ever wrote, the 
lines are a striking example of his chivalrous character. If he 
was at times imprudent, all know how courageous he was, and 
that his vast intellect and life were sacrificed in his deep desire 
to be honourable and independent. 

In these verses, after the great exertions Sir Walter made, and 
at the time living in a foreign land, irritated and anxious to get 
home, and with his whole system rapidly giving way, may not 
the fine line taken in all its deep humility, in which he compares 
himself to '' a withered Scottish thorn" be considered, amidst 
all his clear and cheerful, yet delicately sketched and poetically 
elevated descriptions, if not one of the finest in the English 
language, at least one of the most simple and best that Scott 
ever wrote ? 

VERSES 
WRITTEN 

BY 

THE COUNTESS OF WOLLENLUSS 
Eeques* {sic) a Eussian Lady 

Lady, they say tliy Native land 

Unlike this clime of fruit and flowers f 
Loves like the Minstrels northern strand 

The sterner share of natures powers 
Even Beautys {sic) powers of Empery 

Decay in the decaying howersj 
Untill {sic) even you may set set^^ a task 

Too heavy for the poets powers 

* For ' ' Request " ? t Originally, ' ' clime of fruit flowers and. " i " sun, ' ' 
obliterated before "bowers." § The word " set " is twice written. 



174 Unpublished Verses by Sir W. Scott, by Jas. B. Kerr. 

Mortals in vain — so says the Text 

Seek grapes from briars from thistles com 

Say can fair Wollenlus expect 
Fruit from a withered Scottish thorn 

Time once there was alas but now 
That time returns not now again 

The shades upon the Dial cast 

Proceed but pass not back again 

Yet in this land of lengthened day 

Where april wear (sic) the autumns huet 

Awakened by the genial ray 
Thoughts of past visions strive to blow 

The blood growsj warm the nerves expand 
The stiffened fingers take the pen 

And 

[In the transcript revised from the original, the i's are not dotted ; 
and there is no punctuation except a comma and a dash. The variations, 
obliterated by the author, are appended in. the Notes.] 

JVbte on the Countess Wolkonshy. 

In consequence of a copy of these fragmentary verses having 
been inserted in tbe Bristol Times and Mirror, Mr Hardy re- 
ceived a communication on tbe subject from Miss Scarth, the 
Kectory, Wrington, Somerset, dated October 17, 1879, of which 
the following is the purport : — 

"In the grounds of Villa Wolkonsky, in Eome, is an upright 
stone erected to Sir Walter Scott's memory. This inscription is 
in French. I regret I did not copy it, but the idea was : ' The 
Lamp which brightened our winter evenings is now extin- 
guished.' Countess Wolkonsky is mentioned in * A Sister's 
Story,' by Mrs Augustus Craven, in the year 1832, at which 
time she seems to have gathered round her people of cultivation 
and refinement." 

Miss Scarth kindly undertook to make inquiries at Eome, and 
communicated her success in February 26, 1880. " I said that 
perhaps I should be able to procure a copy of it through a 
friend now resident there. In a letter received from her this 
morning she says : — ' The monument, which is a piUar about 

* Thfc word "indelibly " is obliterated here, f Originally : " Where April 
wear autumnal wreath bloom;" and the latest conclusion had ended "the 
autumns glow. ' ' % Originally ' ' glows." 



Ornithological and other Notes, by Andrew Brotherston. 175 

three feet high, with a broken top, has on it 

' A Walter Scott 

La douce lampe 

de nos veillees 

s'est eteinte.' 
I have put the words in the same order exactly as they are on 
the pillar. 

" I have no doubt in my own mind that the lady who erected 
this stone, and the one to whom he addressed the verses, was in 
reality the same person. A. M. E. S." 

The reading of the MS. is certainly the " Countess Wollen- 
luss," but very probably Sir Walter in his extreme illness and 
weakness had mistaken, or half forgotten the name. Signore T. 
Catalini, the present Italian Secretary to the Court of St. 
James, thus writes, July 30th, 1880, " There is in Eome, a Villa 
Wolkonsky near ' S. Giovanni in Laterano.' I suppose that the 
Countess Wollenluss was no other than the Countess Wolkonsky, 
who belonged to a well-known family, I believe of Polish ex- 
traction." S. Catalini promises to make further inquiries. 



Ornithological and other Notes, 1879-1880. By Mr Andrew 
Brotherston, Shedden Park Koad, Kelso. 

Peregrine Falcon {Faleo peregrinus), Tunstall. — In spite of 
game-preservers, this fine bird — owing to the difficulty of trap- 
ping it — is still keeping its ground on the Borders. An adult 
female was shot near Leitholm, on May 10th, 1879, when making 
a swoop at a stuffed wood-pigeon, which was used as a decoy, 
and another, a young male, was shot by T. Taylor, Esq., at 
Hendersyde Park, January 15th, 1880. 

Hobby {Falco suhbuteo), Linn. — A very fine female specimen of 
this rare and beautiful Palcon was shot at Kelso Bridge, by Mr 
A. Steel, June 23, 1879. It frequented the district for about a 
week, during which time it was frequently seen, fljdng up and 
down the river, for a short distance above and below the bridge, 
hawking for insects, in much the same manner as the Swallow ; 
when it came to the bridge, instead of rising above it, it usually 
darted through one of the arches. A few weeks later, Capt. 
Taylor told me that he saw another at the same place. As he is 



176 Ornithological and other Notes, by Andrew Brotherston. 

a good ornitliologist, and liad previously seen the bird in the 
south, he could scarcely be mistaken. If the first bird had not 
been shot, it is probable that they might have nested in the ad- 
jacent woods of Floors, or Springwood Park. 

Tufted Duck {Fuligula cristata), LEACH.-;-On August 20th, 
1879, I received a young female from Mr A. Eobertson, which he 
had shot on Hoselaw Loch. The primaries were not over half 
grown, so that it was unable to fly, thus showing that in all 
probability it had been bred at the Loch. I think it will be 
found that the Tiifted Duck nests more frequently in this 
country than is generally supposed. See also " Proc." vol. viii., 
521. This interesting specimen is now in Kelso Museum. 

Eed-b4cked Shrike [Lanius collurio), Linn. — Near the end of 
August, 1879, a specimen was obtained amongst some willows 
near the Pailway Bridge at Tweedmouth. I am not aware of 
this species having been found so far north previously. 

The laege Eusset variety of the Common Snipe. — A speci- 
men (male) of what I take to be this variety — or perhaps distinct 
species — was shot in Liddesdale, in the beginning of October, 
1879. Besides the difference of colour, this was a larger bird 
than the Common Snipe, which appears to be a characteristic of 
the Eusset Snipe, 

PoMATOEiNE Sk'ua {Stercorarius pomatorhinus), Temm. — On 
October 11th, 1879, I received two specimens— both males— to 
preserve for the Kelso Museum, to which institution they were 
kindly presented by Mr Y. Knight, who shot them at Holy 
Island. About this time there was an extraordinary flight of 
these birds over the whole country, especially the east coast. 
The variety of colour in different individuals of this species is 
remarkable. One of them appears to be a bird of the first year. 
It is dark brown on the upper parts, the feathers on the back 
tipped with pale yellowish brown, the under parts barred with 
dark and light brown, legs pale blue in front, webs and toes 
black, the middle tail feathers barely half an inch longer than 
the others. In the older bird the back is more uniformly dark, 
while white is the prevailing colour below, mixed with blackish 
brown towards the breast and tail, the centre tail feathers three 
and a quarter inches longer. Neither had the yellow colour, in 
the side of the neck. The long tail feathers, in most of the speci- 
mens obtained at that time, were either one or both of them 



Ornithological and other Notes, by Andrew Brotherston. 177 

broken, apparently not by shot, but by some other means — pro- 
bably stormy weather. 

Leach's Petrel {Procellaria leuoorrhoa), V. — A specimen of the 
Fork-tailed Petrel was found dead near Eckford, December 3rd, 

1879. Another sea-bird — a Razor-bill — was found near More- 
battle, in the middle of March following. 

Egyptian Goose (Anser Egyptiacus), Jentns. — One of these 
handsome geese was shot on the Teviot, March 2nd, 1880. From 
the appearance of one of the wings, which was "pinioned," it 
had been a tame bird. 

" Masked " Gull {Larus capistratus), Flem. — On February 5th, 

1880, I received an immature male specimen of this interesting 
gull. It was shot near Berwick by Mr T. Darling. Its habits 
he observed were solitary, sitting outside of the flocks of the 
Blackheaded and Common Gulls, and not rising with them when 
frightened off. It was very fat and in good condition. Weight 
rather under 8^ oz. ; length from bill to end of tail, 14;^ in. ; 
length from bill to end of wings, \Q\ in, ; length of wing from 
carpal joint, 11 in. ; expanse of wings, 35^ in. ; bill, tarsi, and 
toes, same as given by YarreU (1843), vol. iii. 431. Ornitholo- 
gists differ as to whether the " Masked " Gull is a distinct species, 
or merely a small specimen of the Blackheaded Gull {Larus ridi- 
hundus). iSize is not a safe characteristic to go by, as individual 
specimens of many species of birds vary more in size, than that 
between the "Masked" and Blackheaded Gulls. The habit of 
remaining after the others take flight, is interesting. Yarrell 
quotes a similar instance: — "It was found associating with 
several of the Blackheaded species, but remained after all its 
congeners had taken wing." Prof. Newton, writes regarding 
this specimen : — "I have long had great doubts whether such a 
species as the '■ Masked Gull ' exists. All the specimens bearing 
that name, which have come under my inspection, have certainly 
been immature Black-headed Gulls— rather smaller in size than 
the average. Such a bird (in summer plumage) as that figured 
by YarreU, I have not met with, and I imagine that the small 
size of the dark mask must have been due to the stuffer not having 
pulled the skin back to its proper place after operating upon it. 
Whether or not a distinct species, I think there is no doubt 
that this specimen is what was considered by Yarrell, and others, 
to be the ' Masked Gull.' " It is now in Berwick Museum. 

W 



178 Remarks on Wallace's Trench, by Thos. Craig-Brown. 

Death's Head Moth. — I have seen two lately; one was caught 
at Cliffton Park, July 8th, the other in a greenhouse at Kelso, 
August 5th, 1880. 

August 9fh, 1880. 



Remarks on Wallace's Trench, Selkirkshire. By Thomas 
Craig-Brown, Esq., Wooclburn, Selkirk. 

It may be said that the Trench lies almost direct north and 
south, stretching from the summit to the base of a steep hill 
called the " Brown Knowe " on the Ordnance Survey Maps. It 
is intersected near the lower end by the well-known mountain- 
road leading from Yarrow over Minchmoor to Tweed. The 
trench below this road is deep and clearly traceable, but not 
being certain at what point it lost itself in a ravine, which, if it 
ever was artificial, is now apparently a natural gxiHy, we did not 
measure this end. From the Minchmoor road to the top of the 
hill, Wallace's Trench proper may be said to be 1,600 feet in 
length, but on nearing the top it deflects a little to the right, 
and thence forms one side of a rather extensive rectangular en- 
closure. [By a sketch-plan annexed, the distance from the hill- 
road upwards to the fortified enclosure is 1,100 feet ; then after 
a slight interruption, there are 200 feet of the trench in the same 
continuous line, tiU it bends round and forms the side of the en- 
closure for other 300 feet. The distance across the enclosure 
from E. to W. is 100 feet.] The. opposite side is a weU-marked 
shallow fosse and rampart, but the Trench itself is deep enough 
to hide a man on horseback [this I tried myself on a previous 
visit] for several hundred yards. It is laboriously constructed, 
the high ramparts on either side, being in many places paved 
with flat whinstones set on edge. Except that it is in close 
vicinity to the Oatrail, it has nothing to do with it. Compara- 
tively speaking, it is a bit of modern military engineering, as 
contrasted with that ancient work. 



179 

Sea Trout or Common Trout — The Carham Pond Experi- 
ments. By Mr Andrew Brotherston. 

On May 17th, 1874, 133 fish, averaging about 7 or 8 inches in 
length, were selected as good examples of Orange-fins and placed 
in artificial ponds at Carham. They were examined, weighed and 
measured at intervals, and on May 2nd, 1879, after five years 
confinement, 30 of them were weighed, measured, and marked, 
and returned to the Tweed. One of them was caught near 
Birgham, on June 4th or 5th and sent to me for preservation. 
Inserted into the flesh behind the adipose fin, was a silver wire, 
on which was stamped Tweed IY. I communicated the fact to 
Mr List, asking particulars about it, when he kindly informed 
me, that it was one of the fish taken from Carham Pond, on May 
21, 1879, at which time it was 12 inches long, and 12 ounces in 
weight. When recaptured it was 12^ inches long, and weighed 
lOf oz. Another, marked Tweeb HI (also preserved), was cap- 
tured near the same place, on or about July 17th. It was then 
17^ inches long, and weighed 28^ oz. From Mr List, I learned 
that it was the same length and weight when placed in the 
Tweed. Both were undoubtedly common Trout ! Another, I did 
not see, but got the wire with which it had been marked (Tweed 
If> ) from the person who caught it ; he said it was from a common 
Trout, and being an experienced fisher, it is very probable that 
he was correct. It was captured below Kelso Bridge on the 5th 
of July and weighed 21b, Soz., length not taken ; when liberated 
it was 1 8^ inches long, and same weight when recaptured. 

There is a paper in the "Proceedings," vol. viii., p. 169, by 
Mr Huntley, and another (173) by Mr Stirling, on these fish. 
Both papers lead to the belief that all the 133 Orange-fins placed 
in the ponds on May 17th, 1874, were the young of " Sea Trout." 
It is very probable that some of them were, but all were not ! 
By referring to these papers it will be seen that all those who 
examined them, except two — Major Dickens and T. T. Stoddart 
— were unanimous in the conviction that they had successively 
exchanged the character of Orange-fins for that of Black-tail and 
Whitling ; the above two gentlemen maintaining that they were 
Common YeUow or White Trout. In a case of this kind, if ex- 
periments are to be of any use, there should be some unmistake- 
able characteristic, whereby the dijSerent species of the Salmonida, 



180 Straw Bonds, by G. H. Thompson. 

may be distinguished in their different stages. Colour, spotting^ 
number of fin-rays, and general appearance, are very uncertain 
marks. The dentition is more satisfactory, although some say 
otherwise. Excepting hybrids (which cannot be referred with 
certainty to any of them) it holds good in all that I have ex- 
amined. The following is condensed from Sir John Eichardson's 
edition of Yarrell's " British Fishes ": — 

Salmo. — A few teeth on the front of the vomer, but none ex- 
tending backwards along the mesial line. 

S. solar, L. — Salmon. 

S. eriox, L. — Grey Trout — Bull Trout. 

8. sahelinus. — Charr. 

Faeio. — Salmons with a single row of teeth running along the 
mesial Hne of the vomer. 

F. argenteus, Yal. — S. trutta, L. — Salmon Trout. 

F. Levenensis (Yarr.) — Lochleven Trout. 

Salab. — Vomer armed with two rows of teeth, without the re- 
markable group in front, such as exists in Salmo and Fario. 

S. Ansonii, Val. — Common Trout. 

S.ferox (Yarr.), Great Lake Trout. 

There are other differences, such as the form of the gill-covers, 
&c. 

Assuming these characters of the dentition to be correct, the 
fish figured and described at p. 175 of last volume of the " Pro- 
ceedings " could not be a Sea Trout (^S. eriox or trutta), but was 
either a Common Trout or a hybrid, as it had the double row of 
vomerine teeth, whereas the Salmon Trout has one row, and the 
Bull Trout none on the mesial line. 

Straw Bonds. 

Is there anything known of an old practice in money lending, 
to give a straw-hond ? This was a number of straws bound to- 
gether lengthwise, and then divided with a knife ; the lender 
and the borrower each keeping one half. My informant, Mr 
Eobt. Simmons, of Netherton, buried an old man forty years ago, 
who had had dealings in this way. This man, John Ttirnbull, 
was 80 years of age when he died, so that the practice must have 
existed in the latter part of last century. I have made many 
enquiries, but Mr Simmons is the only person who seems to be 
acquainted with the matter now. 

Alnwick, 1880. G. H. Thompson. 



181 

Obituary Notice of Mr George Shield. 

When recently discussing with our learned Secretary tlie pro- 
priety of allowing a niche in the Obituary Notices of the Berwick- 
shire Naturalists' Club for persons, who, though not members, 
had directly or indirectly, from their scientific acquirements, 
furnished information to forward our inquiries, I was well 
pleased to have the acquiescence of one of our ablest members, 
who accompanied us. Such was, likewise, the view taken by 
our secretary, from whom I lately had a request to furnish a 
short biographical notice of the late George Shield of Wooler, 
long known as an earnest prosecutor of scientific research. I am 
persuaded that it cannot but be pleasing to our members to 
preserve from oblivion the names of men, who, though unob- 
trusive and retiring, had possessed and exercised that faculty for 
investigation, so essential to the study of nature. 

George Shield was born in Tweedmouth, about the year 1804 ; 
and his daughter writes, that, from his earliest years, he had 
been a close student of Natural History. Like many of the 
Berwick youths at that time, he found his way to London, and 
obtained employment in the establishment of a tailor. After a 
few years spent in the metropolis his health seems to have failed, 
and at 30 years of age we find him married and settled in the 
country town of Wooler. Though for a few subsequent years 
engaged in his trade, or in instructing the young men apprenticed 
to him, he found leisure for an occasional ramble on the shores 
of the Fame Islands, St. Abb's Head, or among the upland valleys 
of the Cheviot HiUs. 

At that time Mr Selby, of Twizel, was engaged in preparing 
his work on British Ornithology, and the subject of our memoir 
had occasional interviews with that distinguished naturalist, from 
whom he must have acquired that impulse, which induced him, 
at the age of 40, to retire from his profession and devote his time 
nearly exclusively to science. Being in the prime of life he was 
able to undertake long walks and excursions, during which he 
captured many rare specimens, which he carefully stuffed or etched 
upon steel. This art he acquired by perseverance, having had 
no preliminary instruction, even in sketching, which will astonish 
those who have seen his life-like engraving of the " Eough-legged 
Buzzard." In this way he gradually elaborated plates, which 



182 Obituary Notice of Mr George Shield. 

were fitted to illustrate a work on the scale of tliat of Audubon 
or Selby. The last-named ornithologist had, however, just com- 
pleted his standard work on British Ornithology, and publishers 
were unwilling to speculate upon another work on so large and 
expensive a scale. I remember, when a boy, visiting the studio 
of George Shield, with a few London friends of my father, and 
listening to their suggestions as to publishing; and offers of 
assistance towards carrying out his object. The work, as at first 
intended, was perhaps wisely discontinued; but in many a 
Northumbrian house is to be found, one, at least, of the large 
preparatory plates. They are remarkable for their truth to 
nature, and the dash and liveliness of the attitudes characteristic 
of their subjects. This knowledge had been acquired by direct 
study of the habits of living specimens, with which his house 
and garden were often filled. A few specimens which I was 
fortunate in having stuffed by him, I esteem as equal to any- 
thing I have seen in the largest collections of the old or new 
world. G-eorge Shield was frequently on the Fame Islands in 
search of specimens, and had formed the acquaintance of the 
Darling family. During her last iQness, poor Grace, the heroic 
daughter of the Darlings, found an asylum for change of air 
under their friend's roof at Wooler, where her mild and unas- 
suming figure might have been seen in the Parish Church of a 
Sunday. A decline removed her while yet young, but the 
fragrance of her hazardous adventure of loving benevolence has 
not perished ; but is the watchword of the fishing-boat, and a 
treasure in the bosom of the hardy mariner as he steers past the 
solitary Fame Isles, as the waves rise. 

When a lad, I frequently visited Mr Shield's room, where I 
listened with all the ardour of youth to the narrative of his 
adventures.^' My nerves would quiver as he described himself 
suspended by many fathoms of fishing lines over the rocks at 
TantaUon, in quest of sea-birds' eggs, or the young of the Pere- 
grine or Osprey. The danger seemed nothing compared with 
the honour of overcoming it in the cause of science ; and an ex- 
cursion was soon arranged, with men and ropes, to the rocky 
side of Cheviot. 

There, suspended over the Bizzle Cliff, I endeavoured to procure 

* [Mr SHeld, I am told, was a good narrator, and enchained as by a spell, 
a youthful audience.— J. H.] 



Obituary Notice of Mr George Shield. 183 

one specimen of the Peregrine's eggs ; but alas ! tlie nest 
had been previously robbed by a ruthless town collector, who, 
for a number of seasons had carried off the eggs or young of 
these handsome, but now rare birds. Mr Shield had acquired a 
knowledge of science generally, and I am informed had delivered 
numerous lectures to the Mechanics' Institute of Wooler, on such 
subjects as "Astronomy," ''Electricity," " Eaces of Men," and 
''Geology." [He communicated several hints to his friend, Mr 
Mackay Wilson, which are embodied in his well-known " Tales 
of the Borders."] 

For some time he was engaged in writing an " Exposition of 
the Prophecies of Daniel and St. John," but none of his papers 
have been published. This work, regarding which I have fre- 
quently talked with him, showed much ingenuity and research, 
but might not agree with the views of all who have made that 
subject a study. 

George Shield was possessed of a refined taste, gentle manner, 
and a most obliging disposition. His health, which was never 
robust, became impaired towards the end of his life-time by fre- 
quent attacks of rheumatism, the result of his early adventures ; 
but a severe attack of cold, during which he superintended the 
decorations for a large public dinner in "Wooler, seems to have 
accelerated his end. He died on the 29th January last, in the 
76th year of his age. His keen and suggestive intellect seemed 
to me admirably adapted for chemical investigation, in which 
branch of science I have no doubt, he would have attained to 
eminence ; but his greatest effort was in the line of ornithology, 
for which too much had just been accomplished, by an able and 
more wealthy contemporary, to leave him a chance of authorship. 

His six plates are the size of life, and are — 1. The Peregrine 
Falcon; 2. The Water Hens; 3. The Eough-legged Buzzard; 
4. The Titmouse and Finches; 5. The Cormorant; 6. Black- 
birds and Thrush. 

G. P. H. 

17th July, 1880. 



184 

Obituary Notices. By James Hardy. 

MR "WILLIAM RICHARDSON, ALNWICK. 

William Eichaedson was born at tlie village of Hebbtirn, 
near CMUingliam, August 31st, 1797. At present Hebburn, 
situated in an angle of the steep public road that leads over a 
natural pass between tbe roots of Eas-Castle and Hebburn bills, 
skirting the Earl of Tankerville's Park wall, consists of a double 
row of bumble cottages, one on each side of tbe highway, but 
not exactly opposite each other. Some of them have flower-plots 
in front. Higher up, is a gushing spring of limpid water, by 
the way- side, most refreshing to the traveller. The place had 
been much more populous, as is indicated by the large ash trees 
on the right hand as one ascends, that once sheltered the garden- 
plots, when occupied by the retainers of the Hebburn family, 
the ruins of whose old tower stand on the right, within the pre- 
cincts of the deer-park. At the period referred to, the j)ro- 
prietrix of the Hebburn estate, was Mrs Brudenell, the heiress 
of the old family of Hebburn (which dated from the period of 
King John), who, on coming of age, had made an unfortunate 
marriage with the Eev. Edward Brudenell, an unworthy dissi- 
pated man, of noble birth, who spent her means and neglected 
her, and from whom she was obliged to separate with a very 
restricted maintenance. Eelieved by his death in 1804, this once 
gay and light-hearted lady entered once more on her hereditary 
estates, and came back at the age of 66 — " a shattered, feeble, 
old woman" — to the hills and ruined castle of her ancestors. 
She died at Tadcaster, Dec, 1806, and out of gratitude left her 
landed property to her friend, Mrs Fletcher, wife of Mr Archi- 
bald Fletcher, an eminent Whig lawyer, and a member of the 
famous literary society of Edinburgh of a bygone period. The 
Fletchers spent part of the summer and autumn of 1807 at Heb- 
burn House. Mrs Fletcher speaks of it as situated " at the sum- 
mit of a bleak, bare hill. It was built by the late Mr Brudenell, 
who pulled down an old baronial castle which time had spared, 
and fixed upon precisely the only part of the estate which afibrds 
a prospect utterly devoid of picturesque beauty." Mrs Fletcher 
describes the condition of the village of Hebburn, when William 
Eichardson would be ten years old, and he probably participated 
in the picture here presented. 



Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 185 

" The village of Hebburn is a short mile from us. There has 
not been a school there in the memory of man. Last Sunday 
(July, 1807) we assembled about twenty children in the remains 
of the old castle, read a little appropriate address to them, and 
prevailed on them to accompany us to church, about a mile dis- 
tant from the village. They had never been in any place of 
worship. Their parents were chiefly Dissenters, and their 
chapels and tabernacles were many miles distant, too far for the 
children to travel barefooted ; so they were suffered to run wild 
on Sunday. I was much pleased with the liberality of the 
parents ; there was no bigotry amongst them, for, though of 
many diff'erent persuasions, they all willingly sent their children 
to accompany us to the nearest place of worship. The children 
on their part were delighted ; most of them could read ; and we 
agreed that 'the Sermon on the Mount' was good for us all." 
The ^Fletchers appear not to have sufficiently appreciated their 
romantic Northumbrian property, which was purchased in 1817 
by the Earl of Tankerville, whose estate of Chillingham adjoined 
it, and who added the wild part of Hebburn to his range for the 
celebrated wild cattle.^" 

Long ere this latter event, William Eichardson had left his 
paternal residence to commence the business of life, having 
served his apprenticeship to the trade of a saddler. Whether in 
his youth he culled the wild flowers from Hebburn Wood, and 
was then struck with their singularities, or whether the images 
of their beauties remained as an abiding joy in his memory in 
after years, to influence him in the studies of his maturity, we 
know not. In the rough rocky bottom sheltered by the native 
oaks, the rare Trientalis Europcsa, springs up in all its grace and 
in full luxuriance ; and Oxalis is still more profuse in its tender 
verdure, and offers here in its flowering ]3lots, a pink variety 
with purple veins, which is a charming addition to the flower 
border. A peculiar form of Melampyrum pratense, and the rosy- 
bloomed Vaccinium Vitis-Idcea, are distributed among the purple 
heather on the heights that margin the wide brown craggy 
moors behind ; and also ornament the bilberry-clad summit of 
Eas Castle, that most conspicuous land-mark from districts far 
away. He would know about them afterwards, but it was not 
here, that he was to commence his first searches after wild plants. 
* Autobiography of Mrs Fletcher, pp. 96, 97, 93, etc. 

X 



186 Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 

His daughter, Mrs Gibb, says, "he was always fond of flowers, 
and took great pleasure in gardening, but it was not till the year 
1846,. that he commenced the study of Botany, which he pur- 
sued, I may say, until his death." 

Mrs Gribb's narrative enables me to continue the story of this 
amiable and worthy man. " The pleasure which he derived 
from Botany must have been very great ; for his business took 
up most of his time, and he was seldom absent from his place in 
the shop. He was, however, happily situated for carrying on 
his botanical studies, the surrounding country being rich in 
plants. Early and late he prosecuted his search for them, and 
every public holiday was specially devoted to the procuring of 
those specimens that were not within immediate walking dis- 
tance. Kyloe Crags, Cheviot Hills, and Holy Island were 
periodically visited by him ; and many other places of less note, 
but not less cherished by him, from furnishing the habitats of 
certain plants not seen elsewhere. He was an excellent walker, 
and did not fail to tax himself to the very utmost ; always 
arranging the plants for botanical specimens, that same evening, 
although often very tired. He was most particular about leaving 
the roots of rare plants, lest they should become extinct ; and I 
have often heard him speak with sorrow at what he called the 
'rapacity' of collectors. He did not think those were true 
botanists, that would, in thorough wantonness, carry away roots 
of the rarer species, where it could be avoided." 

Mr Eichardson's careful surveys resulted in the finding of a 
variety of new localities for several rare species, which brought 
him several correspondents. From their communications I shall 
select a few notices either illustrative of the local Flora, or that 
afford passing glimpses of Mr Eichardson as a man. 

Mr Eichardson was the discoverer of Allium Schcenoprasum, or 
Chives, growing in a wild state on the back of Spindlestone Hill. 
With this Dr Johnston of Berwick was greatly pleased, and there 
are three notes preserved, two of dates June 25th and one on 
the 28th, probably in the year 1852, fixing a meeting with Mr 
E. to visit the station. Dr J. writes : " The plants can only be 
Allium Schcenoprasum, of which, however, I never saw a native 
specimen. Although my time is uncertain and not at command, 
yet I may endeavour to find a few hours to go in search of it." 
Let us hope that this pilgrimage was accomplished with mutual 
satisfaction. 



Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 187 

Mr Eichardson's correspondence in connection with the Thirsk 
Botanical Exchange Club, had commenced with Mr J. G. Baker, 
F.L.S., in 1861, and there are a series of notes down to 1872. In 
1864 and 1866, we find him contributing notes of localities of 
rare species to Messrs Baker and Tate's "New Mora of North- 
umberland and Durham," published by the Tyneside Naturalists' 
Field Club. The following notes form a sort of Adversaria on 
some of the entries in that useful and painstaking work. 

Among the plants forwarded in 1864, there were two species 
of Thalictrum from Kyloe. "The smaller," Mr Baker writes, 
"is evidently the inland rupestral form of T. minus called 
calcareum by Jordan, and montanum by Wallroth ; the large one, 
although there is no fruit on your example, I think we are quite 
safe in referring to T.flexuosumy ISee " New Flora," &c., p. 114. 

In 1863, Mr E. finds "a form of Barlarea vulgaris with upper 
leaves resembling those of B. stricta ; but in true stricta, the pods 
are rigid and adpressed to the stem." 

In 1864, Alyssum calycinwm, an alien, was gathered by Mr E. 
" on the Eailway side south of Warkworth Station ;" and in the 
same year Polystichum angulare was gathered in Cauledge woods 
near Alnwick. 

Sept. 10th, 1865, Mr Baker mentions : "There are fine speci- 
mens of Hymenophjllum Wilsoni in Winch's Herbarium from 
Bickerton, near Eothbury, gathered by Sir Walter Trevelyan, 
who told me he had got it again lately in the same place." Mr 
E. had obtained local specimens somewhere to send to his friends. 

On Aug. 9, and Dec. 20, 1865, Mr Baker informs him that he 
had found Agrimonia odorata near the ruins of Staward Peel. 
Although he calls Mr E's attention to it, he appears never to 
have found it at Kyloe Crags, where it had been gathered by 
Professor Oliver. Hieracium pallidum, which Mr E. had got on 
the basalt at Kyloe and Spindlestone, had made itself quite at 
home on the rockery at Thirsk, and satisfied Mr Baker with its 
identity with the Teesdale plant. 

On specimens of Potentilla alpestris from Spindlestone, June 
12th, 1867, Mr Baker observes, "I do not see any material 
differences between them and the Teesdale and Craven alpestris. 
Undoubtedly it and verna come very close to one another." 

In 1865, Mr Eichardson's attention is directed by the same 
diligent investigaier to the Eubi ; the results were that of the 



188 Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 

specimens assembled, tbe following were some of tbe local forms : 
1. rudut 2. rhamnifolius grown in the sbade ; 3, radula; 4. 
corylifoUus ; 5. umhrosus ; &. ccesius. Again a packet of T^wJe from 
Belford produced radula and umhrosus ; and one from Buston in- 
cluded diversifolius, corylifoUus, radula, and macrophyllus. 

About 1868, Mr Eicbardson sent a Rosa from tbe neigbbour- 
bood of Alnwick, wbicb Mr Baker pronounced to be R. systyla, 
wbicb was not known witb certainty before in England, north- 
ward of Worcestershire ; and subsequently Dr Henry Trimen 
confirmed tbe accuracy of this determination. Somewhat later, 
he sent what was considered to be R. micrantha, which was " new 
to Northumberland ; the most northern station in Britain, being 
Sandsend near Whitby." It is not included in the "New Flora." 

On the 28th July, 1869, he sent to Dr Trimen, Rosa Forsteri of 
Smith {R. urhica of Leman), a sub-species of R. canina ; and also 
the form called R. sarmentacea of Woods {R. dumalis of Bechstein). 

Lastly, in 1872, he communicates to Mr Baker and Dr Trimen 
his grand discovery of Psamma Baltica on Eoss links, and Mr 
Baker congratulates him, Aug. 8 : ''I am very glad that the 
discovery of such a very decided novelty has fallen to Mr 
Eichardson ;" and Dr Trimen hailed '' the very interesting and 
important discovery." 

Mr Eichardson's other plants are recorded in the " New 
Elora;" in Mr Tate's "History of Alnwick;" and in his own 
papers in Irvine's " Phytologist." 

Mr Eichardson was very careful in drying his plants, and 
those with whom he exchanged compliment him on their being, 
as one expressed it, " perfect" as specimens, the examination of 
them as he phrases it making "one's mouth water." He was 
also liberal in distributing his duplicates, without expectation of 
return. The Eev. Wood Eobert says that Mr Eichardson " did 
indeed act on the principle — never to forget to return a benefit — 
and I think in some instances you restore fourfold." He was 
kind and conciliatory to young beginners. One, in the fullness 
of his heart, informs him that " he is very fond of plants," and 
has got together nearly four hundred British species, kept in 
portfolios of his own construction. He offers Mr E, a living 
plant of Angelica Archangelica or Heracleum giganteum, which is 
quite in the grandiose style of a boy's gratitude. Bazaar con- 
tributors also apply to him, one lady being sure that with his 



Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 189 

aid she could get up two dried collections of British ferns, to sell 
at £1 each set, for the benefit of a " church restoration fund." 
No wonder how the stock of British ferns is rapidly diminishing. 

Mr Eichardson's kindly disposition was manifested on hearing 
of the misfortunes of his fellow naturalists in a variety of circum- 
stances. He could at least speak a comforting word in season, 
to refresh or uphold the downcast. The following quotation in 
reference to some such occasion, is from a letter of Mr John 
Sim, dated Perth, 16th June, 1872. '' I return you my warmest 
thanks for your very generous and friendly epistle, which this 
morning I had the pleasure to receive. I very much admire the 
simple, earnest, unaffected style in which it is written ; the 
words evidently emanated from the pen of one who possesses an 
amiable and benevolent spirit ; a man of noble soul and large 
heart, who loves all mankind — the world wide — and rejoices in 
the happiness and welfare of our common humanity. Would to 
God we had more of such men ; a new and auspicious era would 
dawn upon our sin-curst earth, and our fair and fertile globe 
would soon again be 'Paradise restored.' " 

In 1866, Mr Eichardson sustained a great domestic affliction in 
the death of a beloved daughter, which he bore, although feeling 
keenly, with Christian fortitude. In 1868, he experienced 
another deprivation in the loss by consumption of his promising 
nephew, William Eichardson, jun. This youth stayed in Mr 
Eichardson's house, while learning to be a schoolmaster, and his 
uncle taught him botany. His nephew was a great help to him 
in drying plants, arranging his exchanges, and doing part of his 
correspondence. He contributed a pleasing notice of Eatcheugh 
Crag and its Plants to the new series of the " Phytologist," vol. 
v., pp. 97-100 (1861). Had he been spared, and given his at- 
tention to Botany, he might have become a very successful 
observer. 

Mr Eichardson's modesty prevented him from contributing to 
any extent to Botanical periodicals, and when he did venture, he 
appended only his initials, to what the editor speaking of the 
first, calls " one of the most important contributions I have had 
for many a month." I am only acquainted with the articles 
which he furnished to the "Phytologist," conducted by his 
friend and correspondent, the late Mr Alexander Irvine. They 
are : 1. Eare Plants near Spindlestone, Northumberland, Phytol. 



190 Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 

v., pp. 79-81 (1861) ; 2. Botany of Hulne Park, lb. v., pp. 193- 
198 (1861). In this, wbat is called Corydalis solida proved to be 
a foreign species of Bielytra, either formosa or Canadensis ; 3. On 
the plants of Holy Island, lb. vi., pp. 10-15 (1862). Dr Henry 
Trimen's description of Psamma Baltica appeared with a plate in 
the "Journal of Botany," 1872; and is transferred with some 
additional remarks from a different source to the Club's Proceed- 
ings, vol. vi., pp. 441-443. 

He had become connected with the Thirsk Botanical Exchange 
Club in 1861, and in 1864 was elected a corresponding member 
of the Society of Amateur Botanists (Science Grossip), 192 
Piccadilly, W. It was not tiU Sept, 29th, 1875, that he joined 
the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, but he had previously at- 
tended many of the meetings, with great zest. There was a 
meeting at Kyloe Crags, on May 25th, 1870, at which he was 
present ; and to it the following extract from a letter of the Eev. 
Wood Eobert, Westward vicarage, Wigton, refers. " What a 
treat your excursion with the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 
must ha.ve been. Did it not revive some of your old enthusiasm, 
and raise again some of that feeling and spirit, by which I well 
recollect you were once described as that ' energetic Botanist, our 
correspondent from Alnwick, Mr Richardson.' " 

Mr Eichardson's extensive Herbarium, amassed from a great 
variety of sources, was bequeathed to his grandson, the son of 
our active corresponding member, Mr T. H. Gibb, Alnwick. 

I shall now resume Mrs Gibb's narrative. "I think Holy 
Island woidd be amongst the last places he visited. The August 
holiday was always devoted to that place. Sometimes he staid 
over the night. I need scarcely say, that it was at that time he 
discovered the Psamma Baltica. You cannot conceive what 
pleasure that gave him. As you know he was a man of few 
words, and shrank from his name being brought forward ; but 
he could not conceal from us how very pleased he was, when it 
was declared to be a real discovery. 

"Of late years he was greatly failed. I mean old age crept 
on his physical frame — but he was, as far as his mind was con- 
cerned, as young as ever. He took the same interest in his 
botanic garden, especially his roses, as ever he did ; and in pas- 
sing events, and people and things surrounding him. He never 
was an old man in the true sense ; I never thought him old. He 



Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 191 

read with great pleasure Smiles' book on Edwards tbe. Naturalist ; 
it just suited liim. The wonderful perseverance and self-denial 
of that man were just exactly what he liked and believed in ; 
being of opinion that with persistent application, a man could 
attain to be master of any branch of art and study ; quite as 
much so as a man with natural talent or aptitude for the same." 

Mr Eichardson died at Alnwick, April 18th, 1879, in his 80th 
year ; leaving with his relatives at the close, the consolatory re- 
flection, ''that he is now enjoying that glorious hereafter for 
which he lived." 

The Alnwick Scientific and Mechanical Institution at their 
general meeting, Dec. 2, 1879, passed the following resolution : 

" By the death of Mr William Eichardson we have lost an old 
and valued member. He was one of the last of that small band 
of pioneers who strove so nobly in the early years of this Society 
to give life, energy, and stability to its undertakings. As a 
student, and afterwards as a teacher, he attended some of the 
earliest classes taught in connection with this Institution ; and 
the advantages that he derived from such agencies were so great 
that he was ever afterwards anxious that others should partici- 
pate in the same privileges. For years he served on the Com- 
mittee, and in that capacity he was acting at the time of his 
death. His wise counsel and conciliatory manner, combined 
with great business experience, always commanded among those 
with whom he acted, the utmost respect. As Mr Eichardson ad- 
vanced in years, it must have been a source of no ordinary grati- 
fication to him, to see the labours of this Society attended with 
such beneficial results." 



JAMES MAIDMENT, ESQ., ADVOCATE. 

While the Club in its original constitution embraced both the 
studies of Natural Science and Antiquities, much more promi- 
nence has been allotted in its obituary notices to those of its dis- 
tinguished members who were Naturalists, than to those who 
were equally profound Antiquarians. As an instance of such 
partiality, we have passed by Sir James Simpson, as also some 
others ; but fortunately a studious life is often a long one, and 
we have not many such deprivations to record. One eminent 
man we have recently lost, one known to very few among us, 
who probably never attended a Club meeting, never with buoyant 



192 Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 

companions traversed the hill- sides, looked out to sea from the 
giddy cliffs, pondered by the lone barren beaches, tracked the 
romantic streams, or penetrated the remote glens and deep 
woodland retreats of the Border-land ; never penned a paper for 
the *' Proceedings ;" never picked up one of the beautiful wild 
flowers of the Border, nor listened charmed to the song of its 
free-throated warblers, hunted after its insects, or sought out any 
other of the varied components of its Fauna ; never hammered a 
rock, exposed a fossil, or sketched a section ; never even viewed 
its ruinous castles, and half obliterated encampments, or the 
luxurious environments of its modern mansions ; or traced on 
wild moors and craggy wastes the remaius of its ancient forgotten 
people ; was neither meteorologically nor hygrometrically obser- 
vant ; never even thought that it was a matter of obligation in a 
member to perform any of all these open or private manifesta- 
tions of interest in the Club's aims and objects ; but with quiet 
and unostentatious approval adhered to us for a long series of 
years, contented to observe that at least some others were busy, 
bringing free-will and not tasked offerings, and that the results 
although not particularly brilliant or new, had at least a certain 
value ; and that as the years advanced the institution was still 
maintained in good heart, and in favourable reputation. This 
was Mr James Maidment, the friend of Sir Walter Scott, Charles 
Kirkpatrick Sharpe, Eobert Pitcairn, John Eiddell, and others 
of a bygone period, famous as literary devotees, lovers of rare 
books, or proficients in genealogical inquiries. 

The son of a London solicitor, Mr Maidment was born there 
towards the close of the last century, and, like his father, chose 
the law as his profession ; having, on the adoption of Edinburgh 
as a residence, become a member of the Faculty of Advocates. 
It was, however, as an antiquarian litterateur that he was best 
known ; and it was probably in connection with such pursuits 
that he formed a friendship with Sir Walter Scott, which was 
only severed by the novelist's death. 

Mr Maidment, at the time of his death, was the last remaining 
of the 25 members who originally constituted the Bannatyne 
Club in the year 1823. He was also an active participant in the 
Abbotsford Club, established like the Bannatyne, for the publi- 
cation of literary rarities ; and he contributed to the works of the 
Spottiswoode Society. 



Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 193 

Mr Maidment's publications were very numerous, and only 
printed in small numbers of copies ; almost every one of them is 
now out of print. Nearly all his works were publisbed through, 
the medium of Mr John Stevenson, antiquarian bookseller, — Sir 
Walter Scott's " True Jock " — or his son, Mr Thomas G. Steven- 
son. Mr Stevenson drew up and issued in the year 1859, "A 
Bibliographical List of the Various Publications by James Maid- 
ment, advocate, Edinburgh, from the year 1817 to 1859, in- 
clusive," in royal octavo. This has, without acknowledgment, 
been transferred to the Appendix to ''Lowndes' Manual" — see 
Bohn's Edition, As Mr Maidment's life is written in his works, 
I have obtained Mr Stevenson's consent to reproduce the list, 
with subsequent additions and particulars from his personal ac- 
quaintance with his writings. Two works, however, are ex- 
cepted, on the authority of Mr W. H. Logan, as being his pro- 
ductions, and not Mr Maidment's, viz. : — No. 24 of Lowndes' 
List, " West Digges' Correspondence with Mrs Ward ;" and No. 
36, "Memoir of Archibald Maclaren, Dramatist." 

Mr Maidment was a contributor to " Notes and Queries." In 
one of his notices in particular, I observed that both he and 
Mr Logan had confounded Burnmouth, a locality in the ancient 
Ettrick Forest — an old mustering ground for Scottish armies — 
with the modern fishing hamlet of Burnmouth, near Berwick. 
The inference deduced from this mistake — that the country be- 
tween Burnmouth and Berwick was formerly covered with wood, 
has no foundation whatever. Mr Maidment's books and collec- 
tions of papers were much enriched by annotations drawn from 
the store-house of his vast experience. 

Mr Maidment was considered as an authority on genealogical 
matters. Among other fruits of his labours in this field were 
" Eeports of Claims preferred to the House of Lords in the cases 
of Cassilis, Sutherland, Spynie, and Glencairn Peerages." More 
recently he prepared a statement of the case of Mr Goodeve 
Erskine, in connection with that gentleman's claim to the Earl- 
dom of Mar. In the Annandale Peerage case, now being liti- 
gated, the evidence of Mr Maidment, and of Dr David Laing, 
both disenabled by the infirmities of age from appearing person- 
ally, was taken by commission at their own residences. 

In the same line of studies, he had just finished before his 
death a curious volume, undertaken at the instigation of the Earl 

Y 



194 Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 

of Crawford and Balcarres, being tbe first of Notices of Peerage 
Cases, in 4to, forming the contents of the first seven volumes of a 
large collection of Peerage Cases, wbich lie had gathered — the 
entire collection now passing into the hands of his Lordship. 
There are only 1 00 copies of this book printed at the private ex- 
pense of the Earl. Mr Maidment never finished his preface, for 
which, during his illness, he had taken notes. 

Mr Maidment became a member of the Berwickshire Natural- 
ists' Club, June 28, 1859, having continued in the membership 
for twenty years. 

About 1848, or subsequently, his mother occupied the mansion 
house of Tweedhill, and Mr Maidment often resided there. He 
appears then to have delighted in private and theatrical repre- 
sentations. There is a short account by him of Hutton hall, on 
the Whitadder, which is perhaps the sole written memorial of 
his Border visits. It refers to an early charter of resignation 
and re-investment in the lands of " Hutton-hawe," to George 
Ker of Samuelston, from William Earl of Douglas, &c., dated at 
Edinburgh, 11th Jan. 1451, in which there is a very minute 
specification of heirs of entail, down to eight degrees of substitu- 
tionaries. Mr Charles Watson, Dunse, acquired the charter at 
the sale of Mr Maidment's library, and from Mr M's remarks 
accompanying it I may for its local interest preserve the follow- 
ing extract : — 

' ' The present house of Hutton-hall was not erected till a later period. It 
is now falling to ruin, but at one time must have been a fine baronial 
residence. Some of the trees which are adjacent, are evidently of consider- 
able antiquity, and may rival those at Bemerside, the seat of the family " De 
Haga," which are celebrated for their beauty. Notwithstanding the careful 
entail and the number of substitutes, Hutton-hall long since passed from the 
Kers. Some 40 or 50 years ago the estate belonged to one of the Johnstones 
— a well-known border family. Upon this gentleman's death it was sold. 
Since then, the mansion-house, not being inhabited, has been permitted to 
go to ruin, and one portion of it has fallen in." . 

Mr Maidment died at his residence, 25, Eoyal Circus, Edin- 
burgh, on the evening of the 24th October, 1879, and his re- 
mains were interred in the Dean Cemetery. 

His extensive library of rare books, containing as catalogued 

5059 works, with a miscellaneous assortment over and above, 

was sold in May, 1880, by auction, in Edinburgh; fifteen days 

being occupied in its disposal. Large prices were obtained ; 

roceeds of the fourteen days for the catalogued series being 
the P 



Obituary Notices, by James Hardy. 195 

£4,499 Is 6d. The following account of the nature of this 
valuable collection is from the Scotsman of April 28th, 1880. 
** The late Mr James Maidment, advocate, as may be gathered 
from a very cursory examination of this collection, was an enthu- 
siastic bibhographer ; and there are few volumes in his library 
which do not in one way or other bear the impress of his indi- 
viduality. His acquaintance with many of the most eminent 
litterateurs of his day enabled him to collect with facility not only 
works of great value and interest, but numerous data and re- 
miniscences relating to these works or their authors, which, em- 
bodied in a permanent form in the books, invest the collection 
with an additional interest. The 5059 works which he has 
brought together in the course of over half a century's collecting, 
and which are now to be dispersed under the hammer of the 
auctioneer, comprise histories and treatises on a great variety 
of subjects. Not a few of these date from the 15th, 16th, and 
17th centuries, and are as valuable as they are scarce. An 
important feature is the collection of works relating to the 
drama and dramatic literature ; a department in which Mr Maid- 
ment took an especial interest, and in which, perhaps, he was 
most widely known to the literary world. These number close 
upon 1,000. There are also numerous historical and statistical 
works, including 100 volumes entitled 'Scottish Topographical 
Collections ;' a great variety of biographical compilations and 
relics, among which are collections of holograph letters by Sir 
Walter Scott and other distinguished men ; many rare old ballads 
and fugitive publications ; privately printed works by J. Payne 
Collier, David Laing, and others ; publications of the Abbotsford 
and other Clubs ; and sets of privately printed works, edited by 
Mr Maidment, The books are in excellent condition, indeed, in 
rebinding and renovating the most ancient specimens, the col- 
lector has given some indication of how much he cherished them, 
thinking, doubtless, with Charles Lamb, that however flimsily 
current literature might be clothed, no binding was too good or 
substantial for those relics of the past. Perhaps the most remark- 
able, and to some extent unique, feature of the collection, con- 
sists in the notes in the collector's handwriting, and newspaper 
cuttings, which have been inserted more or less freely in a large 
proportion of the works. These relate principally to the authors, 
or furnish some additional information on the subjects under 
treatment." 



196 

Bibliographical List of the Publications of James Maid- 
wient, Esq. 

1. Prymerose (David), Scotland's Complaint upon tlie death of 
our late Soveraigne King James, of most happie memorie. 
(In verse, dedicated to John, Earle of Marre). Eeprinted from 
the edition of 1625, printed by John Wreittoun, 1817, 4to. 
10 copies printed. See Bibliographer's Manual, p. 1973. 

2. Raid of Euthven. — Ane declaration of the just and necessar 
causis, moving vs of the nobillitie of Scotland and vthers ye 
Kings Majesteis faithfvl svbjectis, to repair to his Hienes pre- 
sence and to remane with him, &c., &c. ^Derectit from 
Striuiling with speciall command & licence to be prentit : 
Anno 1582. — with preface and notes. 1822, small 8vo. 45 
copies printed and 2 on vellum. See Bibliographer's Manual, 
p. 2210. 

3. Two ancient Ballads — Eobin Hood's Courtship with Jack 
Cade's daughter ; and the Frieris' Tragedy. Aberdeen : Pub- 
lished and sold by William Robertson. 1822, 8vo., pp. 16. 
12 copies printed. "The place of publication was purposely 
falsified ; and the Ballads were printed for the purpose of 
testing the knowledge of a literary friend who asserted that 
he never could be imposed upon by a fictitious ballad." 

4. Nugae Derelictae quas collegerunt J, M. et E. P. (A collec- 
tion of eighteen Tracts, privately printed, at various times, 
by James Maidment, Advocate, and Robert Pitcairn, W.S.) 
1822, royal 8vo. Only six complete sets of these tracts are 
now supposed to exist. There is a set in the Grenville Library, 
British Museum, and another in the library of Lord Houghton. 
Contents: — 1. Inventory of Arbuthnot — Title-deeds from 1206 
to 1483. 2. Carta Comes de Buchan to Eoberto de Warderobe. 
3. Confirmatio Alexandri Eegis. 4. Letters of Pardon by 
Edward III. to Cecil Eidgeway, 1358. 5. Appendix. 6. 
Charter by Magistrates of Edinburgh to Eobert de Preston, 
1454. 7. Procuratory to Eosse of the Hawkhead, 1466. 8. 
Battayle of Flodden. 9. Appendix. 10. Greir of the Abbacie 
of Lindoris, 1513. 11. Heraldic Yerses, 1565. 12. Inventor 
of Gudes of Dame Elizabeth Fleming. 13. Eesignation by 
Lord Binning, 1614. 14. Lord Dunkeld's Prophecy. 15. 
Dying words of Haxton of Eathillet. 16. Excerpt from 



List of the Publications of James Maidment 197 

Inventory of Crown Donations. 17. Memoir of Eobert, fifth 
Baron Balfour of Burleigli. 18. Appendix. 

5. A North Countrie Garland. (A collection of ancient Ballads, 
never before printed.) 1824, 12nio. 30 copies printed. 

6. Excerpta Scotica. — (A collection of twenty-nine short pieces, 
illustrative of Scottish affairs) 1828, 8vo. 

7. Pittilloch's (Eobert) Tracts, Legal and Historical, 1659-1689. 
Eeprinted from the Original Editions with an Introductory 
notice. 1827, small 4to. 40 copies printed on small, and 4 on 
large paper. Small 4to. See Bibliographer's Manual, p. 
1875. 

8. Scottish Pasquils or Lampoons, now first printed from the 
original manuscripts with Illustrative Notices and Notes. 
1827-1828. 3 vols. 12mo. 60 copies printed on small and 15 
on large paper. Small 4to. Principally directed against the 
opponents of the House of Stuart. 

9. Eeliquiae Scoticae : Scottish Eemains in prose and verse from 
original manuscripts and scarce tracts. 1828, 8vo. 14 copies 
printed, and 2 on thick paper. In this collection will be found 
two abusive letters from John Pinkerton, to George Paton the 
antiquary, including two bonds of Manrent — various poetical 
scraps from original MSS. — An account of the witches of 
Kelerman, &c. 

10. Templaria: Papers relative to the history, privileges and pos- 
sessions of the Scottish Knights Templars, and their successors 
the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, &c. (Pour parts). 
1828-1829, small 4to. 24 copies printed on small and 2 on 
large paper. 

11. Gascoigne (George), the Wyll of the Deuill with his ten 
detestable commaundmentes, directed to his obedient and 
accursed children, &c. Eeprinted with a prefatory notice. 
1828, 18mo. 40 copies printed and 2 on vellum. See Biblio- 
grapher's Manual, p. 867. 

12. A Banquet of Dainties for Strong Stomachs. (A collection 
of Scottish Satirical Poems from Eobert Myln's MSS., and 
other sources prior to 1720). 1820, 18mo. A joint publica- 
tion of C. K. Sharpe and J. Maidment. 

13. Memorials of the Family of Eow, viz. — The Eedshankes 
Sermon : preached at Saint Giles' Church, Edinburgh, by a 
Highland minister. — A cupp of Bon Accord or preaching by 



198 List of the Publications of James Maidment. 

Mr James Eow, sometyme minister at Strowan, preacht by him 
at Edinburgh, in St. Greiles' Church, with an Introductory 
Notice, Notes, &c. 1828, small 4to. 40 copies printed on 
small and 12 on large paper. See Bibliographer's Manual, p. 
2135. 

14. Davidson's (Eev. John) Poetical Remains, 1513-1595, now 
for the first time collected, with a Biographical Account of the 
author, and various illustrative papers. 1 829, small 8vo. 40 
copies printed. 

15. Eitson (Joseph), Letters to George Paton, to which is added 
a critique by John Pinkerton upon " Ritson's Scottish Songs," 
with a Preface and Notes. 1829, small 8vo. 100 copies 
printed. See Bibliographer's Manual, p. 2100. 

16. Nugae Scoticae : (A collection of twenty-two separate 
brochures) Miscellaneous Papers Illustrative of Scottish 
Affairs, 1535-1781. 1829, 8vo. 60 copies printed. 

17. Private Letters, now first printed from the original MSS., 
1694-1732. 1829, small 8vo. 50 copies printed on small 
paper and 12 on thick. 

18. Letters from Bishop Percy, John Callendar of Oraigforth, 
David Herd, and others, to George Paton ; with an Appendix 
of Illustrative matter. Biographical Notices, &c. 1830, small 
8vo. 1 1 copies printed on small and 1 on thick paper. See 
Bibliographer's Manual, p. 1830. 

19. Abstract of the Charters and other papers recorded in the 
Chartulary of Torphichen, from 1581 to 1596 ; with an Intro- 
ductory Notice and Notes. 1830, small 4to. 35 copies printed. 

20. Notes of Charters, &c., by the Et. Hon. Thos. Earle of Mel- 
ros, after Earle of Haddington, to the Vassals of the Barony 
of Drem, from 1615 to 1627 ; with an Introductory Notice. 

1830, small 4to. 35 copies printed. 

21. Trial of David Eoy, Cook to Colin Eviot of Balhousie, for a 
rape committed on the body of Elspeth Eviot, 1st Feb., 1601. 

1831, 4to. 30 copies printed. 

22. Historical Fragments relative to Scottish Affairs, from 1635- 
1664. 1832-1833, small 8vo. 60 copies printed. Contents: 
Memoirs of Civil Warr, during the Usurpation, by James 
Burns, Merchant and Bailie of the City of Glasgow, 1644-1661. 
— The Glorious and Miraculous Battle at York, 1644. — The 
Diary of Mr Eobert Douglas when with the Scottish army in 



List of the Publications of James Maidment. 199 

England, 1644. — Some Eemarkable passages of tlie Lord's 
Providence towards me, John Spreul, Town Clerk of Glasgow, 
in the bygone course of my pilgrimage, 1635-1664. — Collec- 
tions by a private hand at Edinburgh, 1650-1661. — Sir John 
Cochrane's Relations of the particulars that have occurred in 
his Negociations since coming to Hamburgh, 1649. — A note of 
the letters taken out of the Trunk that came to Dumbeath ; 
with copies of two Letters from Colonel Gordon and the Earl 
of Kinnoul, to the Marquis of Montrose, 1649. — A Memoran- 
dum to be communicat to Mr Eobert Johnson. — A dismal 
account of the burning of our Solemn League and National 
Covenant (with God) and one another at Linlithgow, May 20, 
1662. — An account of any accessions the Earl of Balcarres had 
to the late engagement ; with a justification of the letter 
written by his Lordship to the Committee of Estates, 1649. — 
Declaration of the Inhabitants of the Hill countreys of this 
Kingdom of Scotland, 1653. — Letter from the Earl of Bal- 
carres to his Majesty King Charles II. Proposals submitted 
to his Majesty King Charles II. by the Earl of Balcarres. In- 
structions from his Majesty King Charles II. to the Earl of 
Balcarres. — Memorials and Letters relative to Mr Alex. Hen- 
derson, addressed to Dr James Eraser by the Eev. Eobt. Wod- 
row, 1723, &c., &c., with Biographical Notices and Notes, &c. 

23. Catalogues of Scottish Writers. 1823, small 8vo. 80 coj)ies 
copies printed on small and 20 on large paper. Contents : — 
A short account of Scots Divines. — Divines in the Seventeenth 
Century. — A Catalogue of Scottish writers. —Account of the 
Learned men and writers in Aberdeen by the Eev. Laurence 
Charters, minister of Yester and Dirletoun, and Professor of 
Theology in the College of Edinburgh, with Literary Corres- 
pondence, 1698-1723, including letters from Capt. John Slezer, 
Bishop Sage, Sir James Dalrymple, James Fall, Alexander 
Pennicuick, James Wellwood, Jas. Anderson, George Crawford, 
Lord Grange, &c. With Biographical Notices and Notes, &c. 

24. The Hubbleshue. By Miss Carstairs. 1834, 18mo. Thirty 
copies reprinted from the original edition in possession of C. 
K. Sharpe, Esq., with prefatory notice containing specimens 
of the Lady's poetry. 

25. Analecta Scotica : Collections illustrative of the civil, eccle- 
siastical and literary History of Scotland, chiefly from original 



200 List of the Publications of James Maidment 

MSS. 1834-1838, 8vo, 2 vols. 106 copies printed on small 
and 6 on thick paper. 

26. Mary, Queen of Scots : Letters de quelques Hants person- 
ages, addressees a La Eeine D'Ecosse, Marie de Guise, tirees 
des manuscrits originaux et Autographs, recueillis Par Milord 
Balcarres. 1834, 8vo. 13 copies printed from the original 
Letters in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates. 

27. The Argyle Papers. 1834, small 4to. 50 copies printed on 
small, 6 on large paper, and 1 on vellum. Contents : — Anec- 
dotes of the Marquis of Argyle and some of his descendants, 
by the Eev. Pobt. "Wodrow. — Letter to the Marquis of Argyle, 
1640, and Papers relative to his son, Archibald, 9th Earl of 
Argyle. — Papers relative to the abduction of Miss Wharton, 
by the Hon. James Campbell of Burnbank, and the Execution 
of Sir John Johnstone, Bart., for his concern therein. — Letters 
to and from and papers connected with Archibald 1st Duke of 
Argyle, 1693-1703. — The correspondence of Elizabeth the 
Duchess of Argyle, chiefly relative to the Death of her hus- 
band, and the Proceedings adopted against Mrs Alison, &c. 
— Miscellaneous Papers relative to John Duke of Argyle, 1704- 
1717, &c., including the Burnbank papers, 1710-1723. — Letters 
which passed between the Hon. Col. Campbell of Burnbank, 
son of Archibald, 9th Earl of Argyle, and his wife the Hon. 
Margaret Leslie, daughter of David first Lord Newark and 
Anne Countess of Moray, to Mrs Campbell of Burnbank, &c., 
with curious biographical notices and notes. (The original 
Burnbank notices were purchased by the editor at the sale of 
the Library of Principal Lee.)_ 

28. The Genealogy of the (Edmonstones) Lairds of Ednem and 
Duntreth from the year of God 1063 to 1699, and more par- 
ticularly of Duntreth and the family that married with Dun- 
treth during the same time ; from the edition of 1699. 1834, 
18mo. 25 copies printed on small, 5 on large paper, and 1 on 
vellum. 

29. Ballads and other Fugitive Poetical Pieces, chiefly Scottish, 
from the collections of Sir James Balfour, Knt., with Intro- 
ductory Notice. 1834, small 4to. 40 copies printed on small, 
6 on large paper, and 2 on vellum. 

30. Galations, an ancient Mystery taken down from the recitations 
of Guisards at Stirling. 1835, 12mo., p. 4. 25 copies printed. 



List of the Publications of James Maidment 201 

31. Hay's (Father Eichard Augustine, Prior of St. Pieremont, 
Genealogie of the Hayes of Tweeddale, including Memoirs of 
his own times; with Illustrative Notes, Papers, &e. 1835, 
small 4to. 108 copies printed, 12 on large paper. 

32. Genealogie of the Saint Claires of Eosslyn, including the 
Chartulary of Eosslyn, with Illustrative Papers, with seven 
views of Eosslyn Castle and Chapel. 1835, small 4to. 108 
copies printed, 10 on small, 12 on large paper. 

33. Letters from Lord Pollok to Eev. Eobt. Wodrow, 1703;— 
(two letters from Wodrow to his lordship are added). 1835, 
12mo., pp. 21. 30 copies printed on thick paper. 

34. Poetical Descriptions of Orkney, 1652, from original MSS. in 
the Library of the Faculty of Advocates. 1835, small 4to. 35 
copies printed. 

35. The Correspondence of Sir John Gordon, Bart., on the occa- 
sion of the Eebellion, autumn 1745, containing some particulars 
of those times. 1835, pp. 36. 30 copies on small, a few on 
thick paper. 

36. Stanyhurst (Eichard), first four Books of Virgil's u^neid, in 
English Heroic Yerse, with other translations of poems. Ee- 
printed from edition of 1583, with a prefatory notice. 1836, 
4to. 50 copies printed. See Bibliographer's Manual, p. 2783. 

37. The Whore's Ehetoric, calculated to the meridian of London, 
and conformed to the rules of the art in two dialogues, with a 
curious Introductory Notice and Notes, &c. 1836, small 4to. 
with 12 portraits of celebrated London courtesans. 50 copies 
reprinted from edition of 1683, and one on large paper. See 
Bibliographer's Manual, p. 2913. 

38. TuberviUe's (George) Tragical Tales and other Poems, 1587, 
with prefatory Eemarks, 1837, 4to. 50 copies printed. See 
Bibliographer's Manual, p. 2720. 

39. Eemains of Sir Eobert Sibbald, containing his Autobiography, 
Memoirs of the Eoyal College of Physicians, portions of his 
literary correspondence, and an account of his MSS. 1837, 
8vo. 35 copies printed, and 1 on vellum. 

40. Balfour's (Sir James of Denmylne, Lord Lyon King at Arms) 
Ancient Heraldic and Antiquarian Tracts, with Introductory 
Notice and Notes. 1837, 12mo. 50 copies printed on small 
and 20 on large paper. Contents : — The Coronations of Alex. 
HI., Robert II., and James IV.— Treatises on Nobility.— 

z 



202 List of the Puhlicationa of James Maidment. 

Ceremonial at Royal Christenings, Eydings of the Parliament, 
and Register of Interments and Funerals of Kings and Queens 
and Dukes, together with the principal Scottish nobility. — 
Countess of Lennox's Memorial, &c.— Proceedings before the 
Privy Council on the dispute between the Duke of Hamilton 
and Lord Douglas, relative to the right of bearing the Scottish 
crown at Eoyal Processions, as revised by John Eiddell, Esq., 
one of the counsel, &c. 

41. Eoxburghe Eevels, and other relative papers, including 
Answers to the attack on the Memory of the late Joseph 
Haslewood, with specimens of his literary productions. 1837, 
4to. 50 copies printed. 

42. Court of Session Garland. 1839, 8vo. Containing anec- 
dotes of the Early Administration of Justice in Scotland ; the 
Justiciary Opera by James Boswell ; the celebrated ' ' Diamond 
Beetle Case ;" the Faculty and Court of Session Grarlands ; the 
various jeux d'esprits. 150 copies printed. 

43. Epigrams acd Satyres made by Eichard Middleton of Yorke, 
Gentleman. From edition of 1608, with a preface. 1840, 
square 12mo. 100 copies printed. See Bibliographer's 
Manual, p. 1545. 

44. Cock Lorel's Bote from a transcript of the original, by the 
Eev. Joseph Stevenson, with preface. 1840, square 12mo. 
40 copies printed. See Bibliographer's Manual, p. 486. 

45. Peerage Cases, 1760-97. Eeports of Claims preferred to the 
House of Lords in the Cases of the Cassilis, Sutherland, 
Spynie, and Glencairn Peerages, with the opinions of Lords 
Marchmont, Mansfield, Hardwicke, Camden, and Lough- 
borough thereon, with an appendix of curious documents 
relative to the Oliphant Peerage, and the decision in the ques- 
tion of precedency between the Earl of Sutherland and Earl of 
Crawford, &c., &c 1840, 8vo. 60 copies printed. 

46. Scottish Elegiac Yerses on the principal Nobility and Gentry, 
from 1629 to 1729, with interesting Biographical Notices and 
Notes, and an appendix of illustrative papers. 1842, small 
8vo. 90 copies printed on small, 24 on large paper, and 1 on 
vellum. 

47. Extracts from the Diary of a Senator of the College of 
Justice (James Erskine of Grange), from 1717 to 1718, now for 
the first time published, with a Memoir and Notes. 1843, 



List of the Publications of James Maidment 203 

small 8vo. 70 copies printed on small, 24 on large paper, and 
1 on vellum. 

48. A new Book of Old Ballads, with Illustrative Notes. 1844, 
12mo. 60 copies printed and 1 on vellum. 

49. Genealogical Fragments. Berwick-on-Tweed, 1856, 12mo. 
50 copies printed, with 12 on large paper. 

50. Ancient Earldom of Carrie. Some account of the, in a letter 
to Geo. Chalmers by Dr Carrie, now first printed, with notices 
of the Earldom, after it came into the families of De Bruce and 
Stewart. Edin., Stevenson. 1857, small 8vo. 60 copies 
printed. " An interesting work, which will be found of con- 
siderable service to those engaged in the study of Scottish 
Peerage Cases." Some important observations will be found 
in it on the curious point of the illegitimacy of the sous of the 
titular King of Ireland. 

51. Scottish Ballads and Songs, with Illustrative Notes, &c. 
Edin., Stevenson. 1859, 12mo. "This collection consists of 
curious Scottish Ballads and Songs, which, with a few excep- 
tions, do not occur in any other collection. The Illustrative 
and Introductory Notices prefixed to the Ballads severally, 
afford much valuable information, and give indubitable 
evidence that the writer was fully competent to fulfil the duty 
he undertook." 

52. Poetical Eemains of William Lithgow, 1618-1660. Now 
first collected with a prefatory notice of 54 pages. Edin. 
Small 4to. 

53. Penny's History of Linlithgow. Copied from Chalmers' 
Caledonia. 1832. 

54. Notices of the Bannatyne Club from its Institution in 1823 
to 1836. 50 copies printed. 4to, 1836. 

55. Kay's Portraits of Edinburgh Characters, 2 vols, 4to, 1837. 
He was the principal and responsible Editor of this work. 

56. The Eiddell Papers : A Catalogue of the Heraldic and 
Family Manuscripts of John Eiddell, the celebrated Peerage 
Lawyer, 1863. 

57. Scottish BaUads and Songs, 2 vols. 1868. 

58. A Book of Scottish Pasquils, 1568-1715. 1862. A new 
edition. 

59. Supplement or Appendix thereto. A Packet of Pestilential 
Pasquils. 1868. 



204 Donations to the BerwicksJiire Naturalists' Club. 

60. Court of Session Garlands. New edition. 1871. 

61. Dramatists of the Eestoration. Edited jointly with his 
nephew, Mr W. H. Logan. 14 vols, 8vo. 1877-78. (W. 
Paterson, Edinburgh). 

62. Mar Peerage. Case of Mr Goodeve Erskine. 1878. 

63. Peerage Cases, vol. i., 4to. Not yet published. 

In addition to the above, Mr Maidment edited the undermen- 
tioned works for the various " Literary Clubs," viz. : — 

1. Lyon's Teares for the Death of Alexander, Earl of Dunferm- 
line, 1622.— Bannatyne Club, 1832. 

2. Mercer's Chronicle of Perth, 1 210-1668.— Maitland Club, 1831. 

3. The Melros Papers, 2 vols.— Abbotsford Club. 1837. 

4. Miscellany of the Abbotsford Club. Jointly with Mr W. B. 
D. D. TurnbulL— Abbotsford Club. 1857. 

5. Letters and State Papers during the Eeign of King James 
YL— Abbotsford Club, 1838. 

6. Liber Conventus S. Katherine Senensis prope Edinburgum. 
—Abbotsford Club, 1838. 

7. The Spottiswoode Miscellany, 2 vols, 8vo. — Spottiswoode 
Society, 1844-5. 

8. Niccols' Sir Thomas Overburie's Vision, 1616. — Hunterian 
Society, 1875. 

Thos. G. Stevenson. 



Donations to the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, from, 
Scientific Societies, etc., 1879-80. 

Bath. Proceedings of the Bath Natural History and Antiquarian 
Eield Club, Vol. iv.. No. ii. 1879, 8vo. The Club. 

Belfast. Annual Eeports and Proceedings of the Belfast 
Naturalists' Field Club, 1876-77, 1877-78, 1878-9. Ser. ii.. 
Vol. i.. Parts iv., v., and vi. 1879, 8vo. The Club. 

Boston, U.S.A. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 
History, Vol. xix. Part iii., May, 1877— March, 1878 ; Part 
iv. March— April, 1878 ; Vol. xx. Part i. May to Nov. 1878. 
Part ii. Nov. 1878 to April, 1879. Part iii. April, 1879— Jan. 
1880.— 1878-9, 1880, 8vo. TU Society. 



Donations to the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club. 205 

Boston, U,S.A. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural 
History, Vol. iii., Part i,. No. ii. Tlie Early Types of Insects ; 
or the Origin and Sequence of Insect Life in Palaeozoic Times, 
by Samuel H. Scudder ; on Distomum Crassicolle, by Charles 
Sedgwick Minot. Palseozoic Cockroaches, by Samuel H. 
Scudder, 1878-9. 4to. Ihid. 

Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of 

Natural History, iii. Contributions to the Geology of Eastern 
Massachusetts, by "William 0. Crossley, with Map, 1880, 
Svo. Ibid. 

Bremen, Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereine zu Bremen, vi,, Bd. 2 and 3 Heft, 
1879, 8vo. The Society. 

Meteorological Tables, 1879, 8vo. Ibid. 

Cambridqe, U.S.A. Annual Eeport of the Curator of Compara- 
tive Zoology at Harvard College, for 1878-9. Boston, 1879, 
8vo. The Museum. 

Cardiff. Eeport and Transactions of the Cardiff Naturalists' 
Society, Vol. X. 1878. London, 1879, 8vo. The Society. 

Catrail, The. Two Photographs : (1) of a Fragment of the Cat- 
rail remaining at the Pink ; (2) of the Catrail Port at the 
Pink, taken May, 1880. — Presented by Miss Russell of Ashiesteel. 

Christiana. Om Stratifikationes Spor af Dr Theodor Kjerulf. 
1877, 4to. From the Royal Norwegian University of Christiana. 

Enumeratio Insectorum Norvegicorum. Ease. iv. 

Catalogum Dipterorum continentem. (H. Siebke et J. S. 
Schneider). 1877, Svo. Ibid. 

Edinburgh. Proceedings of the Eoyal Physical Society. Session 
1878-9. 1879, 8vo. The Society. 

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land, Session 1878-9. Vol. xiii. 1879, 4to. The Society. 

Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society, 



Vol. iii.. Part iii. 1879, 8vo. The Society. 

Essex, Salem, U.S.A. Bulletin of the Essex Institute, Vols. ix. 

and X. 1878, 8vo. The Institute. 

Glasgow. Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 

1878-9. Vol. xi.. No. 2. 1879, 8vo. The Society. 
Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow, 

Vol. v.. Part ii, 1877, 8vo. The Society. 
Ditto. Vol. vi., Part i. 1879, 8vo. Ibid. 



206 Places of Meeting for the Year 1880. 

London. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. Vol. vi., 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 1879-80, 8vo. The Association. 

Annual Eeport of the Geologists' Association for 1879. 

1880, 8vo. Hid. 

Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great 



Britain and Ireland; Vol. viii., No. iv., May, 1879 ; Vol. ix., 
No. i., Aug., 1879 ; No, ii., Nov., 1879; No. iii., Feb., 1880 : 
No. iv.. May, 1880. 8vo. The Institute. 

Newcastle. Sundry Natural History Scraps, more especially 
about Birds. By C. M. Adamson. 1879, 8vo. The Author. 

Plymouth. Annual Eeport and Transactions of the Plymouth 

' Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural History Society, 

Vol. vii.. Part i., 1878-9 ; Part ii., 1880. The Institution. 

Washington, U.S.A. Annual Eeport of the Comptroller of the 
Currency, Dec. 2, 187,8. 1878, 8vo. — From the Department of 
the Interior of the United States of America. 

Ditto, Dec. 1, 1879. Ihid. 

Eeport of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories, 
Vol. xii. Fresh Water Ehizopods of North America. By 
.Joseph Leidy, M.D., Professor of Anatomy in the University 
of Pennsylvania, &c. 1878, 4to. Ibid. 

Bulletins of the United States Geological and Geographical 
Survey of the Territories, Vol. iv.. No. i. ; Vol. v., Nos. 1, 2, 
3. 1878-9, 8vo. From Br F. Von Ray den. 

Catalogue of the Publications of the U.S. Geological and Geo- 
graphical Survey of the Territories, 3d Ed. Dec. 31, 1879. Hid. 

Welshpool. Collections, Historical and Archaeological, relating 
to Montgomeryshire and its .Borders, Vol. xii. Parts ii. and 
iii, ; Vol. xiii.. Part i. London, 1879-80, 8vo. 

From the Powys-land Clul. 



Places of Meeting for the Year 1880. 

Dunbar, for Woodhall and Thurston . . Wednesday, May 26. 

Gordon . . . . . . ,, June 30. 

Belford . . . . . . „ July 28. 

Morpeth, for Newminster Abbey and Mitford „ Aug. 25. 

Gilsland, for Eoman Wall, &c. . . „ Sept. 29. 

Berwick . . . . „ Oct. 13. 



207 



Rain Fall at Olanton Fyke, Northumberland, in 1879, 
communicated by Fredk. J. W. Collingwood, Esq. ; and 



at Lilburn Tower, 


Northumberland, communicated by 


Mr John Deas. 






GL ANTON PTKB. 




LILBURN TOWER. 






Inches. 




Inches. 


January 




1.40'0 


January 


. 1.000 


February . 




4.21'5 


February 


. 2.995 


Marcb 




1.68'0 


March 


. 1.377 


April 




S.ll'O 


April 


. 2.395 


May 




2.24'0 


May 


. 2.050 


June 




4.73'0 


June 


. 4.475 


July 




6.82'5 


July 


. 7.040 


August 




3.39'5 


August 


. 2.722 


September . 




1.06'5 


September . . 


. 0.805 


October 




0.91'5 


October 


. 0.625 


November . 




2.88'5 


November . . 


. 2.660 


December . 




1.37'5 


December . . 


. 0.595 



Total . . 33.83'5 

Eain Gauge — Diameter of Funnel, 
Sin. ; height of Top above ground, 
4ft. 3|in. ; above sea level, 51 7ft. 



Total . . 28.739 

Rain Guage — Diameter of Funnel, 
lOin. square ; height of Top above 
ground, 6ft. ; above sea level, 300ft . 



General Statement. 
The Income and Expenditure bave been 



INCOME. 


£ s. 


d. 


Balance from last year . . 


10 13 





Arrears received 


22 10 





Entrance Fees 


9 10 





Subscriptions 


72 18 





expenditure. 






Keitb and Gibb for Lithographing . . 


6 17 


6 


Printing 


70 12 


4 


Expenses at Meetings 


4 18 


0* 


Postages and Carriage 


13 3 





Berwick Salmon Company 


7 11 


5 



£115 11 



Balance in hand 



103 2 3^ 
12 8 8i 



-£115 11 



208 

LIST OF NEW MEMBEES FOE 1879. 

Admitted October 15, 1879. 

Eev. Adam Spence, Houndwood, Eeston. 

Peter Cowe, Lochton, Coldstream. 

James Greenfield, Eeston. 

James Mein, Lamberton. 

George SkeUy, Alnwick, 

Eev. Canon Tristram, LL.D., F.S.A., Durham. 

Eev. David Millar, B.D., LL.B., Mordington. 

Thomas Cook, Alnwick. 

Charles M. Adamson, North Jesmond, Newcastle. 

Alexander Mackenzie, M.D., Kelso. 

W. F. Vernon, Kelso. 

Eev Charles Kinnear Greenhill, Eoberton, Hawick. 

WUliam Lay ton. High School, Kelso. 

"William Gunn, Geological Survey, Berwick. 

Eev. F. B. Nunneley, M.D., Bennington, Chathill. 

Eev. Thomas Calvert, 92, Lansdowne Place, Brighton. 

Eev. Donald McLeod, B.D., Jedburgh. 

Eev. George Gunn, Stichell, Kelso. 

Patrick Kynoch, M D., Greenlaw. 

George Anderson, Selkirk. 

Thomas Craig-Brown, Woodburn, Selkirk. 

Ealph Dunn, Melrose. 

Thomas Fairley, Galashiels. 

Eobert Darling Ker, St. Leonard's House, Edinburgh. 

Hume Nisbet, Studio, Albert Buildings, 6, Shandwick Place, Edinburgh. 

Eev. Eobert Small, Caddonfoot, Galashiels. 

Frank Eutherford, Bank of Scotland, Galashiels. 

Eev. A. Duncombe Shafto, Brancepeth Eectory, Durham. 

J. J. Vernon, F.S.A. Scot., Hawick. 

Eobert Henry Elliott, of Clifton Park, Kelso. 

J. W. Barnes, Banker, Durham. 

Ealph Patterson Nisbet, Chesterhill House, Belford. 

George Bolam, Berwick. 

Eev. Thomas S. Marjoribanks, Prestonkirk, East Lothian. 

Eev. James King, Vicar of St. Mary's, Berwick. 

James Bogie, 5 Spence Street, Newmgton, Edinburgh. 

Eev. Alexander Milne, Swinton. 

Francis D. Blake, of Tillmouth Park, Coldstream. 

Andrew P. Aitken, Dr. Sc, &c., Nivelle Cottage, Liberton, Edinburgh. 

F. Bamford, Edenbank, Kelso. 

James Thomas Spencer Elliot, jx., of Wolfelee. 

"W. G. Macdonald, M. A. , Grammar School, Berwick. 

Thomas Eutherford, M.D., Kelso. 



3 JAN isss 



EEEATA. 

Page 11, line 6 from the top, for Jnngermarmi read Jungermannia. 

,, 18, line 31 ,, for ^nas read (Enas. 

,, 30, line 23 ,, for At hemanticum read At hamanticum- 

,, 36, line 11 ,, for most read -moist. 

,, 37, line 16 ,, for Thlnopsls read T/miopsis. 

,, 37, line 31 ,, for Sippopha read Hlppophac:. 

,, 42, line 30 ,, ior have read has. 

,, 42, line 34 ,, for are read is. 

,, 42, line 38 ,, for Taxonia Van Volkheimii read Tacsonia 

Van-Volxemi. 

,, 43, line 1 ,, for Taxonia rea^ Tacsonia. 

,, 43, line 6 ,, for Lapygeria read Lapageria. 

,, 54, line 17 ,, for Harvey rea^ Harvie. 

,, 54, line 29 ,, for have re^^^ has. 

,, 62, line 14 ,, for have rtf«(^? has. 

,, 69, line 4 ,, for compressable re«rf compressible. 

,, 120, line 21 ,, for those read these. 

,, 134, line 1 ,, ior HaderifoUa read Sederlfolia. 

,, 145, line 39 ,, for these read those. 

,, 150, line 42 ,, for sly read shy. 

,, 174, line 19 and elsewhere, for Wolkonsky read Wolkousky. 



BerwioTssmTe Hatoralists' Club, 



Plate, L 




&TIEC1AK PHIAL POUND AT KELSO, 
from a Dxamn^ iyl/EEraiu. 




S^GX 



YR3U G-REEMrOOD MOSS, EERWICKSHIEE, 
DiasHiTDj^IvIiss SterlLu^ of 'Reiitou. 



G-ilil) i^T{sy,~Lrir^ Ehex±i 



ierwicteTare Naturalists' Club, 



.f^- 




EDIlfS HHi, OM COCKBTIKM LA.W, BERWICKSHIRE 



GOxb fe -Ha-T, lifliojraplMrR to Her Majesty; JSieideBU. 



BerwidksTiire llaturalists Club^ 




PRmCIPlL BUILDIHa OY EDIKS HALL. 







MA.SONRY or EBIK'S HALL. 



Gibli 8c Hay, Xitb.q^r25lifixs to £.bt Majesty, Ai ex deea. 



IBerwictalnre Eataralists Cliib, 







Scale— FiiU Size. 



W'^^^f 



%s: 





ARTICLES rOinG) AT EDM'S HALL 



Giiib Be Hay, T jth.q^rag"hers toKorMa-iesty, AberieeiL. 



h. 



t 



PROCEEDINGS 



BERWICKSHIRE NATURALISTS' CLUB. 



Address delivered to the Berwickshire Naturcdists' Club, at 
Berwick, October 13th, 1880. By Charles Watson, E^q., 
F.S.A., Scot., Dunse, President. 

Gentlemen, 

My year of office as President makes it incumbent on me 
to thank you for the honour conferred, by electing me to 
that position. 

Although the meetings have perhaps not been so largely 
attended as in some years, owing to weather and various 
other circumstances which it is needless to repeat here, I 
trust you will find, when the year's Proceedings are put 
into your hands, that our work has not been by any means 
barren of results. And while on this subject, I would 
earnestly appeal to every member to endeavour to add, 
however little, to the pile of information which the Club 
has been accumulating for so many years, for there is an 
old and trite saying, if I remember right by the celebrated 
Border man, David Hume, " that a single man can scarcely 
be industrious when all his fellow citizens are idle ;" the 
riches of the several members of the Club will contribute to 
increase the riches of the whole, and it only requires each 
B.N.C. — VOL. IX. NO. II. 1 A 



212 Anniversary Address. 

individual to consider it his duty to help the common 
cause, to obtain the desired end. 

For some years there has been an innovation on our 
original unwritten laws. I refer to meetings held beyond 
what is considered the geographical limits of the Club. 
Most of the members will agree with me in thinking that 
this is likely to strengthen the Club ; the old ground has 
been, although not by any means exhausted, indeed rather 
otherwise, so well worked over, that a change as above in- 
dicated, if not too freely indulged in, will give an additional 
zest to the meetings, and enable the members, like the bee 
in the fable, by a universal range, with long search, much 
study, true judgment and distinction of things, to bring 
home honey and wax. 

Our worthy Secretary, Mr Hardy, has very kindly taken 
upon him the trouble of writing the details of each meeting, 
which will, no doubt, prove more interesting than were I to 
do so. 

I cannot help endorsing the opinion of my predecessor in 
office, that a Jubilee Meeting should be held in 1881 at 
Grant's House, where the first meeting of the Club was 
held. Few more interesting places, in many respects, are 
within the Club's range ; perhaps want of accommodation 
will be the only objection, seeing that, as a rule, the meetings 
are now so large, but that objection can, by a little fore- 
sight, be easily overcome. 

During the current year (1880) a descriptive list of " Our 
Ancient Monuments and the Land around them," by Chas. 
Philip Kains-Jackson, with a preface by Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart., F.R.S., M.P., has been published. Two of our local 
structures are mentioned, Edin's Hall and Harefaulds in 
Lauderdale; of the former a very meagre description is given, 
of the latter merely the name. I only mention this here to 
call the attention of any of the members who may have in- 
fluence, and to induce them to use such influence in sup- 
port of Sir John Lubbock's Bill, or any similar one if again 
brought before Parliament, Sir John, in his preface, 



i 



Anniversary Address. 213 

concludes with the following quotation from Ruskin : — " The 
dead still have their right in them (these monuments) ; that 
which they laboured for, the praise of achievement, or the 
expression of religious feeling, or whatsoever else it might 
be which they intended to be permanent, we have no right 
to obliterate. What we have ourselves built, we are at 
liberty to throw down ; but what other men gave their 
strength and wealth and life to accomplish, their right over 
does not pass away with their death ; still less is the right 
to the use of what they have left vested in us only. It be- 
longs to all their successors." 

In retiring from the Presidentship it falls upon me to 
thank, which I do with the most heartfelt pleasure, the 
Secretaries and those members with whom I have person- 
ally come in contact, for their uniform kindness and 
courtesy, and for their assistance in carrying through the 
meetings ; and also to congratulate you upon the uninter- 
rupted prosperity of the Club, and its growing usefulness 
evidenced by the numerous imitations that have sprung up 
all over the land, and the increased desire to join our ranks. 

It now becomes my pleasing duty to nominate the Rev. 
Thomas Brown, F.R.S.E., Edinburgh, who was associated 
with the formation of the Club, as President for the coming 
year. 



214 

Report of the Meetings of the Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Club for the Tear 1880. By James Hardy. 

The first meeting of the Club for the year 1880 took place at 
Dunbar, in the St. George Hotel, on May 26th. There were 
twenty-eight present ; including Mr Charles Watson, F.S.A., 
Scot., President ; Mr James Hardy, Secretary ; Eevs. J. E. 
Bigge, Stamfordham ; Joseph Hill Scott, Kelso ; G. W. Sprott, 
D.D., North Berwick ; W. Stobbs, Gordon ; E. Hopper "William- 
son, Whickham, co. Durham ; Capt. J. F. Macpherson, Melrose ; 
Dr Charles Stuart, Chirnside ; Messrs Thomas Allan, Horncliffe 
House ; W. B. Boyd, Ormiston House ; James Bogie, Edin- 
burgh ; Thomas Darling, Berwick ; Eobert Gray, F.E.S.E., 
Edinburgh ; G. P. Hughes of Middleton HaU, Wooler ; William 
H. Johnson, Edinburgh ; E. D. Ker, Edinburgh ; James Knox, 
Dunbar ; Peter Loney, Marchmont ; Thomas Patrick, Berwick ; 
George L. Paidin, Berwick ; Stanley Scott, Kelso ; J. J. Steytler, 
London ; John Turnbull of Abbey St. Bathans ; Adam Watson, 
Dunse ; William Wilson, Berwick ; William Willoby, Berwick ; 
Matthew Young, Berwick. 

The morning threatened rain, and a high wind prevailed ; but 
at mid-day the sun shone out, and the wind lulled. The country 
being in its fresh spring array, and the scenes visited being new 
as well as worth seeing, the excursion was most enjoyable. 
After breakfast, some of the old Council books (four venerable 
folio volumes) of the town of Dunbar were inspected with much 
interest in the Town Clerk's (Mr Notman's) office. These date 
from the Cromwellian period. The older series was said to have 
been lost by the shipwreck of a boat, which was transporting the 
vols, for safe custody to the Bass, when Cromwell's army was 
about to occupy the town. There are many other documents of 
the town still extant. 

The members were conveyed in carriages. Spott Dean house 
and village were first touched at. Before reaching these. Loch- 
end, belonging to Sir George Warrender, was passed on the 
right, which is at present in ruins, the house having been 
burned down. There are some good yew and silver firs, as well 
as ornamental conifers, in the pleasure grounds. Scrophularia 
vernalis, a garden escape, is abundant in a half -wild state, in the 
precincts of the garden. Easter and Wester Broomhouses, next 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 215 

skirted, are two farms in Spott parish, and were from an earlj 
period incorporated witli the estate of Easter Spott, but were 
sold by an improvident laird ; of whom it is still reported by the 
country people, that when he appeared, after parting with them, 
at the king's levee in Edinburgh, the courtiers whispered : — 
" Here comes the Laird of Spott, with two Broomhouses on his 
back," which has become a proverb. Easter and Wester 
Broomhouses had become the property of the Baillies of Loch- 
end before Nov. 26, 1635 ; so that the saying has maintained a 
long currency, and points to the first Sir Archibald Douglas of 
Spott, who sold them to Sir James Baillie, one of the Lords of 
the Secret Council. Near Easter Broomhouse an upright block 
of sandstone is conspicuous in a field. This is not a rubbing- 
stone, but an old boundary or funereal pillar, or the remnant of 
an ancient judicial circle. In 1635, 1640, &c., title deeds speak 
of the lands of Standarts, as being here ; and in 1645 there were 
templar-lands in Spott called " Standand stain-rig," which may 
either refer to this, or to some other similar obelisk. The green 
banks on either side of the Brock or Spott water, as it flows 
down by Easter Spott Mill, used to be a great haunt, within Mr 
Gray's memory, of the Whin-chat {Saxicola Ruhetra). The 
brook contains common trout. Leaving the conveyances at the 
foot of Spott dean, on whose margins many of the slain in the 
battle of the Doon-hill were buried, the company ascended it by 
winding walks to the manor-house and garden. The dean is 
cut sheer through the Old Eed Sandstone Conglomerate to a 
great depth, and is less than a mile long. Like many of the 
ravines in the conglomerate, there is little more space at the 
bottom than what is suflB.cient for the passage of the burn — a 
lively stream that rushes over many a tiny waterfall. At present 
the dean is very beautiful ; the tall trees of beech and elm, with 
which it is well studded, wear their freshest foliage ; and the 
banks, where not too steep to admit of the retention of soil, were 
covered with dense sheets of the tempting-looking, but disgust- 
ingly scented. Allium ursinum, or Eamps (which some plucked, 
expecting, much to their disappointment, to have in it laid hold 
of a handful of Lily-of-the-Valley) ; as well as with other repre- 
sentatives of native greenery that do not require special enrol- 
ment. Among the declivities on the west side there is a great 
deal of Hart's-tongue fern, of the Asplenium Trichomanes, and of 



216 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Polydichium aculeatum, wMcli is a very prevalent fern in the 
East Lothian ravines. The tall woods give shelter to a rookery. 
Spott House is finely situated, and a charming place. It is 
founded on rock at the edge of the dean, and in its present state 
of completeness is not fifty years old, but it incorporates an older 
mansion, in which tradition reports that Oliver Cromwell slept 
the night after vanquishing the Scots on the fields below Doon- 
hill, Sept. 3, 1650. This old house probably represents another, 
which appears to have been visited by James YI. in February, 
1595, as he then intended going to Spott and Dunglas.* At 
Spott House, in December, 1592, the attempt, on the 27th of 
that month, to surprise James VI. at Holyrood Palace appears 
to have been planned by Bothwell (Francis Stewart) and his ac- 
complices.! The laird of Spott, James Douglas, had a principal 
share in the adventure. The garden was prettily laid out, and 
well stocked with evergreens, and a variety of healthy growing 
Coniferse ; especially noteworthy was a curious Larch, which out 
of a single stem, was divided into three tall full-grown trees ; 
one ascending from the original stem, the other two forking from 
a curved branch, which had taken up the growth consequent on 
some accident to the leading shoot. December's frost, so disas- 
trous elsewhere, had only singed Aucuba Japonica here, and that 
not fatally. 

By a winding walk the company proceeded to the top of the 
Doon-hill, and enjoyed the extensive prospect. A precipitous 
bank on the N.E. is probably the " Maiden Loup," where three 
witches, aU of whom perished at the stake, the latest in 1629, 
according to the Scottish judicial records, held an evening con- 
vention with Satan. On the eastern slope of the hill stands Little 
Pinkerton, at which there was formerly a chapel, which was con- 
stituted into a prebend of the coUegiate church of Dunbar. 
Edward I., after his first campaign in Scotland, on his return 
journey to England, stayed the night of Aug. 20, 1296, at Pink- 
erton.]: One MS. of Fordun states that the first battle of Dun- 
bar, gained by the English, April 27, 1296, was fought at Spott, 
so that he rested near the scene of his triumph. Old accounts 
state that there was a Eoman camp (for so British camps were 

* Calendar of State Papers, Scotland, ii., p. 672. 

f Rob. Jonstoni Hist. Rerum Britan. 

X Hist. Documents, Scotland ii., p. 31. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 217 

once popularly called), as well as the lines of the Scottish Coven- 
anters, traceable on the sloping western side of the Doon-hiU. 
Viewed from Hartside, the highest of the opposite Lammermoors, 
vestiges of a triple rampart meet the eye, but on the ground 
these identify themselves with out -crops of rock. This hill-top 
appears to have been long under cultivation. Looking across to 
the rising ground on Spott farm, the Dodd or Spott law may 
possibly represent the " Domilaw above Spot," whereon there 
was a beacon in 1547. At the western end of the farm of Spott 
is the Chesters HiU, whereon was situated, but now ploughed 
over, a vast British settlement containing many acres of space. 
A gold chain was once picked up within its area attached to the 
coulter of a plough, which had caught it up. On Spott Moor, 
about 1297, according to the relation of Blind Harry, who had 
obtained some local knowledge about this vicinity. Sir William 
"Wallace and his followers fought a battle with Earl Patrick, and 
was nearly overpowered by numbers, from which he was only 
extricated by desperate valour, when the foe retreated. 

The soil on the upper platform is a tenacious clay, like that 
produced from decayed Silurian slate. One of the fields is called 
the Teuchits, having been much frequented, before being drained,, 
by Lapwings. 

Above the village many old elm and ash trees mark the site of 
the houses, or garden plots, or acres of the old population, which 
began to decrease with the improvement of agriculture. There 
are scarcely any cottages left, except those attached to the farm. 
The manse, the church, the school and school-house may be said 
to represent the village. In 1730 there were twenty-one farmers 
in the parish ; in 1791 these were reduced to seven ; and, exclu- 
sive of sections belonging to farms, whose main bulk lies in 
other parishes, the number of separate farm-holdings appears at 
present to be nine. 

Tradition says that the farming people of Spott were much 
alarmed with the Highland invasion in 1745, which they spoke 
of as the period " when the 'Black Watch' came through." To 
prevent their cattle being requisitioned for the supplies of the 
rebel army, they drove them for concealment to Spott Wood. 
After the battle of Prestonpans, the rebels carried off a cargo of 
wine from the laird of Spott' s cellars in Dunbar. 

The Jou^s, once the terror of parochial culprits, are now at- 



218 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

tached as a fixture to the side of the churcli door. They were dug 
out from about the foundations of the building. One of the tomb- 
stones, nearly grown up with grass, has sculptured on it a cross 
and sword, and may mark the resting place of a knight templar, 
or knight of St. John, as there were several templar lands here. 
St. John's well, which is conducted in pipes to Dunbar, it is 
almost certain, derived its name from the knights of St. John of 
Jerusalem, who acquired most of the templar lands on the disso- 
lution of that order. That they might have resided in Spott ap- 
pears from a Eetour, Oct. 29, 1640, where the templar lands are 
explained as being " dwellings and buildings in the village of 
Spot, and templar lands in Easter and Wester Broomhouses." 

On regaining the carriages a good view of the country at the 
foot of the Lammermoors here lay in view. The face of the land 
hereabouts is very unequal — one may say tumultuous — being 
separated into sections by deep cleughs descending from the hills, 
or by other gullies running cross-ways to these ; in some in- 
stances presenting long flat-backed ridges, and in others heaved 
up, or rather worn down — for that is the process that has moulded 
them — into detached hillocks (called Knocks, or Knowes, or 
Dodds), of conical and a variety of irregular forms. Places that 
appear to the eye to be distant but a short way are removed far 
apart by these, hidden ravines, which are often so steep and 
destitute of passes, with no passage up or down except for the 
stream between their banks, that one has to take a far circuit to 
get across them. The level of the tops of the sides of these 
ravines usually coincides. Many of the deep cleughs are wooded 
with native trees. Small groves also crown the brows of the 
green steeps above grassy dells ; these, if of oak, were at the 
period of the meeting, of a yellow green intermingled with the 
tints of the brown branches; Elsewhere, crowded into masses 
of one uniform height, the trees occupy a whole hill-face, grow- 
ing like a corn crop. Amidst them will tower up, singly or in 
groups, scattered holly-trees of ancient growth — for seldom is a 
holly cut down — always remarkable for their weather-beaten 
aspect, and their dark solemn hue. There are groups both of 
mountain ashes and hawthorns occupying special banks, but the 
latter are not so well branched as in lower districts. Nearest 
the hiUs the birch prevails. The indigenous trees here are oak 
Cwhich predominates), birch, hazel, mountain ash, wych elm, 
sallows, holly, bird cherry, ash (doubtfully native), hawthorn. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 219 

Along a cross ravine, which lies between Halls and the Dry- 
burn, separating Spott from Helden, runs a series of lochs — the 
Black Loch being one — which are filling up. Some of them 
have no outlet. They are frequented by wild ducks and water 
hens. One contains perch. The Brunt Wood, mostly of oak, 
faces to the west. Blue hyacinths, forming great stretches, 
gleamed through amongst the trees ; and the sides of the woods 
were clad with stitchworts, which open in a sheet of white when 
the sun shines, but close up when rain falls, and become assimi- 
lated in verdure to the grass. A marsh at the bottom was one 
mass of rich gold with the blooms of the marsh marigold. 

While those who preferred passed on to Innerwick and Inner- 
wick Castle, a walking party detached themselves, on reaching 
the Dryburn below Brunt, and proceeded up into the centre of 
the Woodhall woods. The ravine now entered, like that at 
Spott, is cut in the Old Red Conglomerate, and probably follows 
the line of an original fissure, subsequently widened out and 
dressed by abrading agencies. A narrow porphyritic dyke 
crosses the stream, north and south, shortly after the haugh here 
has been entered. On the banks of the southern side, which, as 
well as those on the north, are wooded, the profusion of prim- 
rose blossom was excessive, as it has been in most places where 
it grows this season. At Wallace's Mill, which is mentioned in 
old writs, there are only now the remains of the garden-fence, 
which was of Bour-tree. Here MyrrJiis odorata, Pyrethrum 
Farthenium, JEgopodium Podagraria, and Circcea Lutetiana grew, 
the only relics of the kindly folks who "wonn'd in the glen," 
when the tenants' corn was thirled to the laird's own mill. In 
going up into the woods the party kept to the paths, there being 
no time for divergence. The trees are mostly of oak. The 
more interesting plants in this and the adjoining Wodolie dean, 
and in their forks, which stretch far away up into the hills are — 
Stellaria nemorum, Vicia syhatica, Campanula latifolia, Ruhus saxa- 
tilis, Melica unijlora, CJirysosplenium aUernifolium, Adoxa moscha- 
telUna, Veronica montana, Saxifraga granulata, Sisymbrium tlialia- 
num, Myosotis syhatica (very fine and abundant), Endymion nutans 
(white var.), Sanicula Europma, (Enanthe crocata in marshes, 
EpiloMum angustifolium (where the ravine, after a long curve, 
turns towards the hills), Cistopteris fragilis (frequent), Scolopen- 
d/rium vulgare, Polypodium Dryopteris (frequent), Polystiehium 

IB 



220 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

aculeatum, Asplenium Trichomanes (very luxuriant), Asp. Adiantum- 
nigrum (profusely among dry rocks). Tlie vegetation in general 
was that characteristic of a dry soil. Juniper bushes were occa- 
sional, but are more abundant on the hill faces. Vilurnum 
opulus grows in a ravine near Halls, and above Thurston Mains, 
on Thornton burn. Elder occasionally appears. Encalyfta 
streptocarpa grows on rocks in Halls wood. The Halls burn, the 
Dryburn, and the Thornton burn all contain the common trout. 
The woody-gall of the oak has appeared in these woods. The 
wind made it disadvantageous to mark birds, but at a corres- 
ponding period in last season the following, among others, were 
noticed here : — The greater and cole-tits, the wren (very scarce), 
red-breast, bull-finch, grey linnet (especially where there was 
furze), willow-wren, wood-wren, black-cap warbler, blackbird, 
thrush (scarce, and still remains so), sedge-warbler, white- 
throat, grey fly-catcher (far up near the hills), red-start (near 
Thurston), wood-pigeon, pied wagtail, sand-piper (not arrived 
this season), coot, water-hen, dipper, carrion-crow, heron. On 
wet fields near Woodhall and all along the brows of the Lam- 
mermoors lapwings have their breeding-places ; curlews, golden- 
plovers, and grouse have their home on the heaths ; and wild 
ducks in the marshes. The cuckoo frequents the moor-edges in 
numbers, where the pipit-lark builds, in whose nest the young 
cuckoos are often found by the shepherds. The ring-ouzel 
nestles in some of the cleughs ; and the wheat-ear on the stony 
ground, formed where the Silurian rocks surmount the conglo- 
merate deposits that lie in a trough along their base. 

Time would only permit reaching the deeply-cloven fissure 
where the dean takes an abrupt turn at right angles, and where 
the steep rock overhangs on both sides at a considerable width. 
This is called "The Tinkler's Loup," because a tinker, in 
escaping with manacled hands from the officers of justice, once 
leapt the chasm without breaking his neck. The people tell of 
a boy who here fell over the precipice and was killed. 
" Hawks," perhaps kestrels, build in the rocks of this wild part 
of the dean. Some of the promontories or protuberances in the 
adjoining dean have peculiar names, such as the Kimmerstock 
Knowe and the Priest's Pulpit. One of the fields on Woodhall 
is called the Boar's Loch, and there is a tradition that the last 
wild boar that haunted that part of the country was killed there. 



i 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 221 

A shepherd's house on the height above, where one of these 
deans collects the waters from the hills, is called Boonsley. It 
belongs to Pinkerton, and represents the shielings of the men of 
Pinkerton mentioned in one of the old Kelso charters, who had 
common rights on the Earl of Dunbar's moor. This was in the 
reign of Malcolm IV. The walk was now in the reverse direc- 
tion down the water-side towards Thurston. Below the road 
crossing to Brunt, where old Brunt Mill stood, the valley was 
open, but was constantly intersected by the stream wandering 
from side to side, and requiring repeatedly to be crossed. The 
Brunt side, facing the south, was in a blaze of colour with the 
blossoming furze. On the Thurston side were several sheltered 
nooks, whence the pale primrose glanced from amidst the green 
grass. Gaining at length the Thurston woods the footpaths 
were labyrinthine, and full of walks leading to false issues, but 
by keeping the burn within prospect, the party extricated itself. 
Now hollows were crossed fiUed with primroses with particularly 
large blossoms, and then heights were scaled from which fine 
bits of scenery were visible on the opposite side, or some peak 
was gained that commanded the view of the entire valley, with 
its wimpling stream. Vinca minor is extensively planted in the 
woodland shades, and thrives weU. There were many fine swell- 
ing beeches of tall growth. A rookery was passed near the 
farm, and there is another still more extensive on the grounds, 
which has cast off a colony that populates a planting on a height 
above Thurston Mains. At length the carriage drive to Dry- 
burnford Lodge, which was the trysting place for meeting the 
conveyances, was struck. At the lodge there was on view a 
three-footed bronze pot. This was a very neat pot, ornamented 
with three projecting lines round the thickest part, and the 
mouth had a neatly bevelled lip. It was quite perfect, and had 
been found when cutting a drain at Thurston Mains. The car- 
riages had just halted, after driving up to Thurston House, when 
the walking party arrived in view. Those who had visited 
Innerwick Castle were greatly taken with its situation, and its 
sylvan and craggy environments. It belonged to the Hamiltons 
of Innerwick, who obtained it by marriage with a De Glay 
heiress. Some old-fashioned flowers, among others Anchusa 
sempervirens, still lingering there, were picked up. The wood 
wren was heard. Cistopteris fragilis descends the burn from the 



222 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Mils to the neighbourliood of the castle. Tlie castle (wMch is 
figured by Grose) belongs to Lady Mary Nisbet Hamilton. 

At Dunbar, after partaking of a most sumptuous dinner, busi- 
ness was proceeded with. Messrs John Crawford Hodgson of 
Buston Yale, Lesbury ; John Sadler, curator of the Eoyal Botanic 
Q-ardens, Edinburgh ; and Joseph and Ealph Moore, superin- 
tendents of mines, Inveresk, were proposed as members. A 
letter was read from Sheriff Russell relating to a badger trapped 
on Timpendean Moor, and killed after it had made off with the 
trap. It was mentioned that Mr Eobert Oalder's hounds had 
once killed a badger near Foulden. Below Thurston Mains 
there is still a bank called the Brock-holes. Mr Robert Gray 
read a paper on Mr Alexander Wilson, the Paisley poet, and 
American ornithologist, containing an extract from his journal 
of a visit paid by Wilson to Dunbar on September 24, 25, and 
26, 1789, Mr Gray exhibited several most interesting relics of 
Wilson from his private collections. These consisted of — 1st, A 
portrait with autograph ; 2, Letter addressed to Miss Sarah 
Millar ; 3, Original Drawing of the Hermit or Solitary Thrush ; 
4, Thirty -three proof plates of Wilson's work on Birds ; 5, Rough 
medallion portrait ; 6, Photograph of Wilson's grave. Mr Gray 
also exhibited a photograph of the eggs of the Great Auk. The 
President exhibited two books acquired at Mr Maidment's sale : 
(1) Genealogical account of the family of Home of Wedderburn, 
by John Home, who died in 1791, with MS. notes by Mr Maid- 
ment. John Home claimed to be the rightful heir of George 
Earl of Dunbar, as well as heir male of the family of Home of 
Wedderburn. (2) A collection of Parchments labelled " Chartse 
et Sasinse Antiquse 1451-1582." The first of these is a charter 
by William Earl of Douglas of the lands of Hutton Hall, Ber- 
wickshire, to George Ker, dated at Edinburgh, 11th January, 
1451. — A MS leaf of one of Thomas Boston's sermons, sent by 
Mr David Jordan, Dalkeith, was handed round, as a specimen of 
the careful hand- writing of the author of the " Fourfold State." 

Much interest was felt in the exhibition of the flag of Henry 
Hall of Haughhead, in Teviotdale, the famous Covenanter, 
which had been borne at the battles of Drumclog and Bothwell 
Bridge. It is of blue silk, and carried in red letters painted on 
it the vindictive inscription, " No Quarters to ye Active 
OF YE Covenant." The golden letters of another 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 223 

inscription are falling out, so that the flag could not be fully un- 
folded. Its story is told by Mr James Drummond, the artist, in 
the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Mr 
Drummond found this banner in the possession of Mr and Miss 
Eaeburn, Dunbar, and after much persuasion he was allowed to 
see and make a drawing of it. *'It is of blue silk, here and 
there a little faded ; but having been treasured as a valuable 
heirloom, is in very fair preservation, and is inscribed in Hebrew 
characters (gilded), 'Jehovah Nissi,' (see Exodus xvii., verses 
14 and 15), 'The Lord is my Banner.' From some cause or 
other, the cloth has given way where many of these letters are 
painted, and what remain are so tender, that they will scarcely 
bear touching. The next line is painted in white, — * Foe, 
Christ and his Truths ;' and then come the words ' No 
Quarters to ye Active Enemies or ye Covenant.' This seems 
to have been first painted in a light colour, and afterwards re- 
painted in a dull, faded looking red, in fact quite a bloody colour. 
It is 4 feet 5^ inches by 3 feet 5^ inches. Its history, as given 
by the proprietor, is as follows : — It belonged to Hall of Haugh- 
head, a zealous Covenanter, and one of the leaders at Drumclog 
and Bothwell Brig, from the latter of which engagements he 
escaped and fled to Holland, but shortly after returned. While 
lurking near Queensferry, an attempt was made to seize him by 
the governor of Blackness Castle. Hall, being mortally wounded 
in the struggle, died on his way to Edinburgh as a prisoner. On 
his person was found an unsubscribed document, afterwards 
called The Queensferry/ Paper. Hall's son, while on his death-bed, 
gave the banner to a zealous Covenanting friend, of the name of 
Cochrane. His own son, having turned Conformist clergyman, 
was considered unworthy to be custodier of such a precious relic. 
This Cochrane after wandering about from place to place, settled 
in Coldstream ; his son again, bequeathed the banner to his 
youngest daughter Mary, who married Mr Eaeburn of Dunbar, 
the father of the present proprietors, now a very aged couple. 
Along with the banner, there was a chest of arms, which had 
been used in Covenanting times ; these, however, have been 
gradually given away to friends, excepting two swords." 

In the present vol. of the Proceedings, pp. 22, 23, 56, I called 
attention to this flag, and also to the descendants of Henry Hall. 
They were of the ancient border family of the HaUs of 



224 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Newbiggin, parish, of Oxnam, some of wliom I find about 1622-3 
to have been notorious Border thieves.*- Dr Eobert Hall, the 
descendant of the Covenanter, died in 1824 ; in his latter years 
apparently he was dependent on his pen for a livelihood. There 
was a Mrs Hall, daughter of Mr Orombie, a writer in Jedburgh, 
who married a Dr Hall, who belonged to the Jedburgh district, 
and settled in London. Whether this was, or was not, Dr Eobt. 
Hall, no one can tell me. She wrote a story in Fra%er^s Magazine, 
more than forty years ago, entitled ''The Autobiography of a 
Scottish Borderer," which has been republished in Jedburgh, in 
1874. She is said to have " endured a chequered life in the 
metropolis, for her lot was one of trial and privation. Wben the 
accustomed sources of support failed, she had to betake herself 

* The Halls op Newbigging.— At Jedburgh Circuit, 1622, "Adam Hall, 
callit of ye Buss, in Newbigging," was outlawed for non-compearance for 
the crime of theft or reset of theft. In April, 1623, " Jone Hall, callit 
Cheiff, in Newbigging, and Lancie Hall there,"' were accused of steahng a 
mare belonging to Eoger Hall, in " Daviescheill," Northumberland, and 
were " clengit ;" but for resetting seven nolt, stolen from " Heronnesclois," 
and being act and pairt with John Hall of Heviesyde, then an outlaw and 
fugitive, in selling them, they were " fylit" or found guUty, and were sen- 
tenced to be executed. In the same Circuit " Jon Hall, callit the Gumer," 
was accused of the theft of the mare from Davyshiels, and cleared. Adam 
Hall of the Bus, was entered as a pannel by his cautioner Adam Hall in New- 
bigging ; and the same " Adie, callit of the Bus, in Newbiggiag," was found 
guilty of stealing a cow pertaining to "William Ker of Ancrum, from the 
lands of Spithoip in England, and was sentenced to be "brunt on ye cheik 
with ye common birning irne of ye burghe of Jedburghe." [Wilson'' s 
Annals of Eawick., pp. 247, 275, 300, 281, 292, 297, 304.) Previous to this 
the Haugh-head Halls had obtained possession thereof. In the Taxt Eoll of 
the Abbacy of Jedburgh, 1626, " HaU for the half of Haugh-heid, worth 15 
boUs, payes 33s. 4d." {Morton's Annals of Teviotdale, p. 62.) The lands of 
Newbigging were then held by Andrew Kerr, Master of Jedburgh. {Ibid.) 
" The Newbigging Lairds," we are told in a paper by Mr William Brockie, 
in the Border Treasury, p. 186, were tenants for generations, by payment in 
Mnd, to the Abbey of Jedburgh, and continued to make good their footing 
against the Lothian family, till the beginning of the present century, when 
their titles being questioned, they were evicted by a decreet of the Court of 
Session. The " folks of Newbigging," were a primitive people. It is told 
of them that they attempted to catch the moon by means of a ladder placed 
on a hill, behind which it was seen to shine, but when they reached the top, 
the luminary was as far distant as ever. On reaching the village, when they 
returned, " one of the party declared, to his astonishment, that he found the 
moon shining into the hens' baulk. The moon, they concluded, was too 
fickle to lay hold of." 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 225 

to her pen, to eke out a precarious subsistence for herself and 
family." She attended the debates in the House of Commons as 
a reporter, clothed in apparel she had borrowed from a pawn 
shop. She translated several works from continental languages, 
one being '' The Exiles of Siberia." She died in London, in the 
end of the year 1846. Nothing is known of the fortunes of her 
family. 

To return to the Covenanting Banner, which has occasioned 
these remarks — after the death of the Eaeburns, it passed to Mr 
"William Sinclair, Hartfell House, Moffat, who is also the 
possessor of the sword of Col. Cleland, another national hero, 
who was an officer both at Drumclog and BothweU Bridge ; and 
fell 21st August, 1689, at the head of the Cameronian regiment, 
manfully defending the churchyard of Dundee against a superior 
force of Highlanders, the remains of Dundee's army, who were 
defeated and never rallied again. Mr Sinclair, who is a skilful 
draughtsman of birds, is a native of Dunbar, or its neighbour- 
hood, and he obligingly forwarded the trophy from Moffat on 
the occasion of the Club's visit. An old long-barrelled musket, 
a pistol or carbine barrel, and a sword blade, which were con- 
nected with the flag, were also shewn. Mr Graham, Dunbar, 
sent for the inspection of members an old Geneva Bible of date 
1561. Mr Loney brought from Marchmont, Galeohdolon luteum, 
and a Geranium, of which ihere were doubts as to the species ; 
the first was growing there in a half-wild state. Mr Thos. Dar- 
ling mentioned having shot on the Tweed, near Berwick, during 
the winter, a very small gull, which had occasioned some con- 
troversy. It kept itself apart from other gulls. Professor New- 
ton, to whom it had been submitted, considered it to be a dwarf 
of the black-headed species, Larus ridihundus. It is noticed by 
Mr Brotherston in the present vol. p. 177, under the head of 
*' Masked Gull" (Larus capistratus). 

The second meeting was at Gordon, on the 30th of June ; and 
although held in a rural situation, it was very successful and 
numerously attended. A loft or granary behind one of the vil- 
lage inns was fitted up, and a licence procured, and the company 
dined there with every comfort. The weather was not the most 
favourable, as heavy blasts of rain occurred repeatedly, but the 
spirit of adventure set at defiance the fickleness of the elements ; 
and the mind, amidst researches of an encouraging character, 



226 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

was too absorbed to attend to physical discomforts. Thirty as- 
sembled ; including Mr Watson, President ; Dr Francis Doug- 
las and Mr Hardy, Secretaries ; Eevs. James Farquharson, M.A., 
Selkirk ; Alex. Phimister, M.A., Gordon ; and William Stobbs, 
M.A., Gordon ; Messrs D. Angus, Edinburgh ; W. L. Blaikie, 
Holydean ; James Bogie, Edinburgh ; W. B. Boyd, Ormiston ; 
Andrew Brotherston, Kelso ; Alexander Dewar, M.D., Melrose ; 
Charles Douglas, M.D., Woodside ; John Freer, Melrose; W. 
A. Hunter, Dunse ; William H. Johnson, Edinburgh ; E. D. 
Ker, Edinburgh ; Peter Loney, Marchmont ; Alexander Mac- 
kenzie, M.D,, Kelso ; Joseph Moore, Smeaton Park, Inveresk ; 
Capt. F. M. Norman, E.N., Berwick ; Eobert Eenton, Fans ; 
Francis Eussell, Jedbank ; John Sadler, Eoyal Botanic Gardens, 
Edinburgh; William Stevenson, Dunse; Charles Stuart, M.D., 
Chirnside ; J. Erskine Stuart, M.D., Dunse ; John Thomson, 
Kelso ; Thomas Turnbull, Lilliesleaf ; James Wood, Galashiels. 

The railway bank exposes the Old Eed Sandstone near the 
Station, not far from where the basalt forms an overflow. The 
basalt quarried near the Station is employed for road metal and 
paving stones. The traditionary site of Gordon Castle is on a 
kaim, now planted with fir trees, at the side of the public road, 
N.W. of the Station. A few fragments of pottery were the only 
relics exposed, when the line was cut across what might have 
been its outworks ; and there was no indication of a sewer. The 
plantation on the roadside to the village is cumbered with 
basaltic boulders ; but none of them shew glacial markings. 
These are examples of the obstructions, that the feuars of the 
ground to the east of the village had to contend with, when it 
was reclaimed. The numberless blocks that they excavated were 
utilised in building enclosures to the intakes of double the usual 
thickness, or were fractured, to fill up drains. The village is 
mostly constructed of basalt. It consists of a lengthened double 
row of houses, one on each side of the public road, and has a 
cleanly look. Water is plentiful, being found wherever the 
basalt cuts the sandstone. 

The Eev. William Stobbs shewed the members through the 
church and churchyard. The church is a plain modern edifice, 
but is roomy and comfortable in the interior, and is seated to ac- 
commodate about 300 persons. Mr Stobbs said that in intro- 
ducing the heating apparatus, the workmen about the centre of 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 227 

the building came upon a pit of about a yard square in which. 76 
skulls were huddled together, and a number of thigh bones cor- 
responding to these, as if they had been removed from some 
other situation, and deposited there. It was remarked that the 
skulls were extraordinarily thick, and the thigh bones were ac- 
knowledged to be longer than those of the past or present genera- 
tion. The teeth were wonderfully perfect. Farther along the 
passage, several complete skeletons at intervals were found, dis- 
posed east and west. All these were conveyed to the churchyard 
for re-interment. One of the seats in the church, on the author- 
ity of the Session Eecords, was called the Wedderlie seat, set 
apart for the Edgars of Wedderlie. 

In the churchyard there are no particularly old stones, except 
some slabs that had been resuscitated, when a small portion of 
the surface had been levelled. Several of these are of the red 
sandstone of Greenlaw quarry. The following inscription ap- 
pears on the stone over the grave of Thomas Henderson, 
formerly schoolmaster of Gordon, who died January 13, 1772 : — 
' ' Ah lie was great in body & in mind 
A loving Husband & a Father kind 
As he most men Excided in his Stature 
So he Exceled in his Literature 
But although he is gone and greatly mist 
God's good will be done we hope he is blest" 
For a list of the ministers of Gordon, extracted from Dr Hew 
Scott's ** Fasti Ecclesiee Scoticanse," I am indebted to our Presi- 
dent, Mr Watson. The church was dedicated to St. Michael, 
the Archangel, and previous to the Eeformation belonged to the 
Abbey of Kelso. 

^ Archibald Fairbarne, reader from 157i to 1585. 

Thomas Storie, removed from Bassendean, 1609-1625. 

Francis CoUace, A.M., 1625-1647. 

Norman Leslie, A.M., 1647-1657. 

John Hardie, A.M., 1659-1662. {deprived). 

James Straiten, A.M., 1682. 

John Findlay, 1682-1685. 

Thomas Mabane, A.M., 1685-1689. (deprived). 

John Hardie, A.M., M.D. [restored), 1690-1707. 

David Brown, A.M., 1708-1726. 

John Bell, 1727-1800. 

Robert Lundie, 1801-1807. 

Walter Morison, 1807-1814. 

David William Gordon, 1814-1824. 

IC 



228 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

James Paterson, 1824-1855. 
William Stotbs, A.M., 1855. 

The trees and shrubs about the village had not suffered much 
from the winter ; the ivy in particular was unimpaired. At the 
manse, however, under the shelter, the Laurestinus ( Viburnum 
Tinus) and a variegated shrubby Veronica were killed ; and the 
common laurel-bay was cut down to the ground. None of the 
yews nor hollies were hurt, and the box was uninjured. After 
a time, I was told, apple trees get lichened in the garden, and 
gooseberries do not bear well. This year the apex of the shoots 
of the gooseberry, here as elsewhere, were attacked in an ex- 
treme degree by Aphis Grossularia. A fine double-hosed cowslip 
of the elatior form is cultivated in the flower border. 

At Gordon, Mr Thomson picked up the following scrap of folk- 
lore : — " There is a good story told of some worthy Gordonians 
who, wishing to have perennial spring and summer, thought to 
attain their object by building a high wall round a place fre- 
quented by the cuckoo. But the bird escaped, and the ' Gowks 
o' Gordon' consoled themselves by the reflection that the wall 
had not been built high enough. Some worthy ' Gowks' in the 
village also tried to drown eels in a pool near where the railway 
station is now situated, but, being unsuccessful, alleged the 
water was not deep enough." Both specimens of Gothamism, I 
have mentioned in an article on the "Popular History of the 
Cuckoo," in the Folh-Lore Record, ii. pp. 67-69, but not as applic- 
able to Gordon. The cuckoo story is found at Lorbottle, in 
Northumberland. Some of the inhabitants in the vicinity, 
although they have no documentary evidence, have traditions of 
the long continuance of their families in one holding. The 
family of one of the farmers in the parish has been in occiipancy 
of the same place for 200 years. An old man has lately come to 
the parish from Hume, where, it is the family belief, his 
ancestry had lived for 400 years. 

To widen the sphere of observation, three sections were 
formed ; one party betook themselves to Mellerstain woods 
and Gordon Moss ; the other two, one on foot and the other 
by conveyance, passed to Greenknow and Bassindean, but 
afterwards held a separate route ; and each of them at the 
close had something distinctive to relate. The first headed by 
Mr William Boyd and Dr Charles Stuart, was the earliest to 
start. The walk was most productive of plants In Mellerstain 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 229 

woods they found Zinncea horealis, large quantities of Listera 
cordata, and abundance of Goodyera repens, while in Gordon 
Moss they noticed Catahrosa aquatica (a somewhat rare grass), 
Stellaria glauca, Orchis incarnata, Utricularia minor, and several 
Potamogetons. Mr Sadler found one specimen of moonwort 
{Botrychium luna/ria) which measured 14 inches from the tip of 
the spike to the root. The list of plants got, drawn up by Dr 
Stuart and Mr Sadler, is too long to introduce here, but will be 
given as a separate paper, along with the plants Mr Brotherston 
had gathered in coming to the meeting, and subsequent dis- 
coveries by the Eev. W. Stobbs. Dr Stuart has kindly supplied 
me with his observations on the birds that were seen in the moss. 
" Larks are plentiful here, having abundant shelter for nesting 
in the rough cover in the bogs. While sheltering in a clump of 
willows from a heavy shower, the attention of the members of 
the Club was attracted by an extraordinary noise proceeding 
from some bushes, quite close to where we were, as if produced 
by a concert of grasshoppers. The noise resembled very much 
that of a ratch fishing reel, when being wound. This sound was 
the note of the grasshopper warbler [Sylvia Locustella), a very in- 
teresting summer visitor. In former years I have heard it at 
Ninewells, in the parish of Chirnside. This season it has been 
heard in the Kirk Walk, Whitehall, and at Hammerball, Bla- 
nerne, parish of Bunkle, within a few miles of Chirnside. This 
bird is very shy, and takes good care not to show himself to 
every one. By lying down in the wood at Ninewells and watch- 
ing, I observed him come out of an alder bush surrounded by the 
wood-rush, and run along the ground like a mouse to another 
place of shelter. He is of a brown colour, and rather larger 
than a hedge-sparrow. From the information of Mr Watson, it 
has been observed this season at Chapel, near Dunse." [The 
nest has been seen this season near Paxton, and at the margin 
of the wood to the north, close beside Grant's House. It has 
been long known in that vicinity, and its distribution extends to 
the sides of the Pease dean. It was more numerous, before the 
meadows at the side of the railway were cultivated, which was 
about fifty years ago, before the era of railways.] *'In the bog 
on the north of the Berwickshire railway, we also heard the 
notes of several of the warblers. I caught a young sedge- 
warbler {Sylvia Phragmitis), a very beautiful little bird. Its 



280 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

parents were close at hand, and in plaintive notes, lamented the 
loss of their young one. After examination, I had the pleasure 
of safely restoring it to their care. On liberating the bird, it 
flew into the middle of a water-hole, alighting on a reed, in the 
very attitude in which Morris in his book on British Birds, has 
pourtrayed it. The stone-chat ( Saxicola Eubicola) and the whin- 
chat {Saxicola Rubetra) were in considerable numbers in the bogs ; 
and many other warblers — which owing to the wet state of the 
weather we were unable to examine more particularly." This is 
still one of the haunts of the reed bunting, "coal -hood" or 
''black-cap" {JEmberiza Schoeniclus), of which considerable num- 
bers breed here. The common bunting frequents the neighbour- 
hood in spring. 

Since the meeting, Mr Stobbs has sought out a resident bird- 
fancier, from whom he obtained some ornithological data, which 
are always welcome in regard to a neglected locality. Concern- 
ing the chimney swallow {Rirundo rustica) he states that in the 
summer of 1876 or 1877, the season was so cold that only about 
a couple of pairs could be observed in Gordon parish. They 
generally depart in the last week of September for the old birds, 
and about ten days later for the young ones. The swift ( Cypse- 
Im Apus) called " cran," occurs occasionally. The favourite ren- 
dezvous of the swallows before starting for the south is the 
steading of Grreenknowe, or the church-roof. A great many rare 
birds come to Gordon Moss, at all seasons of the year. The 
grasshopper- warbler is an yearly visitant to the moss, where he 
has seen its nest. He often sees the bullfinch in the woods. 
This summer he saw a pair of goldfinches. The parish is rich 
in species of titmice. He speaks of a wren with a spot on its 
crown, called the "weary" or "wheary" (^Regulus aurocapillus.) 
Siskins {Fringilla Spinus) were very numerous in the moss, when 
Mr Stobbs wrote, Nov. 5. He has a number of stuffed starlings 
with varied plumage, for they are much given to " sports." He 
has twice seen wild swans, but they were in flight. A great 
variety of ducks and aquatic birds visit the parish. He once got 
a pair of shovellers {Anas clypeata) ; and shewed a wigeon 
{Mareca Penelope) that he had shot lately. He has seen the king- 
fisher on the Eden, and pretty frequent on the Leader. He has 
got other birds, which he does not know properly, among others 
a rare owl. In regard to the screech-owl {Strix stridula) I notice, 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 231 

that William Brockie makes the remark, that *' a dreadful 
creature of this species, whose haunt was on the west side of 
Mellerstain Hill, near a place called the Yallow Door, was long 
known, and perhaps is still, by the name of Roarie.'" The com- 
mon viper {Felices Berus) is very numerous in the southern or 
Fans part of the moss. On the day of the Club's meeting, 
Sheriff Eussell captured Argijnnis Selene, one of the small fritil- 
lary butterflies, for which this is a new locality. The pretty 
orange-tip butterfly [Anthocaris Cardamines) is also found here. 

On the geological features and present condition of Gordon 
Moss, Mr Stobbs supplies the following remarks : — " The moss 
is one by nature, but belongs to four proprietors. It is divided 
by a stank, which helps to drain it. The moss has been a lake 
unable to drain itself, by its outlet deepening its bed in the 
course of ages. A dyke of basalt that crosses the country at its 
eastern extremity proved too tough to be so easily worn down as 
the rest of the land. This dyke had to be blasted with gun- 
powder when the stank was made, and the moss drained about 
60 years ago. There is a succession of very fine spi-ings down 
the course of the trap or basalt dyke that breaks through the red 
sandstone, from the railway station to the moss. In the moss 
there is a well-known * verter,' i.e. virtue well, which has a strong 
tincture of iron." Hazel and birch are the chief ligneous con- 
stituents dug up in the moss. The monks of Kelso Abbey had 
two petaries here ; and six cottages of which each of the tenants 
was bound to deliver annually thirty wain-loads of dry peats at 
the cloister.* Each husbandman of the 28 husbandlands of 
Bolden or Bowden, Eoxburghshire, was also obliged to furnish 
a wain to carry peats from the moss at Gordon to the Abbey.f 
These amounted to 208 wain-loads per annum. 

There was only conveyance for a limited number, and these 
were associated with the second walking party, part of the way. 
Leaving by west end of the village, the " Hanging Stone" was 
pointed out — a mass of rock dependent from the bank above the 
railway. The story is, and it is a myth attached to other '' Hang- 
ing Stones," that a pedlar who had been resting there got his 
head into the aperture between two of the blocks, and was 

* Morton's Domestic Annals of Teviotdale, p. 134. 
t Ibid, p. 121. They first carried them to a place of storage at "The 
Pools " (le pullis), and thence to the Abbey in the summer (p. 165). 



232 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

accidentally hanged. See Club's Proc. vol. vi., p. 370. Green- 
knowe Tower, on tbe opposite side of tbe railway, was tben 
visited. The tower is built on a small plateau in the midst of a 
moss, and at one time must have been nearly surrounded by 
water. The foundations are much older than the superstructure, 
the turrets at the corners being comparatively modern. The 
outhouses have been cleared away, with the advantage of ren- 
dering the building completely obvious. It has a patched ap- 
pearance close at hand, but is a picturesque object from different 
points among the well-grown trees of the park. It is a square 
keep almost entire, measuring 34 feet east and west, by 36 feet ; 
constructed of red sandstone and basalt. The windows are of a 
modern square-headed type. As it now stands most of it was 
built by the Seytons or Setons. Over the doorway are cut two 
shields with coats of arms, with the initials J.S. and I.E., and 
the date 1581. The arms on the one shield are quarterly three 
crescents of the first and fourth, and three scutcheons of the second 
and third. These are the arms of Seton of Touch. The second 
shield bears three crescents, which are equally the arms of the 
Setons as of the Edmonstones. From the Seytons it passed by 
purchase to the Pringles of Stichel, and became the inheritance 
of the excellent Walter Pringle of Greenknowe, well-known 
from his "Memoirs." In the Appendix to the edition of this 
book by the Pev. Walter Wood, Elie, there is a history of the 
possessors of this property. The tower was occupied all the days 
of the Pringles, and Mr Fairholme brought his English wife 
there, but she could not become reconciled to the rude and in- 
convenient old mansion ; this induced them to repair to Leam- 
ington, where they lived all their time. The pasture still shews 
by the lines of the old ditches and fence backs, the manner in 
which it had been subdivided. Flowers had lent their adorn- 
ment. In early spring snowdrops are exceedingly plentiful 
round the building. There was an inner as distinct from an 
outer garden; and Walter Pringle in 1663, pointedly refers to 
'' the plum-tree on the north side of the garden-door," as being 
witness to the earnestness of his devotions."^' There is still the 
line of the winding avenue between two ranks of trees that led 
up to the tower. The trees in the pasture were Scotch elm, ash, 
plane tree, lime and willow. The grass has no great feeding 
* Select Biographies : Wodrow Society, i., p. 438. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 233 

properties, only occasionally a bullock or two being fattened in 
a season. Tbe steading of Greenknowe occupies a flat, and tbe 
cottages are apt to be water-logged. Tbe walkers picked up 
Galeopsis versicolor in tbe first oat-field entered ; and at the pond 
nearest tbe steading, Callitriche hamulata was observed with 
leaves abnormally developed, by immersion. Glyceria fluitans 
covered tbe upper pond almost entirely. 

Coming out to tbe open, tbe appearance of the land is a sort 
of central flat, diversified with rolling ridges, and detached 
Tcaims. It now looked its best, in a variety of tints of green, the 
small patches of heath that remain untilled being now of small 
account. The soil is reddish with a considerable proportion of 
clay in it ; the well-rounded gravel on the haims consists of grey- 
wacke, basalt, red sandstone, and an indurated reddish white 
variety of the same rock, such as might be produced by heat. 
. The fences are built of basalt and greywacke. The worst soil is 
on the flats, being a tenacious clay, while the free fertile soil is 
towards the heights. Where very light the weeds in the corn 
are "runches" [Raphanus Raphanistrum), and not wild mustard 
{Sinapis arvensis). The river Eden flows down a boggy-hollow, 
and has upwards the sloping base of the Knock Hill, that shows 
old cultivated ridges, but is now specked with heath, juniper, 
and furze. The ground is cultivated and more flat on the eastern 
side. Higher up is Corsbie Bog, in which the white masses of 
cotton grass were conspicuous amidst the dark moss hags. The 
Eden where crossed has a lenient flow. It contains trout, but is 
overfished. There is a want of dog-roses by the wayside, but 
near Skinlaws Toll, Mr Brotherston cut a branch of the rare 
Rosa micrantha, for which, hitherto, there have been only two 
Scottish localities. In going to Bassindean, those who were in 
the conveyance, passed the dean, where, above an ancient bridge 
now disused, are the remains of sandstone quarries, that may 
have communicated the name of Bakstanedean (the dean where 
bake -stones were procured), to the original Saxon settlement 
here. 

While the walking party were examining the old church of 
Bassendean, a mean post-reformation structure on an old founda- 
tion, the others called at the farm-house, and were shown before 
the front door, a great sandstone slab, closely resembling others 
in Gordon churchyard derived from Greenlaw quarry. This 



234 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

tombstone was removed by a former tenant from the churchyard ; 
and the popular notion is that it commemorated a " General 
Leslie," who fell while fighting against Cromwell. Inaccurate 
statements about the battle of Dunbar may have originated the 
rumour. They also tell that Cromwell fired from the Knock Hill 
at Corsbie Castle, which stands upon the opposite side of the 
Eden. Most of the other old gravestones were used in various 
parts of the farm cottages some years ago ; the churchyard now 
being united to the adjacent grass field. At the farmhouse also 
was pointed out the aperture of a vault, where the laird of Bassin- 
dean who was of the Covenanting party, had been for a time con- 
cealed from those who sought his life. The tenants think that 
the farm house had once been a peel-tower. The re-united com- 
pany next repaired to the garden attached to the residence of 
Major John H. Ferguson Home, which stands on a distinct pro- 
perty from the farm. It is well sheltered, and is neat and well 
cropped. The soil here and all round the mansion house is a 
stiff clay, but there is as good a crop here of peaches and grapes 
as anywhere else ; and it is favourable for raising early straw- 
berries and peas. There were some curious varieties of Mimulus 
growing near the entrance. There were some very good Pyre- 
thrums in bloom ; and a well flowered plant of Pernettya mucron- 
ata. Near it was a mass of the dark-foliaged variety of 
Ajuga reptans, which was frequented, as the wild one usually is, 
by a yellow and black saw-fly, a species of Athalia, whose 
nomenclature is at present in suspense. The bright scarlet 
flowered Alonsoa elegans was grown in the vinery, and like- 
wise a white bloom-ed pensile species of Tradescantia, not 
a common thing. The apple trees had suffered from the previous 
winter. The mansion-house is in a state of transition, and will 
be handsome when completed. Part of it is old, with small 
windows ; the additions are in the Scottish baronial style. The 
coat of arms of Ferguson combined with Home is finely sculp- 
tured. There is an old dial on one of the aspects, said to be 
dated 1600. Having been recently planted, some of the shrubs 
have been hardly dealt with by the inclement winter of 1879-80. 
Aucula Japonica, the Laurestinuses, and Mahonia were sore cut 
up. Some elms had also suffered severely. A deluge of rain 
forced the members to take refuge in the conservatory. This is 
built on the top of the old peel tower of the mansion, which was 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 235 

taken down to one story. There were here some very showy 
Calceolarias, particularly a double mauve-coloured variety ; some 
large blossomed Fuchsias ; choice Pelargoniums ; a scarlet 
full-blooming Azalea ; a few heaths ; a good well-grown Pteris ; 
an Eucalyptus rather drawn up ; and a Sparmannia Africcma, from 
the Cape, of a large size. There were also noted Sollya hetero- 
phylla, Lapageria rosea, Clematises of sorts, and Passiflora ccerulea. 
A portion of the wall of the house was covered by the pedate ivy 
{Eedera pedata). On another portion a fasciculated stem was 
observed on the Cotoneaster microphylla, which is said to be sub- 
ject to these abnormal growths. 

I shall now, by Mr Thomson's aid, follow the more active ex- 
plorers in their survey of Corsbie Bog. " Despite the drenching 
rain, Corsbie Bog proved an interesting place for the botanists, 
who were abundantly rewarded for all their labour and discom- 
■ fort by the variety of the plants found. The moss has been 
drained, and when the water receded the soil was the scene of a 
great network of deep cracks, which still remain. In the Eden, 
which is here a very insignificant burn, we found a small log of 
black oak protruding from the soil. On the hill sIojdo, and also 
in the bog, the juniper {Juniperus communis) was growing among 
the heath, while the cranberry ( Vaccinium oxycoccos) was plentiful. 
Lancashire Bog Asphodel also grows in the bog. The butter- 
wort {Pinguicula vulgaris) and the sundew {Drosera rotundifolia) 
were common, and the whole bog bore a heavy crop of the hare's 
tail cotton grass {Eriophorum vaginatum). Owing to the rain we 
could not see this beautiful plant at its best, as the moisture 
caused the * cotton ' to stick close together, instead of appearing 
a wavy tuft of down. There was plenty of Devil's bit scabious 
{Scahiosa succisa). The feature of the bog was the frequent 
occurrence of magnificent beds of Polytrichum commune in grand 
fruit, while Funaria Jiygrometrica, which invariably appears where 
ground has been burned, was exceedingly rich. In the Eden 
Potamogeton polygonifolius and pusillus, Myosotis repens, Sphagnum 
cuspidatum, squarrosum, and acutifolium ; Galium saxatile, Ranun- 
culus homcBophyllus, Carex ampullacea, C. curta and puUcaris, 
Lastrea spinulosa, &c., were exceedingly abundant. Some very 
pretty specimens of Orchis maculata were observed. The birds 
noticeable were the whinchat and curlew, while here and during 
the day larks innumerable were seen and heard. The subject of 

Id 



236 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

the decrease in the numher of larks was discussed, and the 
general opinion seemed to be that the ' bird of the wilderness ' 
was most plentiful in the wilderness, and receded before 
cultivation. The rain was still falling, rendering the prospect 
anything save an 'Eden scene,' and it was determined to return 
homewards by Knock Hill. Following the side of the plantation 
of Scotch and spruce firs, it was evident that unless they were 
quickly thinned the whole plantation would die. The trees were 
so close that in parts it was impossible to pass through it. It 
was a hard climb to reach the summit of Knock Hill, but the 
view from it was an abundant reward. There is a quarry near 
the top, and a capital section of basalt was there exposed. In 
an oat field near two men were mowing the tops from the wild 
radish {Raphanus Raphanistrum), which was growing very abund- 
antly. Daisies and buttercups were growing very plentifully in 
the grass fields. A walk of about two miles under a downpour 
of rain brought us to Gordon once more, and in good time." 

Those who were in the conveyance felt less the discomfort of 
the rain, and they were well rewarded by the views from the 
rising ground, as they passed onward to Legerwood. Above the 
undulating surface, the abrupt prominences of East Gordon, 
Mellerstain, Hume Castle, and the Knock, were boldly marked 
out. Before us, dark strips of fir crowned the ridges, or swept 
down in long lines on each side of the pass towards Birkenside. 
We got glimpses far away of the Cowdenknows and the Eildons, 
and more to the north, of the summit of Black Andrew in Sel- 
kirkshire. On the left hand the dusky Lammermoors rose like a 
waU, with streaks of green bog radiating from their sides. The 
soil on Corsbie, Kirkhill, and Legerwood is of a dark colour, and 
is well adapted for turnips. It is liable to be infested with 
quickens, which the rapidity with which the turnip crop is now 
apt to be put in, does not tend to keep under. The colouring of 
the lamb's fleeces probably responds to the blackness of the soil ; 
as they were seen to have been recently dipped in a solution of 
heel or red ochre ; a practice followed also that the price may be 
enhanced in the market. Corsbie Moss, which lay considerably 
below the public road, was once a haunt of the black-headed 
gull {Larus ridibundus), but has been deserted since it was 
drained. There are a few scattered birches in the moss, and 
some native sallows on its outskirts. This bog or mossy hollow 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 287 

sweeps round a far way, till tlie cultivated ground of Legerwood 
crosses and occupies the space. After passing Corsbie steading, 
Corsbie Tower came in view, situated in a field on a knoll among 
ash trees. It has a certain stateliness about it, and is built of a 
pale coloured stone. "Three sides of the lofty walls are still 
complete. It is believed by many who know the locality that 
Sir Walter Scott must have had this castle in mind when 
describing Avenel. A few centuries ago it would be totally sur- 
rounded by water. It is eight miles, crow-line, from Melrose,"-'' 
Corsbie Castle belonged to the Cranstons. Jasper Cranstoun of 
Corsbie was one of the Berwickshire barons proceeded against in 
1530, for neglecting to fulfill their bonds ''to keep good rule 
within their respective bounds. "f On Sept. 14, 1571, the Earl 
of Mar writes to Sir William Drury at Berwick, and " complains 
of spoils committed on the lands of Thomas Cranstoun, the hus- 
band of Lady Corsby, and requests him to give orders to the 
Captain of Home Castle, for redress of these disorders."! ^^ 
then came to a farm place called Kirkhill, which, with its en- 
vironment of trees, concealed behind it the kirk and manse of 
Legerwood. The Eev. Archibald Brown very kindly shewed the 
visitors whatever was worth inspection. The church is a neat 
but plain structure ; new space has been obtained by an addition 
at the back. Blaikie, the eccentric slater of Earlstoun, covered 
the church roof all in one morning, single-handed ; and it has 
been so well executed, that not a slate has stirred since. In the 
interior an old Norman arch of the original church is preserved. 
The arch is very plain, but massive, formed of red sandstone, 
and is 15 feet in diameter. The capitals of the pillars are 
peculiar ; one has a transverse parallel double line of stars ; and 
another has an upright elliptical pattern of sculpturing. The 
pillars had been continuous into the Moristoun aisle, now on the 
exterior, and roofless. This aisle contains the tomb of John Ker 
of Moristoun and of his wife, the famous heroine, Grizel Coch- 
rane, who robbed the postman near Belford of the warrant for 
her father's (Sir John Cochrane of Ochiltree — concerned with 
Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth, in the political troubles of the 
reign of James VII.) execution, and by this means obtained 

* Mr James Small, Introduction to " The Grey Peel, a Ballad." 

t Anderson's Scottish. Nation, i., p. 696. 

X Calendar of State Papers, Scotland, i., p. 328. 



238 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

delay till successful intercession was made for Ms life. Over 
tlieir graves is a flat sandstone with an inscription, and at the 
upper end an elaborately ornamented bulky tombstone of white 
sandstone, with the date 1691, and one on each side, the letters 
I.K. It carries two shields, the J&rst has quarterly on the first 
and fourth a unicorn's head, and on the second and third three 
crosses moline ; the second shield has three crosses moline, — the 
arms of Ainsley of Dolphinston. These are intended for the 
arms of Ker of Moristoun. They agree with those of Ker of 
Littledean. The epitaph on the slab has been correctly copied 
for us by the Eev. A. Brown. 

' ' Her rests the corps of John Ker 
of Moristown who departed this 
life the 27 of September 1691 in 
the thretth year of his age 
As also the corps of 
Grissell Cochrane his lady 
who died the 21 of March 
1748 in the 83d year of 
her age" 

Mr Brown has also copied the inscription on the tombstone of 
the Montgomeries of Mackbiehill, in the parish, which was 
pointed out to the members. This family has a history, but it is 
too long to narrate. 

' ' Here lyes "William Montgomry of Makbiehill who 
deceased the 9 day of December 1689 (? 80) his age 63 years 
Eepaired by the Right Honble. James Montgomery Lord 
Chiefe Baron of the Court of Exchekwer the gra 
ndson of the above W. Montgomery 179 (3 ? 8 ? 9?)" 

Copied from the stone in Legerwood Churchyard, August 7th, 1880. The 
inscription is difficult to decipher. The letters are small and shallow, and 
the figures especially indistinct. — A. B. 

Mr Brown has also sent a correct transcript of the inscription, 
which has a historical interest, on the tomb of the Eev. William 
Calderwood, minister here, who was a relative of the Eev. David 
Oalderwood, the church historian. 

" Here lyes that pious and 

faithfull servant of Jesus 

Christ the Reverend Mr William 

Calderwood who was 

admitted minister of this 

Parioch of Ligertwood June 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 239 

12, 1655 where lie laboured 
in the work of the Gospel till 
he was turned out for 
not conforming to Prelacy 
an. 1662 and then he frequ 
ently tho' privately visited 
that Parioch till the 
Episcopal minister was turned 
out that he returned to his 
work Septr. 8, 1689 and con 
tinned therein tUl his death 
which was June 19, 1709 being 
the 81 year of his age and 
the 54 of his ministry 

This monument was put up 

by his Eelict Jean Trotter 

Eepaired by some of the Parishioners 

1838." 

Copied from the stone in Legerwood Churchyard, August 6th, 1880, by 

Archd. Brown, minister. 

There is an inaccuracy in the epitaph. He had completed the 
54th year of his ministry, and had advanced one week into the 
55th. Hew Scott, therefore, is minutely correct in this remark. 
His list has 55th year. 

The following is a list of the ministers of Legerwood from the 
Reformation to the present period, partly from Di Hew Scott's 
"Fasti," &c. ; and partly collated with a list which Mr Brown 
compiled from the Presbytery Records, which contains particu- 
lars not given in the " Fasti." Previous to the Eeformation the 
church belonged to the Abbey of Paisley : — 
Robert Paterson, reader from 1574 to 1591. 
David Forsyth, from Polwarth, 1592. 
George Byris, A.M., from Barra, 1593—1640. 
Thomas Byris, A.M., 1634-1653. 
William Calderwood, A.M., 1655-1662 (deprived). 
Thomas Byris, noticed above, 1666 (died 1682). 
Gideon Brown, A.M., 1666-1676. 
William Layng, A.M., 1677-1689 (deprived). 

WiUiam Calderwood, A.M., restored 1689. "He died 19 June, 1709, 
in his 81st year, and 55th min., having earned a high reputa- 
tion for sanctity of life and ministerial usefulness." 
James CampbeU, A.M., fromBranton,Northd., 1711 ; deposed 1 Aug., 

1718. 
Thomas Old, A.M., 1717, died 1 Sept., 1737. 
Walter Douglas, A.M., 1738-1752. 



240 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

The following is Mr Brown's list in continuation : — 

Wmiam GuUan, ordained May nth, 1753, died April 11th, 1792. 
Kobert Scott, ordained Sept. 17th, 1793, translated to Coldstream, 

July 3rd, 1795. 
James Baird, ordained Sept. 17th, 1795, translated to Eccles, July 

20th, 1797. 
James Young, ordained Dec. 6th, 1797, settlement rescinded May 25th, 

1798. [He had been minister at Kirkley and Glanton, in 

Northumberland, but was not qualified according to the laws of 

the church. He died of a broken heart at Coldstream, 23rd 

Jan., 1799, in his 43rd year and 18th min.] 
Henry Gamock, ordained March 14th, 1799, translated to Canongate, 

Edinburgh, July 25th, 1811. 
George Cupples, ordained March 26th, 1813, translated to East 

Church, Stirling, Jan., 1834. 
John H. Walker ordained Oct. 4, 1836, translated to Greenlaw, Aug. 

2, 1844. 
James Macnair, ordained Dec. 19th, 1844, translated to Auchter- 

muchty, July 1, 1853. 
James Langwill, ordained Sept. 8th, 1853, translated to Currie, Jan. 

21st, 1859. 
Archibald Brown, inducted March 31st, 1859. 

The company having taken refuge in the church from a heavy 
shower, Mr Brown read copies of some of these documents, and 
other statements; one being an extract from ''Pitcairn's 
Criminal Trials," respecting the slaughter on the lands of Boon, 
in this parish, by Alexander French, tutor of Thorniedykes, and 
James Wicht at Gordon Mylne, of John Oranstoun, brother to 
Patrick Cranstoun of Corsbie, Feb. 10th, 1611-12. Of this I in- 
sert a copy made by our President, Mr Watson. 
SLAUGHTER. 

" 1612, March 13. — Alexander Frenche, Tutour of Thomiedykis, and 
James Wicht, at Gordoun Mylne, his sister-sone. 

Dilaittit of airt and pairt of the slauchter of umqie Johnne Cranstoun, 
brother to Patrik Cranstoun of Corsbie committit be thame upone the grand 
and landis of Boun in the Merse, u^on the tent day of Februare lastbypast, 
be wounding of him in the heid, leg and dyuerse utheris pairtis of his bodie, 
to the efEusioun of his bluid in grit quantitie : Off the quhilkis straikis and 
deidlie woundis the said umqle Johnne nevir thaireftir convalessit : bot, 
upone the first day of Merche instant, depairtit this life, of the saidis hurtis 
and woundis. 

Persewar, Patrik Cranstoun of Corsbie, as brother. 

The persewar, be his grit aithe, declairis that he hes most cans to persew ; 
and sueris the said Dittay to be of verritie, and takis instrumentis thair- 
upoun ; and Protestis for Wilfull Errour, gif the Assyse Acquit. As also 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 241 

for veriflcatioun thairof , haifing uset and producet the Depositiones of cer- 
tane famous "Witnesses, quhilk was oppinlie red in Judgement. 

Yerdict. The Assyse, all in ane voce, be the mouth of Hew Bell in Blithe, 
chanceller, ffand, pronouncet, and declairet the said James Wicht to be fEylet 
culpable, and convict of the crewel and unmerciefuU Slauchter of the said 
umqle Johnne Cranstoun. And siclyk, for the maist pairts, Declairit the 
said Alexander Frenche to be ffylet, &c. 

Sentence. To be tane to the Castell hiU of Edinburgh, and thair, thair 
heidis to be strukin frome thair bodeis ; and all thair moveable guidis to be 
escheit and inbrocht to his Maiesteis use as convict, &c."* 

A very thriving Deodar and Arauearia were growing in front 
of the manse. Erom the elevated height behind the church, 
there is a view of the Dowie Den Moss Loch or " Pickie Moss," 
where the black-headed gulls or Pickmaws breed ; but to get 
close to it, a detour had to be made by Legerwood farm-steading. 
The old village, as appears by the number of ash-trees in a field 
at the roadside, had stood near the present dwelling. There was 
a sprinkling of mugwort by the roadside on approaching it. We 
turned up here sharply to the right, between two fine thorn 
hedges ; passed the sedge-bordered pond for the supply of the 
thrashing mill, which is derived from the loch ; then skirted a 
small planting, where the road curved to go straight up over a 
hill to Lauder, and having ascended it a short way, the loch, 
which is full of sedge, and lies in a hidden retired situation, little 
liable to disturbance, could be seen. The gulls were skimming, 
backwards and forwards, in wild excitement over the surface of 
the waters, and then swept away deviously across the country. 
The young being now reared, the numbers of the birds were 
lessening by desertions. There is said to be another pond, which 
they still frequent, at Eedpath, below Earlstoun. The gulls have 

* Has not this incident given origin to the reported " fatal fight between 
the lairds of Boon and Corsbie," which " is occasionally spoken of yet in the 
district ?" According to Mr Smail's narration : " The grave of Boon is well- 
known, and is marked by a large gravestone, of a sort, which is locally called 
at the present day ' the Corse Stane.' " The account of this in the *' Statist. 
Account of Berwickshire," p. 353, may possibly be more correct. '' On the 
farm of Boon, in the barony of Corsbie, there is a stone which is called the 
' Dodds Corse Stane.' It is a shaft of sandstone sunk into a square block of 
the same material, and is said to have been the place where a market was at 
one time held for the vicinity." In 1576-7, 26th Feb., there was a dispute 
brought before the Privy Council at Holyrood, about the teind sheaves of 
Corsbie Mains, for 1676, Ijetween George Cranstoun of Corsbie and Cuthbert 
Cranstoun of Thirlstane Mains and Johnne Cranstoun of Moreistoune his son, 
which was settled by agreement. 



242 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

deserted the Dogden moss, since it was drained. In tlie montli 
of July they often remain all night in grass or turnip fields near 
Fans. 

We again retraced the road to Legerwood. Mr Smail informs 
me that about this place, there are still great numbers of bad- 
gers, and that he is not aware of any parish with so many mag- 
pies. Climbing the road that leads to Huntly-wood and the 
Moristouns, beside a plantation, we looked across at the pretty 
picture presented by the church and manse, and the field of 
graves in front, and the clump of sheltering trees. Taking the 
Huntly-wood road we saw that our late companions had gained 
the summit of the Knock Hill. There is an old British camp 
there, which is still traceable by the different colour of the corn, 
when it is under crop. East and West Moristouns appeared 
amidst plantations, and Fans in an open between woods, with 
Oowdenknows and the Eildons in the distance. Huntly-wood is 
an extensive farm, with numerous attached cottages. We next 
looked down upon Gordon Moss, and the railway, and across to 
the Mellerstain woods. A piece of remarkably red soil, as if 
derived from the Old Eed Sandstone, shewed itself on the left 
before we reached the Greenknowe plantations. Growing in 
these woods were some fine stately red-barked Scots firs. 

One of the results of this meeting was the bringing to light 
various interesting British relics found in 1836, under a cairn 
near Gordon which contained about a hundred cart loads of 
stones. These consisted of a baked clay urn, with zig-zag orna- 
ment; two portions of a silver clasp, or hook for fastening 
clothing ; two silver oblong ingots ; and a gold ring of plaited 
wire. These were shewn through the interposition of the Eev. 
W. Stobbs, and belong to Mr John Hay, Gordon, an ancient 
villager. Through the agency of Mr J. B. Kerr, these have been 
sketched for a Plate in this. year's ''Proceedings." While the 
late arrivals were viewing these precious remains, Dr Douglas 
read to these assembled in the inn, from the Club's Proceedings, 
vol. ii., pp. 5-6, the account of the Club's early visit, June 15, 
1842, at which he was present, to Gordon, and the fruitless 
search then made after the Zinncea. There were only five present 
at that meeting. 

After dinner Mr Hardy read portions of a paper on Bassen- 
dean, and shewed one portion of a transcript of the Baron Court 



Eeport of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 243 

Book of Stitchel, commencing 1655, the first Court being held by 
Walter Pringle of Greenknowe in name of his nephew, Eobert 
Pringle of Stitchel ; and a notice of the Treasure Trove at Long- 
hope, Selkirkshire, by Mr J. J. Vernon, F.S.A. Scot., Hawick. 
Mr Vernon's paper was illustrated by drawings of two of the 
brooches found. The following were proposed and seconded as 
members of the Club : — Mr Walter Grieve, Cattleshiel, Dunse ; 
Dr J. Erskine Stuart, Dunse ; Eev. Alexander Phimister, M.A., 
Gordon ; Mr J. Gordon Maitland, Advocate, Procurator-Fiscal 
for Berwickshire ; Dr Haining, Earlstoun. 

Dr Stuart, Chirnside, had an interesting vasculum of flowers, 
mostly grown by himself. The following were included: — 
Reseda fruticosa, Aquilegia c^rysflw^A^, Aquilegia, "Borderer," a 
hybrid between -4. coerulea and -4. chrysantha, A. ccerulea, Silene' 
viscosa duplex, Bellium rotundifolium cmrulescens, TJialictrum adianti- 
■ folium, Beutzia crenata flore pleno ; Scutellaria var., Viola lutea 
(North Italy), Primula luteola (Caucasus), Primula Scotica (Caith- 
ness) Crucianella stylosa, and Violas — Thyra, Lady Susan Grant 
Suttie Cwhites) ; Tomb Thumb, Eosalind, &c. Arahis alhda was 
shewn from the garden wall at Haining, where it had been 
gathered by the Eev. James Farquharson. Mr Loney brought 
a fasciculated thorn-stem curved like a crosier. Mrs Dodds, the 
school-house, Gordon, sent a proliferous stalk of Plantago major, 
which was fruiting like a miniature bush instead of as a single 
stem; and a number of rib-grass ''sports" were also shewn. 
Mr Brotherston had a specimen of Barlarea intermedia from near 
Belses Station, St. BosweUs, and Mnium affine in fruit from New- 
ton Don. He explained that M. afine, Bland, according to Dr 
Braithwaite was M. cuspidatum, L. not Hedw. ; M. cuspidatum, 
Hedw., being M. silvaticum of Lindberg. Mr Stevenson exhibited 
a large fine black-coloured fossil plant, covered with scales, 
thought to be a Halonia, found at Swinton Quarry, and for- 
warded by Mr J. Chalmers, Swinton. Mr Stevenson also pro- 
duced a pale grey, almost white, small flint arrowhead, from 
Chalkielaw ; and a small worn-out French copper coin with 
three fleur-de-lis on it. Mr Wood shewed a farthing of William 
and Mary, 1 694 ; also a small circular-cupped stone from the 
British Camp at Torwoodlie. A large hole had been picked in it, 
but there was none corresponding on the opposite convex side ; its 
diameter was 1\ inch ; thickness, f inch. It was of greywacke, 

lE 



244 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

and like one of the stones used for chipping flints, already 
figured in the '' Proceedings." A knife dagger, or hunting 
knife, found on the Piper Hill, Flodden Pield, and the property 
of the Berwick Museum, was also exhibited. Mr Robt. Eenton 
had a key found in Cowdenknowes' dungeon some eight years 
ago, which is the property of Mr Robert Kerr, joiner, Earlstoun ; 
it is 11 inches long, and has a long pike at the tip. Also, an 
iron spear-head, 10 inches long (the point broken off) found at 
Lilliesleaf by Mr John Currie, millwright there, was shewn ; and 
a flat slate spindle-whorl, found by Mr Robert Sharp, Overhow- 
den, on the 26th June, 1880, exactly upon the circle of the 
" Rings " in the field there, called the Rings field. Mr Renton 
also shewed several coins, including silver coins of William HI., 
•found at Dryburgh ; and a number of artificially -fractured flints 
from Fans, but only one of them had' traces of chipping. A 
cream-coloured lark, it was mentioned, had been caught at More- 
battle. A request of Techuiker Charles Kraus, Pardubitz, 
Bohemia, dated May 29, 1880, for a copy of the Club's "Pro- 
ceedings," for 1879, was cordially granted. 

There is a copy of Walter Pringle of Greenknowe's Memoirs 
of date 1723, in the possession of Mrs Lyal, at Greenknowe. 
This is the edition that Dr Tweedie reprinted for the Wodrow 
Society. There is there also a book by — Symson, which has 
the name John Pringle written in it. Three rounded stones from 
Greenknowe Tower are preserved there — one of greenstone — 
supposed to have been bullets. They are not so large as cannon 
balls, and are somewhat oval in shape. A portion of an oak tree 
stump (black oak) foimd in draining on the farm, may also be 
seen. 

The third meeting was held at the Blue Bell Hotel, Belford, 
July 28th. Owing to the exceedingly wet morning, and the wet 
day preceding, the attendance was very limited. There were 
present, Mr Charles Watson, President ; Mr Hardy, Secretary ; 
Mr Middlemas, Treasurer; Rev. W. Atkinson Clark, Belford 
Hall ; Rev. Edward L. Marrett, Lesbury ; Rev. R. Hopper 
Williamson, Whickham ; Messrs C. B, P. Bosanquet and Mr 
Burn, Rock ; George Culley of Fowberry Tower ; William Lyall, 
Librarian of the Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle ; 
Edward Wilson and Hindmarsh, Belford. 

There were first inspected at Mr Wilson's house, Clark Street, 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 245 

some flint weapons of the American Indians from Kentucky, 
■wMcli lie had brought with him on his return to England, viz., a 
smoothed hatchet, and a chipped spear and arrow-head. These 
were characterised as possessing a neck to facilitate their being 
fastened to the handle. There was a small fernery in the garden 
that contained a specimen of the Kyloe Crag Asplenium septen- 
trionale, of which one or two tufts had recently been observed by 
Mr Wilson. 

The church was next inspected under the conduct of Mr Hind- 
marsh. Eebuilt in 1827, it is almost entirely modern. The 
interior incorporates a Norman arch, of 13th century workman- 
ship ; which was discovered last year (1879), when the ceiling 
was taken from the chancel on its being restored by the Eev. W. 
A. Clark, and his son, Mr G. D. A. Clark. This arch had been 
plastered up, and the pillars that supported it had been hewn 
away. In the inner side of it there is a piece of old dog-tooth 
carving. During the repairs of the chancel also there were 
several carved stones discovered built up into the walls. I am 
informed that the " chancel windows are condemned, and will be 
also restored in greater harmony with the church." 

It was the local idea that this arch had been derived from the 
old chapel on the Crag, and reconstructed here ; but Mr F. E. 
Wilson's opinion about the age of this fabric is more to be relied 
on. " From the structural evidence we may see that the ancient 
chapel, formerly part of the possessions of the priory of Nostill, 
in Yorkshire, was only altered and not effaced. Some of it is 
still in situ. The masonry of the present chancel is ancient. 
New windows have been inserted in it, and buttresses have been 
placed against it ; but the old work of the masons of the middle 
ages forms the great bulk of it."* 

Either this chapel or that on the Crag is referred to as having 
been in existence when the Inquisition of 1399 was taken, as 
there is reference to "La Chapelle Eode ;" and "Nicholas the 
Chaplain," then resided in a "cottage" in the town. In Mac- 
kenzie's History it is spoken of as having been erected in l700.f 
But according to Archdeacon Sharpe's Notes in answer to 
Horsley's Queries, it is said, that " anciently this was a chapel to 

* The Cliiirches of the Archdeaconry of Lindisfame, p. 85. 
t Hist, of Northumberland, i., p. 398. " It was built in 1700 and seated 
in 1759."— WaUis, Hist. Northd., ii., p. 415. 



246 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Bambrougli, like Tughall, Lucker, and Beadnell. It was for 
many years in ruins, but rebuilt by contributions. It did 
formerly belong, as tbe tithes of the wbole parish of Bambrougli 
did to the Priory of Nostell."*' At the dissolution it became an 
impropriation in lay bands. f The chapel of 1700 was thus a re- 
newal of a much older structure on the same site. Similar is the 
testimony of Mark's Survey, 1723. "The church is small, but 
handsome, and well built. It was repaired but lately in the 
year 1701 by the pious contributions of the following honourable 
contributors : — the Hon. Charles Montague, who gave £50, and 
the Eight Hon. the Lord TuUibarden £40, towards the repairing 
or rebuilding the church of Belford. The rest was done at the 
charge of the parishioners or inhabitants of the parish.":}: 

The history of the lords of the manor of Belford as given by 
the late Mr Dickson, in the Club's Proceedings, vol. iv., is in- 
complete after the year 1663 (p. 24), and has been supplied by 
Mr Hodgson Hinde.§ " In 1663 ' the Lady Forster of Blanch- 
land,' widow of Sir Claudius Forster of Bamburgh, is returned 
as the proprietor, but shortly afterwards it was in the possession 
of Francis Forster, of Easington Grange and Belford, a member 
of the Adderston branch of the Forster family. See Forster 
pedigree in Eaine's ' North Durham.' He left an only daughter 
and heiress, Elizabeth, married at Durham (see Cathedral 
Eegister), September 3rd, 1685, to Charles Montague, fifth son 
of Edward, first earl of Sandwich, afterwards the husband of 
Sarah, daughter of John Eogers, of East Denton, near New- 
castle. The issue of this marriage was an only son James," who 
in 1727, sold Belford to Abraham Dixon, a merchant of New- 
castle-on-Tyne. It was his son, Abraham Dixon, Esq., that 
raised Belford into consequence. 

* Nostell or Nestelhoo Priory near Pomfret, Yorkshire, was founded in 
1 120, by Ilbert de Lacy and his son, for St. Austin's Canons. In 1137 a cell 
subordinate to Nostell was founded at Bamburgh, and the churches of 
St. Aidan and St. Oswald there were conferred on that priory, which was 
dedicated to St. Oswald, a Northern Saint. Belford, as dedicated to St. Mary, 
appears to have had a Norman founder, but there may have been an earlier 
chapel there appropriated to Bamburgh. 

t Inedited Contributions to the History of Northumberland. By J. 
Hodgson Hinde, Esq., p. 63. 

i Ibid, p. 72. 
^ Inedited Contrib. to Hist, of Northd., p. 72, 



Beport of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 247 

The door studded with large-headed nails, which admits to 
the grounds of the hall, came from the old or West Hall. The 
trees here are very stately and well-grown, especially the elms, 
Spanish chestnuts, ashes, and beeches. There is a fine line of 
hollies, which present the deceptive appearance of a raised bank, 
that shelter the northern aspect of the house. In the verandah, 
is an upper mill-stone or quern of trachyte, 14 inches in diameter, 
apparently Eoman, and said to be from the vicinity ; there were 
other mill-stones present ; and a white freestone excavated like 
a cup, which may have been a holy water vat from one of the 
chapels. Stone querns are said to be rather numerous about 
Belford, being found here and there in cultivating the fields. 
The entrance hall is ornamented in part with curiosities and 
cases of stuffed birds. The pair of bronze spurs discovered in 
one of the moats of old Belford Castle (now West Hall farm- 
house), accompanied with human bones, of which the account by 
the late Eev. J. D, Clark is contained in the Club's Proceedings, 
vol. iv., p. 89, are preserved here. It is said that in another 
place, some perfect teeth, along with knives and armour were 
obtained. A part of the bird collection is local. A woodcock 
was pointed out, with white wings, which had been shot by one 
of the family at Blaydon, in December, 1879 ; also there were a 
couple of Pallas' Sand Grouse {Syrrhaptes paradoxus) from the 
coast near North Sunderland ; and a pale-coloured mule pheasant, 
between the common and a Bohemian, that had strayed from 
Eslington, and been shot on the Belford estate. Among the 
paintings in the drawing and sitting rooms, are a couple of Mor- 
land's, several sea views by Carmichael ; and two excellent views 
by Eichardson of Holy Island Priory and Bamburgh Castle. 

The Eev. W. Atkinson Clark now headed the party to traverse 
the grounds. Two very large hornbeams, which had become 
ample trees, drew attention ; and also a grand American elm. 
Some of the beeches have spirally-twisted stems, which is 
attributed to the wind. Near the turret pond were two trees of 
Quercus Ilex, which are considered to be the finest in the North 
of England. Those at Howick HaU, seen last year, appeared 
not to be far, if at all behind them. In this pond, a sort of 
** Dismal Swamp," amidst water coloured like ink, some water 
lilies grew. The Myrica Gale from the upper moors had been 
planted near it. 



248 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

The walk led round amid the intervening tall trees, to an out- 
break of trap-rock, which has been converted into an excellent 
fernery, well adapted to the growth of native species. There 
were noted, Lastrea Filix-mas, L. cristata, L. dilatata ; Athyrium 
Filix-fcemina ; Asplenium Trichomanes,mride, and Adiantum-nigrum ; 
Cistopteris fragilis ; Allosorus crispus ; Poly podium Dry opteris sin.^ 
Phegopteris ; Polystichum aculeatum, and the dentated and proli- 
ferous forms of P. angulare. Finest of all, the varieties of Scolo- 
pendrium vulgare, especially crispum were at home here in the 
shade. No where could be found more luxuriant plants of the 
holly-fern, Polystichum Lonchitts, usually so prone to pine away 
when transplanted. On the upper part of the crag, which is 
called the Turret, there being a small prospect tower on the 
rocky platform, the maiden pink {Ifianthus deltoides) grows 
native. JSrinus Alpinus has been here introduced, and thrives in 
the chinks of the Turret, and has a tendency like Cotoneaster 
microphylla alongside of it, to cling to the wall. 

The Coniferse were thriving ; one of these was a good Ahies 
Cephalonica ; the Araucarias were not old. The frost had done 
no harm here. There were several good trees of Quercus Cerris 
or Turkey Oak. 

The garden was a most acceptable treat, but very little time 
could be devoted to the extensive greenhouses, and spacious 
flower borders.- The white flowered creeper, Stephanotis flori- 
hunda, the ornament of bridal parties, was profusely blooming ; a 
pretty pink Polygola like a pea, was very attractive ; but the 
speciality was the rich assortment of ferns, of which Mr Clark 
was an assiduous cultivator. Of native kinds, Asplenium marinum 
had grown to a large plant ; A. Ruta-muraria was thriving in a 
pot ; and A. germanicum also. A specimen of A. lanceolatum had 
been brought from Garibaldi's Isle, Caprella ; there was a very 
fine Woodsia Ilvensis ; and Polystichum Lonchitis was thriving 
under cover. Only one of the richly furnished herbacous borders 
was glanced at. Mr Clark said that the old Cabbage Eose had 
now come into vogue in the South, and was all the rage ; and he 
showed some fair examples ; Lilium auratum was noted, as well 
as a small upright Clematis ; a large flowered variety of Lythrum 
Salicaria, coarse but showy ; a very fine Statice ; Veratrum 
nigrum ; St. Barnaby's thistle ; double Geranium pratense ; the 
old Golden-rod and pearly Everlasting ; curious forms and 
colours of Monkshood ; great white Spiraeas, &c. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 249 

There are several good old plants preserved by the sides of the 
■walks. On the west side of the house there was a wide-spread- 
ing Portugal Laurel, notable for its height as well as its bulk ; 
also a large Medlar bearing fruit. Finally the company eon- 
fronted a tall upright Spanish chestnut, the pride of the place, 
which close at the ground measured 13 feet 4 inches, at one foot 
from the ground 12 feet ; and at six feet, 10 feet 6 inches. 
There is an extensive rookery in the park. 

The party now left the park for the Crag, entering by the 
private walk. There was an extensive display of the trap here 
in a quarry, which the proprietor is obliged to keep open to 
supply the roads with metal. The stone had also been applied 
to building purposes, but was not very tractable. A very large 
birch grows in the adjacent plantation. A white fox-glove 
appeared on the bank. On the grassy platform of the Crag, the 
foundations of the oblong chapel were first examined ; fragments 
of lime and limpets from the mortar are extensively strewn 
about. It has been fortified or enclosed by some high mounds, 
but these may be more ancient. After a lower interval a British 
camp occurs, with strong ramparts. Near it are several depres- 
sions which a rainy season would readily convert into pools. 
There is. an old sloping footpath from the north-west side, by 
which access to the chapel could be obtained. The chapel may 
have been connected with the neighbouring old hall. Previous 
to the time when Mackenzie's History of Northumberland was 
written (2iid edition, 1825, vol. i., p. 400), it was better worthy 
of a visit. " Near this town on a rising ground, are the ruins of 
an ancient chapel, which, being surrounded by several tall oak 
trees, had a most romantic appearance ; but the trees are now 
cut down and the stones removed. On the north-west side, by a 
fine spring, stood the ancient mansion-house, behind which was 
formerly a wood of large oaks, ha,lf-a-mile in length, which 
stretched under a range of steep rocks of whinstone."* Accord- 
ing to Mark's Survey, 1723, this chapel was dedicated to St. 
Mary,f and called by her name ; the present parish church, it 
may be remarked, appears to have borrowed the patron saint. 
Whether "La ChapeUe Eode" of the Inquisition of 1399, 

* This is mentioned in somewhat similar terms in WalLis's older Hist, of 
NortM., ii., pp. 415-6. 

t Contrib. to Hist. Northd., p. 72. 



250 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

belonged to tbis, or tbe old building forming tbe cbancel of tbe 
parisb cburcb, I cannot decide ; but an ancient well, called St. 
Mary's well, tbere indicated must bave been near tbe cbapel on 
tbe Crag. At tbat date, Ebzabetb, widow of PbiHp Darcy, bad 
as part of ber dowry, ' ' a certain part of tbe wood towards tbe 
east, to wit from Seynt Mary Well as far as La Close noke, and 
leading from La Close noke as far as La Cbapelle Eode." Tbis 
well may bave supplied water for tbe font or ceremonial lustra- 
tion. Sucb was once tbe custom in Nortb Wales.*' " St. Mary's 
Well," I am informed by Mr Jobn Aitcbison, " is situated less 
tban a quarter of a mile from tbe nortb end of tbe town of Bel- 
ford, on tbe site of tbe turnpike road leading to Berwick. It is 
no great distance from tbe old site of St. Mary's Cburcb on tbe 
Crag. It is a fine, strong spring of water, and appears to bave 
been at one time well kept. I bave beard my motber, wbo lived 
over 82 years in Belford and its immediate neigbbourbood, say 
tbat tbis well, in ber recollection, supplied most of tbe people in 
tbe nortb end of tbe town witb water ; tbat it was walled up on 
eacb side, and covered over witb a large stone on tbe top ; and 
tbat two ' ladles,' fastened by cbains to tbe sides, were always 
kept tbere for tbe purpose of passers by getting a drink wben 
tbey required. Of late years, bowever, tbe well bas been re- 
moved from tbe side of tbe road into tbe otber side of tbe bedge, 
in tbe corner of a field, wbere it is stiU to be seen, and wbere, I 
believe, tbe people living at tbe Cbesters farm still draw from it 
wbat water tbey need." 

Mr Wilson pointed out a place .in tbe fields in a bollow, on tbe 
west side of tbe Crag, wbere an urn bad been found in a grave 
tbree feet long. In deep plougbings graves are struck, in 
scattered positions, but no record is kept ; tbey are usually 
empty. Adders {Pelias Berus) are numerous on tbe Crag, and 
in tbe woods at tbe back of it. Mr Jobn Aitcbison, Belford, in- 
forms me tbat tbey are found at Pennibeugb, Laybeugb, Coal 
Wood, Belford Moor, and otber places on Belford estate. 

Tbe view was extensive, but dimmed by tbe moisture in tbe 
atmospbere, and included Holy Island, Bamburgb, tbe sandy 
sbore at Budle, and tbe inland range of bigb moorland ground. 
A farm named Chesters lies at no great distance, and tbere is a 
camp on tbe estate of a square form called tbe " Derry Camp." 
We beard of no otber antiquities of tbis class. 

* See Pennant, in Brand's Pop. Antiq. ii., 227, 228. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 251 

Eain threatening, it was found impossible to prolong tbe 
journey, as bad been intended, across the country ; a retreat 
was tben made to inn, and four of the party were obliged to 
leave. 

At length the rain cleared off, and the remaining few took ad- 
vantage of Mr Leather's obliging offer of opening Middleton 
Hall on the Club's behalf, but the time that remained barelj/ 
sufficed for a hurried visit by conveyance. The private grounds 
are beautifully laid out and embellished. The handsome house 
is new, but is constructed on the site of an older residence. The 
ribbon and bedding-out style of gardening is adopted, but there 
is still a portion of perennial plants spared. No harm had been 
done by the winter except to a climbing Oeanothus, on the front 
of the house ; and the tea-roses had been blasted, but were 
springing anew. There was a pretty little fernery. The showy 
form of Lythrum appeared here again, and there were quantities 
of the common throat- wort {Campanula latifolia). A rivulet is 
conducted through the garden, and the walls that confine it are 
prettily decked with ferns and saxifrages, springing out of the 
interstices. Ctstoptens fragilis and Asplenmm Ruta-muraria were 
flourishing. There was an excellent display of grapes and 
peaches. The potatoes and peas were pronounced good. The 
black currants had suffered much from Aphis, a general com- 
plaint. 

A hasty survey was made of the principal apartments in the 
house ; there were some rich carved mantlepieces and side-boards, 
and valuable cabinets. The ceilings were superbly decorated 
with geometrical designs. Some of the wood work was by 
Signer Bulleti. Among the paintings was a very good view of 
Bamburgh Castle, by our corresponding member, Mr T. H. Gibb, 
Alnwick. 

The Library was rich in the county historians, including Hodg- 
son's Northumberland, Surtees' History of Durham; Eaine's 
North Durham ; and all Mackenzie's Histories of Northumber- 
land, Durham, and Newcastle, fully illustrated and increased to 
double their size ; a good copy of Bewick's Birds ; and a third 
edition of Shakespeare, 1664. 

In the lathe room were three iron-bullets ; one large and one 
small, had been extracted from the wreck of the old house when 
taken down ; the other a small one was from Holburn. There 

If 



252 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

was also a bronze celt. The cover of a cist — a sandstone flag 
with rounded edges, about 4 feet long and more than 2 broad — 
found at Holburn, on the estate, was lying outside. It had con- 
tained an urn, which is in Canon Greenwell's collection. I am 
informed that the badger has found a place of security in Det- 
chant wood ; Mr Leather having given directions for its preser- 
vation. 

Only eight dined. A letter to the Secretary was read from 
Miss -Eussell of Ashiesteel, which accompanied two photographs 
on a large scale, of portions of the Catrail, that she had been at 
the expense of getting taken by an Aberdeen artist, to present 
to the Club ; and for these and the interest she has taken in the 
Club's welfare, a vote of thanks was directed to be sent to Miss 
Eussell. 

Notices of the hurtful Effects of the past Winter on Vegeta- 
tion were read from correspondents. Mr Culley of Fowberry 
spoke of the sad disaster that had befallen the shrubs and trees 
in his grounds and round his mansion ; and he had brought 
some extraordinary oak-leaves both for size and shape, which 
the death-stricken trees had pushed out to retrieve their con- 
dition. One of these measured 10|- inches long by 6^^ broad; 
another 7|- long by 7. They snapped off at the junction with 
the stem, with a bulb attached, and were cast to the ground like 
decayed branches ; a form of vegetable irritation. The oaks and 
yews had suffered most at Fowberry. 

A paper containing extracts from old Inquisitions about Bel- 
ford manor, and its subdivision among heirs and heiresses, was 
read. 

On the previous evening the late Eev. William Procter's MS. 
History of Doddington was examined, and a portion relating to 
Earle, Ewart, Humbleton, and Nisbet, was selected for the Club's 
use, which Miss Procter has since been so kind as to transcribe. 

A letter was read of date July 10th, from Mr Gr. H. Thompson, 
Alnwick, containing the information that he had purchased, some 
three years ago, from a countryman, an old brass pot, of the 
short three legged type. It differed from modern pots in the 
junction of the casting being oblique, and not upright. The 
width at the top was 7^ inches ; the height 8 inches, and it was 
very heavy. It had two ears for suspending it on the crook. It 
had been either ploughed or dug up in the vicinity of Newham. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 253 

On its being afterwards exbibited by Mr Tbompson, at Morpetb, 
it was found to correspond very closely with that figured by 
Miss Stirling for the "Proceedings." 

Mr Watson exhibited a nest of the long-tailed Tit {Parus 
caudatus), which had been found in a furze bush at Chapel, near 
Dunse. 

The Eev. Mr Maclean, AUanton, was proposed as a member. 

Belford is an exceedingly quiet place ; there is no stir in the 
streets in the evenings ; and the bat flutters undisturbed amid 
the grey dwellings. In the olden times the houses were covered 
with heather and sods, and the place being liable to be burned 
by the Scots, was very poor. In the reign of Charles I. (1639) 
it was in a state of declension. " Belfort nothing like the name 
either in strength or beauty, is the most miserable beggarly 
town or town of sods that ever was made in an afternoon of loam 
and sticks. In aU the town not a loaf of bread, nor a quart of 
beer, nor a lock of hay, nor a peck of oats, and little shelter for 
horse or man."*' Mark, 1723, says "the village appears but 
poorly, and many of its houses ill-built." There are no longer 
any of the " clay-daubed" cottages of 1639. 

- There is a tradition that on one occasion the town was visited 
by the plague, and the bodies of the dead were buried in their 
wearing apparel on Belford Moor. Fragments of the dresses 
have been dug up there by people who attempted to disturb the 
tombs, in hope of finding coins in the pockets. Another circum- 
stance of the same visitation has been preserved in memory. 
When the plague reached the village of Ancroft, in North Dur- 
ham, it was then inhabited by a colony of "doggers." When 
any were seized with the disease, they were carried out to a hill 
face, which was overgrown with broom, out of which little bowers 
were constructed, under which the victims were laid till they 
died ; and then both the hut and the body were consumed with 
fire. 

Among Mr CuUey's birds preserved at Fowberry, which I saw 
on this occasion, the following are of interest, as belonging to the 
neighbourhood : — two smews {Mergus albellus) shot by him on the 
Till ; two goosanders {Mergus Merganser) ; and two water-rails 
{Rallus aquaticus), which are rare. There are two bitterns 
{Botaurus stellaris), both shot on the estate ; and Mr Culley had 
* Court and Times of Charles I., vol. ii., p. 285. 



254 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

lately heard tlie boom of tbe bittern on tbe Till. There were 
three common buzzards {Buteo vulgaris) ; and the honey-buzzard 
{Pernis apivorus) had also been seen there. A nest of the king- 
fisher along with the bird, has also local interest. 

The fourth meeting was on August 25th, at the Queen's Head 
Hotel, Morpeth, for Newminster Abbey and Mitford. There 
were present — Mr Charles "Watson, President ; Mr Hardy, Sec- 
retary ; Eevs. Thomas Eogers, precentor of Durham Cathedral ; 
J. Hill Scott, Kelso ; E. Anchor Thompson, Newcastle ; and E. 
Hopper Williamson, Whickham ; Messrs Thomas Arkle, High- 
laws ; Henry Hunter Blair, Alnwick ; James Bogie, Edinburgh ; 
Eobert G-. Bolam, Berwick ; M. G. Crossman, Berwick ; James 
Fergusson, Morpeth ; James B. Kerr, Kelso ; A. G. Legard, H.M. 
Inspector of Schools, Leeds ; Adam Eobertson, Alnwick ; Stanley 
Hill Scott, Kelso ; George H. Thompson, Alnwick ; John Thom- 
son, Kelso ; and William Wilson, Berwick. 

Morpeth is an agreeable place for holding a meeting. It is a 
town of considerable antiquity, and it is picturesquely placed 
amid the shelter of a background of trees ; closer to it are culti- 
vated fields, market gardens and orchards, and spacious nurseries ; 
an unpolluted stream encircles it ; several of its public buildings 
and quaint hostelries remain unimpaired ; it has a well-kept old 
church, and the ruins of a castle ; with much to commend in its 
modern edifices ; the sylvan banks of the Wansbeck afford a suc- 
cession of pleasing and varied views, and contain many lovely 
retired spots where Natural History researches may be prose- 
cuted undisturbed ; while in the. juxtaposition of monastic sites, 
ruined fortresses, village churches, family mansions, and rural 
villages, we have a closer combination, within narrow compass, 
of the past with the present, than few other places can offer. 

It was within this charmed circle that the Club now took. its 
journey. During the preliminaries for starting, some of the 
more remarkable buildings in the town were scanned. There is 
an old chantry at the end of the wooden bridge over the river ; 
a clock or bell-tower near the market place — once the town -jail 
it is supposed — at least it was the depository of the town-stocks f- 
the old Grey Nag Inn, in Newgate Street, whose Elizabethan 
front has fortunately been preserved during internal repairs, to 

* In 1668, was presented in the Court-leet, "the necessity of pillory and. 
Clicking stoole." (Hodgson). 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 255 

instruct posterity about the aspect of things long ago ; and the 
Queen's Head, our bead quarters, contains many capacious an- 
cient rooms witb low ceilings. It is tbe Morpetb tradition, as 
we learn from a tractate written by Mr Fergusson, " that it was 
at tbe Nag's Head tbat Jobn Scott (afterwards Lord Eldon) and 
Bessy Surtees slept on tbeir way back from tbeir runaway Scotch 
marriage ;" although Lord Campbell alleges that it was at the 
Queen's Head. CoUingwood House was occupied by the great 
admiral of that surname, who, when freed from official duties, 
delighted to spend his leisure there, and be recreated by the 
sweets of its garden. Bunker's Hill is a memorial of American 
warfare. The modern church of St. James was visited. It is a 
large and massive structure, in the modern style of Norman 
architecture. Its stained glass windows representing scriptural 
scenes, are very ornamental. There is an elaborate frescoe in 
the apse of the Incarnation of the Eternal Word, and there were 
two fine oil paintings of "the Scourging," and ''the Walk to 
Calvary." It was approached by a fine avenue of limes. 

Part of the members drove to Newminster and Mitford ; the 
rest walked under Mr Fergusson's skilled guidance. After 
crossing the river by the west bridge, the High Stanners by the 
river side were passed. The Low Stanners are on the low 
ground at the eastern outskirts of the town. There are Stanners 
also both at Warkworth and Hexham. Staners are the small 
stones and gravel on the margin of a lake or river. The walk 
by the river side still bears the name of the Lady's Walk, being 
the way that led to the monastery of Newminster, which was 
dedicated to the Virgin Mother. Myrrhis odorata and Carex 
pendula grew by the side of the path. To reach the site of New- 
minster, the party traversed the Lover's Walk, which adjoins 
the abbey lands. A few large beeches survive, of what was once 
a long one-sided avenue. These have short principal and numer- 
ous secondary stems, and hence it was concluded that they are 
the remains of an old beech hedge. Trees, mostly ashes of large 
dimensions, are scattered over the area of the field containing the 
abbey ruins. This is a triangular sheltered haugh on the south 
side of the river, whose level is broken up by the mounds 
of ruined buildings spread over much of its space. Of these, till 
the recent excavations, only a solitary arch of the northern door- 
way, of 15th century origin, maintained its solitary position. 



256 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Hard by it is a venerable asb-tree, of vast bulk of stem, but 
stunted by storm and ag^ ; wbicb measured 14 feet in circum- 
ference at five feet from the ground. 

The plan of the buildings, according to tbe Eev. J. T. Fowler, 
in bis Introduction to tbe " Cbartularium de Novo Monasterio," 
published for the Surtees Society, 1878, was almost identical 
with that of Fountains, in Yorkshire, of which it was the first 
born daughter, " as originally laid down, and closely correspond- 
ing to it in dimensions." There had been some previous exca- 
vations on or near the site. "In digging for limestone in the 
vicinity, coffins both of lead and stone have been discovered."*' 
(( Mr "Woodman dug into the chapter-house some years ago, and 
found some fine Transitional capitals, and portions of vaulting 
ribs, now preserved in his garden. They are extremely charac- 
teristic examples of early Cistercian work. The floor was found 
laid with small black and red tiles, and some fragments of ruby 
glass appeared among the debris."! ^^ Fergusson of Morpeth, 
who has made the subject his particular study, gave the mem- 
bers an account of the explorations instituted two years ago by 
the Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland, and 
pointed out the sites of the various parts of the sacred building, 
adding no little interesting information respecting the purposes 
which they served in the religious and moral economy of the 
edifice. To him I owe the following summary : — 

"Excavations at Newminster Abbey were carried out in the 
summer of 1878. The cost was met by subscription, and the 
work was conducted under the personal direction of the Eev. J. 
T. Fowler of Durham ; Mr W. Woodman, Stobhill, Morpeth ; 
and Mr T. W. Middlemiss, Borough Surveyor, Morpeth. The 
work was done most effectually on the site of the Chapter House, 
which was thoroughly cleared of debris, several feet in depth. It 
was found to measure forty feet by fifty. The lower corners of 
the door jambs were found in situ ; the ribs of the vaulting and 
the corbels from which it sprung were discovered ; and the bases 
and part of the shafts of three of the four pillars were found in 
position. Portions of the floor, formed of paving-tiles fitting 
into geometrical patterns, were laid bare round the base of one 
of the shafts. Towards its eastern side an empty stone coflB.n 

* Mackenzie's Hist, of Northd., ii., p. 202. 
f Chart. Nov. Mon. Introd., p. xiv. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 257 

■was met with. A considerable part of the Choir of the Church 
was cleared out, and the site of the High Altar — measuring 13 
feet 5 inches by 5 feet — was disclosed, and in front of it an 
empty stone coffin much mutilated. No evidence of the east 
wall of the church was obtained, but at a point, probably just 
outside of it, a small stone coffin containing a skeleton was come 
upon. In an extensive trench, dug length-ways in the north 
transept, four incised slabs were cleared out, along with three 
stones of a respond. One of the slabs had only a cross, a second 
had a cross and a pair of shears ; a third a cross and the words 
' Joh'es de la Vale,' and the fourth a cross with the word 
' ToMAS ' and a surname, the only portion of which that could 
be deciphered was ' Sun.' On the stones of the respond was 
the nimbed figure of an ecclesiastic in proper vestments. The 
excavations at the west end of the Church revealed several points 
of interest, but the work was not carried far enough to allow of 
an accurate conclusion being come to regarding their exact 
design and character. The work was discontinued through lack 
of funds. To make a complete exploration of the entire site 
would require about £200. Mrs Blackett Ord of Whitfield, has 
granted leave for the work to be done, subscribed towards the 
expense, and promised to protect whatever of interest is laid 
open." 

A piece of Purbeck stone was pointed out, as being the frag- 
ment of a stone lettered '* Laus Deo." The other slabs are local 
sandstones ; one is known by its large grit. These tombs were 
broken by the fall of the roof, when the monastery was rifled in 
the time of Henry YIII. The wall at the high altar was also 
crushed, and a pillar base was twisted. There is part of a pillar 
still in situ. 

Documents do not preserve the names of many of those who 
were privileged with burial within the sacred precincts. St. 
Eobert, the first Abbot, was laid in the north transept ; and his 
tomb had eight wax candles burning before it.* Eanulph de 
Merlay, Lord of Morpeth, who founded the Monastery in 1138, 
was buried along with Juliana, his wife, daughter of Cospatrick, 
2nd Earl of Dunbar, and Osbert one of their sons, in the 
northern part of the chapter-house, f His son, Eoger the first, 
was interred with his father ; and his son Eoger, the second, was 
* Chart. Nov. Monast., p. 238. t lb., p. 270. 



258 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

laid in the cloister at the entrance of the chapter-house ;*' while 
of Eoger the third, who died A.D. 1265, it is recorded that he 
was entombed near his father ;f and with him departed the male 
line of the de Merlays. The barony came to his daughters and 
co-heirs, Mary and Johanna. Mary married Thomas, Lord 
Greystock ; and Johanna, Eobert de Somerville. John, Lord 
Greystock, succeeded his father Thomas, but having no issue, 
Ealph Fitz- William, his near kinsman, was his heir, and assumed 
the name and title. His grandson, Ealph, Lord Greystock, who 
was poisoned by the contrivance of the accomplices of Sir Gilbert 
de Middleton, at Gateshead, 13th July, 1323, was buried at New- 
minster.j His grandson, Ealph the III., Lord Greystock, was 
taken prisoner in 1380, at "Horsridge in Glendale," along with 
William de Aton, and many potent men, by George, Earl of 
Dunbar, and carried prisoner to Dunbar. His brother William, 
being exchanged as a hostage for him, caught a pestilential dis- 
ease there, died and was buried at Dunbar, but after two full 
years his body entire in the flesh and skin was translated to 
Newminster, and buried before the high altar beside Margery, 
lady of Ulgham.§ The historian, Wallis, has preserved the 
original of this information, and both Mackenzie, Hist, ii,, p. 
198, and Mr Eowler, Introd. Chart. N. M, p. xix., have mis- 
understood it, so far as to make Ealph the victim of the fever ; 
whereas he was ransomed, and died in 1417. The Lord Eobert 
deUmfravill, Earl of Angus,, died on the 12th of April, 1327, 
and was buried near the high altar. || In the year 1436, on the 
27th January, died the Lord Eobert de Umfravile, knight. Lord 
of Kyme and Eedesdale ; and in the year 1438, on St. Silvester's 
day (Dec. 31), died the lady Isabella, wife of the aforesaid Lord 
Eobert Umfravile, and they lie together at the altar of St. Mary 
Magdalene.^ This is ^'Eobin-mend-the-Market." He married 
the widow of Sir Eobert Umfraville, brother to Gilbert Earl of 
Angus. The monks accorded to their great benefactor, Patrick, 
the son of Edgar called Unniying, the son of Cospatrick, who 
had gifted them with Werihill or Wreighill, in Coquetdale, 
along with his body, a letter of fraternity to him and his wife, 
to receive them to be buried when they died, and they agreed to 

* Chart. Nov. Monast., p. 271. 1 1^-, P- 281. 

X lb. pp. 294, 305 ; not Newcastle as Mackenzie has it, ii., p. 198. 

§ Chart. Nov. Mon. p. 298. || Ih. p, 304. H lb. p. 303. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 259 

conduct the same service for them as if they had been two 
monks.* John the son of the aforesaid Patrick de Kestern, 
granted them land in Caistron along with his body.f His son 
John, still more generous and facile, sold to Newminster both 
Caistron and Werihill. AU these, as well as their ancestor 
Edgar, were written among the benefactors of the house ; as well 
they might, after their noble estate had been nibbled away 
gradually, and then swallowed up by the rapacity of their 
spiritual guides.^ Hugo de Lakenby also gave them 21 acres of 
land in the vill of Edington, with his body.§ 

The possessions of the abbey were valuable and extensive, 
comprising numerous lands on both sides of the Wansbeck, or in 
the adjoining district ; vast tracts on the Coquet, including Kid- 
land, lands in Kestern, Elotwayton (Flotterton), Bitelisden, 
Scharbirton, Stretton, &c. ; two pits or drifts for extracting sea- 
coal ; salt works near the mouths of the Blythe and Coquet ; 
fisheries on the Tyne ; houses in Newcastle ; Chopwell on the 
Derwent ; lands in Filton, Tolland, and Swinburn, in Chollerton 
parish ; the advowson of Whelpington ; peat moss at Edling- 
ham, &c., &c.|| The value of their property has been estimated 
at £20,000 per annum of the present money. 

The young plants of Verlascum Thapsus or mullein, and the 
common Celandine ( Chelidonium majus) seen about the ruins are 
perhaps survivals of seeds that may have retained their vitality 
since the buildings became covered up with soil. 

The old north road from Newcastle, passed by the west side of 
the abbey ; the bridge by which it crossed the river has now 
ceased to exist. The abbey grange stood at the end of the 
bridge. 

From its propinquity to the public road, there was a friendly 
resort to it, by the royal army, and noblemen and others both 
from England and Scotland, which was felt to be very burden- 
some. In Jan. 5, 1300, Edward I. directs from it by brief of 
Privy Seal, a commission to Lord Saint John to receive the men 
of Annandale to the king's peace.^ Edward II, dated public 
documents from it, Sept. 8th to llth, 1310 ; and on May 29 to 
3], and from June 1 to 12, 1314, and on Aug. 7, 1322; and 

* Chart. N. M. pp. 118-120. f P- 121. % IT), pp. 140, 146 ; 301. 

§ lb. p. 166 II Charters, passim. 

If Historical Documents, Scotland, ii., p. 409. 

IG 



260 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Edward III. tested a mandate here Nov. 16, 1334.* In 1502, 
Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII., then affianced to 
James IV. of Scotland, on the 26th July, was conveyed with a 
fair company to Morpeth, "and by the towne passed in fayr 
order, wher ther was much people ; and so sche went to the 
abbay, wher sche was well recyved by the abbot and religyous 
revested, at the gatt of the church, with the crosse." She re- 
turned to Morpeth to her lodgings for the night.f 

Among the " Historical Documents, Scotland," i., p. 391, there 
is an extract from the Eoll of the Justices Itinerant for North- 
umberland, Jan., 1293, concerning "Pleas North of the Coquet," 
which is curious now. A certain Ealph, a lay brother (frater 
conversus) of Newminster found William the Pundere, in a cer- 
tain osiery (virgulto) of the Abbot of Newminster cutting wands, 
and struck him with a certain axe (hachia) on the head, so that 
by reason thereof he died on the instant. And thereafter the said 
brother Ealph was sent to Meuthros (Melrose) in Scotland, by 
the Abbot of Newminster, which abbot is now dead. And the 
said brother Ealph withdrew himself for no other cause than the 
foresaid death, and i& of evil credit. Therefore he is banished 
and outlawed. He has no chatells. The Eev. J. F. Fowler, 
Introd. to Chart, p. xix. conjectures that the monks cultivated 
osiers for basket-making, as did their neighbours, from the men- 
tion in a deed. Chart. Nov. Mon. p. 160, " of the vimina of John 
de Kestern." We have here a case in point. The Virgultum, 
however, may have been a hazel shaw. 

Mr Fergusson pointed out how the Abbey was supplied with 
water, but this was known previous to the excavations, and Mr 
Fowler's instructions may be depended on. "■ Somewhat to the 
south-west of the Abbey," he says, " and within the curtain wall, 
tanks of oak and lead lie buried ; these were in connection with 
a fine spring of water. The great sewer for sanitary purposes, 
which also turned two or three mills, was an artificial water- 
course taken off from the Wansbeck about a mile and a half 
higher up, where a weir or dam was put across. This water- 
course can still be traced through a considerable part of its 

* Eot. Scot, i., pp. 94, 103, 127, 128, and 294 (Hodgson) ; and Harts- 
home's Itinerary of King Edward the Second, pp. 7, 13, 17. (Privately 
printed) . 

t Leland's Collectanea. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 261 

length, and for some distance contains a briskly running stream 
of surface drainage. Near the abbey it was conveyed in an 
arched conduit of stone about five or six feet high ; this has been 
destroyed within the last few years, together with the original 
oak frame of the sluice by which the admission of water was 
regulated."*' This water from the Wansbeck is believed to 
have anciently filled a fish pond near the abbey. At one time 
there prevailed a firm impression in the minds of the people 
around that the abbey was connected with Morpeth Castle, and 
the opinion gained strength, when the culvert or arch — long 
since silted up — was come upon in the recent operations, it being 
carried, as it were, straight in the direction of the castle. 

Leaving Newminster we followed for some distance this ditch, 
till the public road was regained. Eank beds of the butter-bur 
{Petasites vulgaris), which William Turner, the old Morpeth 
botanist, says, was in his time " called in Northumberland, an 
Eldin," grew on its banks. This plant is still known as an 
"EU-docken," at Kirkwhelpington. The fine beeches that we 
saw after leaving Morpeth were remarkably well twigged and 
leafy. But now, several of the oaks and ashes had put on a 
second crop of foliage, which was stiU flaunting the pale brown, 
yellow, red and green tints of immaturity. These were recoveries 
from frost bite, consequent on a vigorous flow of summer sap, of 
the half-ripened twigs of last season. Sometimes these had 
snapped off, and new buds originating beneath the bark pushed 
out fresh shoots or tufts of leaves. The Wansbeck here flows 
over beds of sandstone, and the water is very limpid. Sand- 
martins were flying over the water, and a single young pied wag- 
tail was walking along the rocks. The dipper was expected to 
put up its appearance, but was invisible. In Turner's time the 
*' Morpetenses," called it the '' water-craw."t A very miniature 
leaved maple was noted as a singularity, as we turned towards 
Mitford. Spital Hill stood on the height on the right hand, 
occupying the position of St. Leonard's Hospital, founded by Sir 
William Bertram, in the reign of Henry I. This was a distinct 
institution from the chapel of St. Leonard, near Mitford, which 
in 1491, when in a waste state, was conveyed with a cottage in 
Benrige, and other tenements and lands to Newminster. J It 

* Introd. to Chart. Nov. Mon. p. xv. 
t Eambles in Northumberland, p. 49. % Chart. Nov. Mon. p. 249, etc. 



262 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

was hereabouts that the canal conveying -water to the abbey 
crossed the Wansbeck by a wooden tube, of which the olden 
people recollect the two ends sticking out of the bank. 

I now adopt a part of Mr Thomson's report: — "It was 
specially noticeable that in the valley of the "Wansbeck apples 
and pears were much more plentiful than they are on Tweedside. 
Some of the trees were heavily laden with small though tempt- 
ing fruit. The birch and the hawthorn, as well as some branches 
in chestnut trees, were observed to be colouring, and assuming 
their autumn tints. The Font joins the Wansbeck at this point, 
being about as full in volume as the main stream. The Font is 
presently spanned by a fine old single arched bridge. [The pool 
above the bridge is used for washing sheep.] Mitford village, 
consisting of a few pretty cottages, was once a more important 
town than Morpeth, but it has dwindled down to its present 
dimensions. It however boasts of an inn, and here sundry weary 
and thirsty travellers shunned a short and drizzling shower. 
The inn was very comfortable and tidy, and ornamented by 
many fine asters and other equally beautiful flowers in vases, 
which we suppose were the remnants of the horticultural exhibi- 
tion held there a day or two previously. In a garden close to 
the inn the effects of the severe winter were very visible. A 
variegated holly tree showed only the faintest signs of vitality, 
while a plum tree had been completely killed. The gooseberry 
bushes were also damaged. Passing onward, and rejoining the 
Wansbeck, a building which was once a snuff mill is seen on our 
right. The lade which conveyed the water to the mill is nearly 
silted up. A modern bridge is now under foot. The river is 
apparently undermining the foundation. Though the bridge is 
founded on a rock, the strata are friable, and crumble away 
when acted on by winter frosts and floods. On a height on our 
left are the ponderous ruins of the ancient castle of Mitford, 
which was built in the twelfth century by William Bertram, who 
also founded Brinkburn Priory. The ruined walls of the keep 
are greatly cracked. The situation is very fine, on a sort of 
peninsula Hke Newminster, and in ancient times it must have 
been a somewhat important stronghold." 

The ruined keep is surrounded with wood, which contains 
some noble ashes ; sheltered behind the walls was a thicket of 
hollies. The pink-flowered Herb-Bobert {Geranium Rolertianum) 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 263 

grew as a wall- plant ; and tlie sweet-scented Violet ( Viola 
odorata) and tlie marjoram {Origanum vulgare) in different parts 
of the ruins. Looking to the southern side of the river, the 
withered condition of the furze shewed the fatal incidence of last 
December's frost ; and the like had been witnessed opposite 
Newminster. 

Mitford Castle has been liable to repeated sieges and other 
casualties. It was seized by the Flemish troops of King John, 
1215. In 1216 it was blockaded by Alexander II. of Scotland. 
In 1316-17 it was held by Sir Gilbert de Middleton and a com- 
pany of bandits, from whom it was wrenched by Ealph Lord 
Greystock. In 1318 it was captured by Alexander III. of Scot- 
land, and dismantled. In 1323, it was dilapidated, having been 
destroyed by the Scots. The Eev. John Hodgson has given 
eloquent expression to the reflections which its past and present 
states suggest. " When I suffer imagination, only for a little 
time, to lift up the curtain of history, and think I see from the 
opposite bank to the south the armies of Scotland investing the 
moated plain upon which the fortress stands ; when I see showers 
of arrows or javelins flying round its bulwarks, the neighbouring 
hamlets and villages wrapped in flames, and hear the clashing of 
arms and the shouting of the besiegers and the besieged — how 
grateful is it to gaze again, and see the peaceful scene as it now 
is — the ruined keep, and its semi-circular wall that flanks it on 
the south overgrown with trees and weeds ; the massive rampart 
that incased it on the north ' split with the winter's frost ;' the 
rude walls and towers that environed the hill, rising in shattered 
masses among elder trees and thorns, or shadowed with groups 
of gigantic ash-trees ; the moated and entrenched plain covered 
with cattle ; and away beyond the beautiful white walls of the 
new manor house, the hoary remains of the old one, and the 
venerable church, backed with orchards and gardens, and river 
banks — all how lovely and luxuriant !"* 

To resume Mr Thomson's statement : — 

" The church and vicarage are on our right hand. The vicar- 
age is very plain, and the only notable feature was a nice young 
Ficea nohilis. The church, which is dedicated to St. Mary, was a 
very ancient erection in Norman and early English styles. By 
the munificence of Colonel Osbaldiston Mitford, it has been 
* Hodgson's Hist, of Northumberland, Part ii., vol. ii,, p. 56. 



264 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

partly restored and rebuilt at a cost of £10,000. The church 
contains many tombs of the ancient Mitford family, and the oak 
carving was considered especially fine, though the taste which 
was observable in the restoration was not to be too highly com- 
mended. In the tower is a peal of eight bells, rung by machinery 
of a clock work description. The bells are saucer shaped and 
struck by wooden hammers, and the manner in which the 
mechanism plays a selection of hymns is said to be beautifully 
soft and harmonious. The churchyard, which is surrounded by 
many large trees, including two aged yews, in addition to a stone 
coilin, contains many interesting tombstones. Some bear odd 
inscriptions after the usual information regarding the deceased." 
The gardener, Mr Lees, was waiting to take the company 
through the grounds at Mitford Hall. There was a fine spruce 
fir at the side of the walk near the church. The old hall had 
stood not far from the church. The tower is still extant ; in the 
interior of it an old font is preserved. Over the entrance is the 
date 1637, and the arms of the family. In the kitchen of the 
hall, now occupied by one of the servants on the estate, is an old 
dog-spit wheel, an appliance now very seldom seen. The dog 
was put into the inside of the wheel composed of spokes, and by 
its motion turned it round, and this wrought the apparatus which 
turned the roast. The fire' place was large, as fire places in those 
days generally were. In the old orchard adjoining there were 
several fine trees ; acacias, maples, planes, silver firs, a medlar, 
old apple trees, &c. There was a noble ash ; and a Cedrus Lihani, 
whose circumference of stem was 8 feet,- at 3 feet from the 
ground, where it gave off a clump of secondary stems. In the 
border behind the kitchen were several plants of Solomon's seal 
( Polygonatum muUiflorum), whose roots are much in vogue among 
the pitmen for curing a black eye. A gardener at Winlaton in- 
forms me that the nailers there annoy him by their requests for 
Solomon's seal to apply to their bruises received in quarrels. By 
the side of the walk descending to the river, the tail wood- 
grasses Bromus giganteus and B. asper ; throat wort ( Campanula 
latifoUa) and Myrrhis odorata grew ; Mercurialis perennis was 
abundant ; and Saxifraga umhrosa had been planted out. Cross- 
ing the river by a suspension bridge, the modern hall of Colonel 
Mitford was before us on the crest of the gently sloping height. 
It is a large and massive mansion, and occupies a lovely situation 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 265 

in a finely-wooded park, wMcli is surrounded by a woody 
amphitheatre all round. A large plane tree on the south bank 
of the river opposite to the hall, was said to be at least 100 yards 
in the circumference of the outspread of the branches. In the 
conservatory, citrons and oranges were producing fruit ; the 
other plants noted were, a large and well-grown Camelia ; a 
luxuriant creeping Bignonia or trumpet-flower ; Latania Bor- 
honica ; Kennedya microphylla ; summer blooming Chrysanthe- 
mums ; etc. Here was preserved a stone found in the church, 
which bears a Saxon inscription, not yet deciphered. Leaving 
the hall and its trim lawn, we pass along towards the gardens, 
viewing some fine Turkey oaks and Spanish chestnuts by the 
way. Campanula latifolia grows among the trees A blackbird 
with one or two white feathers in its tail was observed. In the 
previous season, a black and white rook had been shot in the 
woods. At the gardens it was seen that the frost had killed a 
large ornamental briar hedge. Other results were, that yews, 
hollies, Portugal laurels and peaches were killed ; any quantity 
of roses ; and no end of laurel-bays. The evergreen oak ( Quercus 
Ilex) was three parts killed. Hawthorns were blasted in the top 
twigs, and the oaks were considerably pruned. The lowest tem- 
perature marked here was 7'' below zero. The garden was 
chiefly devoted to domestic purposes. There were some good 
grapes in the vinery ; and some of the peaches were 1 inches in 
circumference. The flower borders are chiefly made up with 
annuals, and a few old plants, Veronica spicata imriegata being 
one. In the greenhouses there were some well-grown ferns, 
principally Adiantums for table decoration. Among other plants 
grown were Cyperus cotonifolia, Croton intermedium, Ficus elastica, 
Gilia achillecefolia. 
I have again recourse to Mr Thomson's report : — 
'' A fountain was playing in the centre of the garden, but the 
water was very impure and full of vegetable matter. Close by 
the thermometer registered 62^. The obliging and intelligent 
head gardener had conducted the company through the grounds, 
and at the request of a member he showed us a large collection 
of landscape paintings of remarkable merit, all done by his own 
brush in his spare hours. They were really beautiful and 
natural. In returning we were shown a tall fir tree which light- 
ning had split up about five weeks ago. There were traces 



266 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

whicli shewed that the tree had been at some time anterior to 
this favoured with a similar compliment. Leaving the grounds 
the homeward march was begun. As we passed Mitford village 
Mr Fergusson related a story of a well which once was a feature 
of the place. A monk who felt convinced that eyesight could be 
restored to a blind person by washing the eyeballs with a piece 
of the robe of St. Cuthbert steeped in the water of the well, drew 
a cupful and inserted the cloth. To the astonishment of all 
present the fabric, when drawn out, shewed that water had not 
produced any effect upon it, as it was perfectly dry. On bathing 
the eyes of the blind person with the water the sight was re- 
stored, and the priest who drank the water, to be careful that it 
should not enter the well once more, was instantly cured of 
dysentery. So runs the strange story. The walk back to Mor- 
peth was delightful, the only pause made being at a spring of 
mineral water which bubbled up through the sand on a haugh 
by the river," 

The robe of St. Cuthbert was of amianthus, and would neither 
wet nor burn. Eeginald who lived in the reign of king Stephen, 
is the authority for the miracle at the well, in his book, " De 
Admirandis," &c., chap. 53, pp. 109-10 (Surtees Society). Hodg- 
son, in his translation says, it was the dish of iron chained of a 
neighbouring well filled' with crystal water, into which the 
miraculous cloth was introduced. The original word is concha. 
It was king Edwin, who, according to Beda, provided for the 
wayfarer a dish attached to the public wells, before A.D. 633. 
" The king took such good care for the good of his nation, that 
in several places where he had seen clear springs near the high- 
ways, he caused stakes to be fixed, with brass dishes hanging at 
them for the refreshment of travellers."*" Col. Mitford has 
erected a stone-fountain on the supposed scene of the miracle. 

After dinner a cordial vote of thanks was tendered to Mr Jas. 
Eergusson, Morpeth, for the information he had imparted, and 
the trouble he had taken during the day. Mr Fergusson, and the 
Eev. James Spence, Ladhope, Galashiels, were proposed as mem- 
bers of the Club. There were laid on the table reports on the 
effects of the past winter on vegetation from numerous corres- 
pondents. 

During a morning walk by the river-side below the town, 
* Stevenson's Beda, p. 382. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 267 

Mentha arvensis, and corn-poppies were noted as field-weeds ; 
Potentilla reptans, brambles, common burnet {Sanguisorla officin- 
alis) and Geranium pratense, grew by the hedge and way-sides ; 
Geranium syhaticum and Melica uniflora in the woods. In a 
garden I saw the common fig-wort {Scrophularia nodosa) culti- 
vated. This is of great repute in this part of Northumberland, 
for making a healing ointment of, and so much is it valued, that 
"herbalists" have made it very scarce in the wild state. In the 
north of Ireland so much is it esteemed, that it is called ''Eose 
Noble" from its supposed efficacy. 

The fifth meeting was held on September 29th and 30th, at 
Gilsland. The company which met on this occasion numbered 
about fifty, most of whom arrived on the evening of the 28th, 
and took up their residence in the Shaws Hotel, an immense 
establishment with every accommodation. Among those present 
were the President, Mr Charles Watson, Dunse ; the two Secre- 
taries, Dr Francis Douglas and Mr Hardy ; Eevs. J. F. Bigge, 
Stamfordham ; J. CoUingwood Bruce, LL.D., Newcastle ; David 
Paul, Eoxburgh ; E. F. Proudfoot, Fogo ; G. W. Sprott, D.D., 
North Berwick ; "William Snodgrass, D.D., Oanonbie ; William 
Stobbs, Gordon ; G. P. Wilkinson of Harperley Park, Darling- 
ton; E. Hopper Williamson, Whickham; and Adam Wright, 
Gilsland ; Drs Charles Douglas, Kelso ; Bowie, Carlisle ; Grier- 
son, Melrose ; Main, Alnwick ; and McDowaU, Morpeth ; Lieut. - 
Col. Grossman, C.M.G. and Capt. Forbes, E.N., Berwick ; Messrs 
J. F. Baird of Beaumont Hill ; James Bogie, Edinburgh ; Alex. 
Hay Borthwick, Ladiesyde, Melrose ; John B. Boyd of Cherry- 
trees ; T. Craig Brown, Woodburn ; M. H. Dand, Hauxley 
Cottage ; F. W. DarneU, South Durham ; John Freer, Melrose ; 
James Heatley, Alnwick ; G. P. Hughes of Middleton Hall, 
Wooler ; W. A. Hunter of Wellfield, Dunse ; James B. Kerr, 
Kelso ; C. F. McCabe, Thirston House, Felton ; — Maling, New- 
castle ; — Philipson, Newcastle ; Eobert Eenton, Fans, Earl- 
stoun ; Adam Eobertson, Alnwick ; Duncombe Shafto, Brahce- 
peth Eectory ; — Snodgrass, Canonbie ; J. J. Steytler, London ; 
G. H. Thompson, Alnwick ; John TurnbuU of Abbey St. Bathans ; 
Thomas Turnbull, LiUiesleaf ; J. J, Vernon, Hawick ; Adam 
Watson, Morpeth ; and two ladies. 

The hotel stands at an elevation of about 600 feet, and the 
view from the terrace commands the vale of the Irthing, and the 

IH 



268 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

gently rising hill country of Denton Fell, backed by the darker 
beatb-clad height of Tindale Fell. Owing to the haze the dis- 
tant Skiddaw and Saddleback (or Blencathara) were invisible ; 
but they can be seen with a clear atmosphere. The opposite 
hill-sides appeared to be boggy, and were at this season of a 
rusty green. The brighter portions were those that had been 
mowed for hay. Many indications of old cultivation were 
apparent, but corn-growing had been abandoned in favour of 
pasture. The small white-washed farm-steadings were thinly 
scattered in their loneliness far away near the moor edges. Some 
of them had been the patrimony of Statesmen, who had mort- 
gaged their little properties till they were ruined. 

When we rose next morning the country was wrapt in mist, 
and although the sun partially dispelled it, the grass was loaded 
with moisture. Three companies were formed, one walking and 
another driving to Birdoswald, to await Dr Bruce's arrival, who 
had kindly undertaken the direction of the day's excursion. A 
third company commenced their study of the Eoman Wall, a 
mile more to the east, near the Eailway Station, to whom the 
Eev. Adam Wright, vicar of Gilsland, acted as cicerone. The 
members of the Club were greatly indebted during their stay to 
this gentleman's courtesy ; and he kindly arranged this part of 
the walk. To him I owe a sketch of what we saw when tracing 
the Wall here : — 

''The first place visited by the Club was Mumps Hall. The 
members assembled here at ten o'clock in the morning of the 
29th September. This is the 'Mumps Ha' ' of ' Guy Mannering.' 
As the name means Beggar's Hall, it was probably given at the 
time when the house did not bear a good character. Here the 
members inspected the external appearance of the once famous 
hostelry. The house has recently been enlarged. The ancient 
portion of the walls is yet traceable, and the work of restoration 
brought into view the small old windows with their mullions 
and iron bars ; and a secret passage was discovered leading 
from the kitchen to the attic. The' entrance was in a closet at 
the right side of the fire-place, and the chimney was so built as 
to serve the purpose of a staircase." [In the loft or attic frag- 
ments of what had been the dead bones of a child or children 
were discovered.] " Below Mumps Hall, and on the west side of 
the Poltross, which is sometimes called the Powtross Burn, is 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 269 

Merrilies Cottage. This was erected on tlie site of the small 
thatched cottage where Margaret Carrick, the Meg of Mumps 
Ha,' died. Her grave is now an object of interest in the parish 
churchyard of Over Denton, 

"Passing eastward over the Poltross Burn, Northumberland 
was entered, and proceeding under the North-Eastern Eailway and 
to the right of the Samson Inn, the fosse of the Eoman Wall was 
entered at Buff Head. This is about one hundred yards south 
of Gilsland Eailway Station, and near to the farm-houses called 
' The Gap ' in Thirlwall township. The Gap is supposed to be 
the place where the Eoman Wall was broken down, and the 
name of the township Thirlwall is said to be derived from the 
same circumstance — the hurling down, or gap, made in the wall. 
On this point, the members had an interesting discussion on the 
meaning of the name of the township. [Some of the green 
mounds here appeared not to be artificial but gravel knolls.] 

"Turning westward past the cottages called 'The Crooks' 
[which is mentioned by Gordon, Itin. Sept., p. 80], down to Gils- 
land Station, and thence along the railway over the Poltross Burn, 
the Eoman remains which are supposed to be a Mile Castle were 
examined. The curious point here is' — that recent excavations 
tend to prove that something more extensive than a Mile Castle 
existed at this place. At the east side of this Eoman building 
the wall is ten feet in thickness — and next to this is a doorway 
two feet wide, and a wall two feet thick. A local traditional 
name for this place is * The King's Stables.' Passing down the 
burn-side a curious piece of wall was examined, which is certainly 
Eoman. It is at right angles with the stream, and probably 
formed a portion of the approach to a Eoman bridge. And in 
support of this theory is the fact, that just below and standing in 
the stream, there is a large stone which appears to have been one 
of the pillars of an ancient bridge. And it is probable that a 
bridge would be built at this place, because it is exactly in the 
line of 'The Stanegate' to the south of the Eoman Wall. 
[Camden says the Wall ' carryd an arch over the rapid brook of 
Poltross.' —Britannia by Gibson, fol. 1068.] From the Mile 
Castle the next course was through the grounds of Gilsland 
vicarage. Here the Wall — the Fosse — and the Vallum are 
clearly seen, and in the grounds of the National School the line 
of * The Stanegate' can be traced. [In the vicarage garden, the 



270 Meport of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

under stones projected beyond tbe wall, and the second course 
also, and on this extended base the wall rested ; on the steep 
portions the bottom of the wall was protected by a causeway, to 
prevent its being undermined by rain-torrents.] Crossing the 
road leading from Mumps Hall to Over Denton, the members 
entered the Willowford farm and traced the line of the Wall 
through the first field, when they entered the deep Fosse. The 
bottom of the Fosse is the cart road to the Willowford farm." 

" Passing in the rear of Willowford, the ditch has been filled 
up, but the wall, though in a dilapidated condition, descends 
through another field, and may be traced by the great quantity 
of large, square, and rounded stones in the fence, overgrown, 
and almost entirely covered with trees and underwood. It con- 
tinues in this way until within fifty yards of the river, and in a 
straight line with it, on the top of the opposite high cliff, may be 
seen the beginning of the wall running to Birdoswald."* Cam- 
den (Britannia, fol. 1038) was of opinion that the Irthing was 
here crossed by a bridge : " Upon the wall is Burd-Oswald ; and 
below this, the Picts-Wall pass'd the river Irthing by an arch'd 
bridge." The following is the latest evidence on the subject : — 
" Feeling confident," says Jenkinson, " that here would exist the 
foundation of a bridge similar in character to the wonderful re- 
mains to be seen on the banks of the North Tyne at Chollerford, 
we paid many visits to the place, and came to the conclusion that 
such would be met with if the accumulation of sand on the banks 
of the stream were removed. Fortunately, on our last visit, we 
met at Birdoswald with Mr John Armstrong, a master mason, re- 
siding at Gilsland, and he assured us that when the old Peel 
house at Willowford was pulled down, thirty-six years since 
(written in 1875), and the present" farm-house built, the founda- 
tion of the bridge was visible, and a great number of very large 
stones, beautifully shaped, and with the luis holes in them, were 
taken from the bank of the river, close to where the wall evidently 
crossed, and were broken and used in building the house. From 
the quality of the stones it was evident they had come from the 
Lodges Quarry, near the Low Pow railway station. He was 
also of opinion that they only got a part of the stones, and that 
many more would be found in their original positions if the sand 
was removed."! 

* Jenkinson's Guide to Carlisle, Gilsland, &c., p. 80. 
t Ibid. pp. 199, 200. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 271 

To bring up the Natural History observations, we sball revert 
to the Poltross burn ; where the bird- cherry and the hazel grew 
at the entrance of the tangled glen. It is a reputed locality' for 
Lysimachia vulgaris. There were also some good oaks in the 
fields. Linaria origanifolia was one of the border -flowers at the 
vicarage, which I subsequently saw in a half wild state at Eose 
Castle. Garden flowers have their districts, as well as wild. On 
the remains of the wall, hazels, mountain ashes, briars and 
brambles manifested the tendency of the ground when stony to 
run to woodland. Mentha arvensis grew as a field weed ; and it 
waS' difficult to say whether it or the quicken was most prevalent. 
Before us the Irthing hid itself in a darksome dell between steep 
and wooded banks. The swallows had not yet deserted the 
Willowford farm for their winter destination ; they had not been 
present about Hexham on the previous day ; but were seen on 
the day following near Naworth. Climbing a bank above the 
farm-stead, some pretty fungi were picked up in the pastures, 
which were deteriorating into a half -wild condition. A granite 
boulder placed on the ridge, was found by measurement to be 4 
feet 8 inches long, 3 feet broad, and 2 deep. Mr Howse had 
already prepared me to expect Crifiel granites on our route. A 
number of fragments of a considerable variety of granites were 
preserved in the vicarage garden. Many larks and pipits were 
hovering in a singing position in the air. This is a county for 
larks. They were afterwards seen most numerously at Welton, 
beyond Carlisle. We walked along the margin of a concave 
wood, called the Hollow "Wood, which contained hazel, mountain- 
ash, birch, ash, sallow and alder, and then crossed, by successive 
trips in a farm-cart, the Irthing, which was in flood. Here there 
were many mountain limestone corals among the channel stones. 
Thickets of the Salix purpurea grew at the crossing, and there 
were several wild roses ; the fruits of Rosa villosa being rich and 
plump. At Underheugh, a small farmery, a portion of a Eoman 
altar lying flat by a wall-side, was turned up for our inspection, 
and presented this inscription : — 

I.O .M. 

OOH.I.AELIA. 

(The first iElian Cohort to Jupiter the best and greatest). The 

remainder was broken off. Here on the steep grassy bank above 

the river, and beneath the walls of Birdoswald, a fox-hunt was 



272 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

witnessed. Eeynard was killed in full view. Foxes are numer- 
ous in the vicinity. The *' Eoman hunters of Banna" have still 
their representatives here. There was an immense depth of 
boulder clay in the scarp. The perforations of the sand-martins 
were visible in the sandy deposits. 

On arriving at Birdoswald the companies were combined. Dr 
Bruce now took the guidance, and pointed out the peculiarities 
of the station, and described most minutely the economy of the 
Eoman garrisons, who occupied the strongholds on the Wall, 
and pointed out the various sculptured remains accumulated 
about the farm-house, all of which are described in the Dr's 
various works on the great barrier of the middle isthmus, for 
which he is the greatest living authority. Of this portion of the 
days proceedings, Mr J. J. Vernon of Hawick, has favoured me 
with a report : — 

** Calling attention to the extent of the Wall of Hadrian, 
which extends a distance of 70 miles from Wallsend on the Tyne, 
to Bowness on the Solway, Dr Bruce proceeded to state that this 
great fortification consisted of three parts : — 1 st, a stone wall or 
Murus, with a ditch on its northern side ; 2nd, an earthen ram- 
part or Vallum, south of the stone wall ; and 3rd, stations, watch 
towers, and military roads. Originally the wall had a total ele- 
vation of eighteen feet, with a width averaging eight feet. On 
the north side was a fosse the average size of which was thirty- 
six feet wide and fifteen feet deep. There were eighteen stations 
along the wall at a distance between them of four miles. These 
camps were military cities, providing secure lodgement for a 
powerful body of soldiery. Birdoswald was the 12th station on 
the line, and during the Eoman occupation was known by the 
name Amboglanna, derived, Dr Bruce suggested, from the Latin 
amho, and the British glan — meaning the circling glen. The 
position of this station is remarkably strong, and it is the largest 
station on the line, having an area of five and a half acres. 
With one other station, it possesses the peculiarity of having two 
gates, both in its eastern and western ramparts. A very great 
number of inscribed stones have been found in the station, most 
of which confirm the statement that the first cohort of the Dacians 
was quartered here. By means of extensive excavations the 
gateways of the station have been displayed, and some of the in- 
terior buildings. The walls of the station are in a good state of 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 273 

preservation, tlie southern rampart especially, wMcli shows eight 
courses of facing-stones. The walls are five feet thick. From 
the fact that the wall adapts itself to the north rampart of the 
fort, the station is entirely independent of the wall, and must 
have been built before it. The north gateway exists no longer, 
but its nature may be judged by the south gateway, which is a 
double one, and a beautiful specimen of Eoman masonry. Each 
portal is eleven feet wide and has been spanned by an arch. 
The pivot holes still remain. As usual, this gateway has two 
guard-chambers, the western one only being excavated. Both 
of the gateways on the eastern side have been excavated, but one 
is much twisted and broken by the yielding of its foundations. 
The other is in excellent preservation. The whole interior of the 
camp is marked with the lines of streets and the ruins of build- 
ings. Near the lower gateway in the east wall three chambers, 
of nine or ten feet square each, have been laid bare. Here was 
found a figure (now in the neighbouring farm-house) of the kind 
usually called Dese Matres, or the good mothers, whose name it 
was not lucky to mention. . Dr Bruce next called attention to the 
wall at the foot of the farm-house garden, which formerly formed 
part of a Eoman building of large dimensions. This wall, 
although not excavated to the bottom, has been proved to be up- 
wards of eight feet in height, and is supported by eight buttresses. 
It extends 92 feet from east to west, and is 3^ feet thick. In the 
middle of each space between each buttress is a long slit or loop- 
hole, which Dr Bruce supposes to have been connected with the 
flues used in warming the building. Immediately in front of 
this wall is another of similar thickness, whilst to the north, and 
in the garden, three other walls in addition are to be found. 
Arranged at the west gable of Birdoswald farm-house an interest- 
ing collection of Eoman altars and stones was next inspected. 
Attention was directed to an altar dedicated to Jupiter, the Best 
and Greatest, by the first cohort of Dacians, which at this time, 
besides the epithet of iElian, derived from Hadrian, seems to 
have had that of Tetrician, derived from the Emperor Tetricus. 
There is also the head of another altar, dedicated to Jupiter, 
having a series of crosses, one of them being of that peculiar 
form called gammadion, on the capital, whilst beneath appear the 
dedicatory letters I. 0. M. — Jovi Optimo Maximo. Another 
stone has the inscription — Leg. vi. vio. fidelis, intimating that 



274 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

the Sixth. Legion, styled the Yictorious and Faithful, took part 
in the erection of the building in which it was inserted. The 
Club next proceeded westwards from Birdoswald about two miles 
to visit the red freestone quarry, which was extensively wrought 
by the Eomans, now known by the name of Coome Crag. Here 
Dr Bruce pointed out the inscriptions left on the face of the rock 
by the Eoman workmen, such as secvrvs, ivstvs, and mathria- 
Nvs. At the foot of the cliff is an inscription pavst, et rvs. cos. 
— Eaustinus and Eufus, Consuls (a.d. 210). It was remarked 
that whilst the rock in the immediate vicinity of this inscription 
is covered with a smoke-coloured lichen, the letters themselves 
are covered with a white lichen, thus rendering them very dis- 
tinct." 

The lichens being grown in the shade are in that leprose con- 
dition, in which species cannot be discriminated. The same sort 
of appearance was seen in letters on a Eoman altar placed in the 
shade at Lanercost. When bruised the green gonidise stratum 
was manifest. 

Coomb e Crag is a most remarkable aggregation of rocks and 
wooded scaurs. On the line of the portion of the wall examined, 
hazel, bird- cherry, ash, and willow, were growing out of the 
wall ; as well as Polypodiums and other ferns. Herb-Eobert in 
flower ornamented the" remains of Birdoswald, and is thus 
answerable to Sir Walter Scott's 

"flowers wliicli purple waving 

On the ruined ramparts grew," 

flowers that have not been identified. 

On returning, Gillalees Beacon, called also the Grey Fell, a 
hill at a distance, which has on its top a cairn -like object was 
visible. This is the ruin of a Eoman watch-tower by the side of 
the Maiden Way. We crossed into a field at the place where 
the earth-works of the Vallum are strengthened by a second 
fosse, of which it is difiicult to divine the object, and then re- 
crossed to the wall on its south side to examine the remains of a 
turret. Its walls were 3 feet thick, and it measured 13 feet from 
side to side. It was a turret of this kind, that Mr Clayton 
cleared out at Tomertay hill near Walwick. We found a near 
way by a foot-path across the fields, but it was near 6 o'clock 
before the last of the travellers reached ih.e hotel. 

After dinner, and the usual toasts, Dr F. Douglas tendered the 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James BTardy. 275 

hearty thanks of the Club to Dr Bruce for the treat he had 
afforded the Club, and proposed that gentleman's health, to 
which Dr Bruce replied at some length. 

The following were proposed as members : — Mr John Broad- 
way, Alnwick ; Alexander Dickson, M.D., Eegius Professor of 
Botany in Edinburgh University ; Eev. 0. J. Cowan, More- 
battle ; Eev. William Snodgrass, D.D., Canonbie ; and Mr S. F. 
Widdrington of Newton Hall. 

Mr J. B. Kerr, Kelso, exhibited a small bronze celt, furnished 
with a suspensory loop, now broken, found recently in a trench 
dug for building a stone-dike near Morebattle ; also a locust, 
which had been caught near Merton, in a stook of corn ; Mr 
McCabe mentioned that a hoopoe ( Upupa epops) had been recently 
shot near Felton, and Dr Charles Douglas that he had observed 
LysimacMa vulgaris in a new locality at the roadside between 
Lowlynn and Lowick. Mr Yernon shewed a silver ring in- 
scribed lESV NAZAE -f- that had belonged to the recent great 
find in Selkirkshire. The Eev. Geo. H. Wilkinson exhibited 
and described some beautiful silver medals. They were derived 
from the Northumbrian family of Forster, and handed down as 
heir-looms. One was in commemoration of the martyrdom of 
John Hus, and bore the following inscriptions : — 
'' JoA . Hus. 
Credo . Unam . Esse . Egcle- 
siAM : Sanctam : Cato- 

LICAM." 

" Jo . Hus : Condemn ATUR 

Christo : NATO: 1415. 
A : ANNO : centum : Eevo- 

LUTis : Annis : Deo : Ee- 

SPONDERITIS : Et : MlHI." 

During dinner the band of the establishment played a selec- 
tion of airs. Several members addressed the meeting on the 
^object for which they were assembled, and all expressed them- 
selves gratified with the day's excursion, and the beauty of the 
scenery on the route. 

September 30th was everything that could be wished, mild and 
enjoyable, sunshiny and clear. A visit to Lanercost and Naworth 
was the order of the day. A large number preferred to hire con- 
veyances, several walked, and the remainder went by rail. 

ll 



276 Eeport of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Eeaching Nawortli Station, this last party walked to Naworth 
Castle. Its grey towers soon came in sight environed by woods 
of ancient growth. In leaving it for the present, and passing on 
through the park, " Belted Will's Oak," which adjoins the road, 
was measured and ascertained to be 14 feet 10 inches in girth at 
four feet above the ground. It is a fine healthy tree, with far 
spreading branches. The tradition went that thieves were 
hanged summarily on the bough that stretches across the road ; 
but there is reason for discrediting the story as applicable to 
Lord William Howard. There were numerous other large oaks 
in the park of greater dimensions than this, especially some 
patriarchs beside the drive near the castle, but a number of them 
were hollow or decayed in the interior of the trunk. The park 
has been long celebrated for its oaks. In an Inquisition of 31 
Elizabeth, 1588, the park at Naworth is said to contain "by 
estimation 200 acres, it is very barren lande, there is in it a great 
store of olde oke wood, which is worth, if the same were presently 
sold about £200."'^' In the open part of the park there were 
some picturesque stag-horned trees, among others of stately 
growth and amply ramified. The remains of an avenue of good 
beeches, mixed with a few clean ashes, line either side of the 
way ; their bases being protected by piles of stones. New belts 
of plantation appeared in several directions. Some of the distant 
beeches in the clumps, in their style of ramification, very much 
resembled cedars ; a peculiarity of aspect which I have observed 
elsewhere. Another good view of the summit of the castle was 
here obtained. On some oaks near a ravine on our left hand, the 
ivy had been killed by the frost. There was some excellent 
timber here. The white variety of Lychnis diurna grew by the 
roadside. This forms a beautiful garden flower in its double 
state. The Irthing was crossed by a narrow high-backed bridge, 
which bore the date MDCCXXIII. Asplenium Ruta-muraria 
fringed in great tufts the walls of the bridge, and it grew also 
on the mortar of the adjoining stone-dikes. It was likewise 
present at Grilsland on the walls of the public road near St. 
Mary's Church. 

On coming to the vicarage at Lanercost, the feet and tail of a 
polecat were observed to be affixed to the stable-door ; the relics 
not unlikely of one of the last of its race in that vicinity ; for in 
the Brampton district it only occurs now very occasionally. 

* Introd. to Household Books of Lord WiUiam Howard, p. Ixvii. Note. 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 277 

The priory is built of red- sandstone, wbieh. gives it a sombre 
look. It stands on a flat by the side of the Irtbing, with some 
broad venerable sycamores dispersed around. The buildings are 
partly Norman, but mostly early English, of an early and mas- 
sive design. There is a fine Norman arch at the entry, and an 
outer arched gateway of spacious dimensions in a similar style. 
The tower, transepts, and chancel are roofless, but are in good 
keeping; the nave has been restored and is occupied as the 
parish church. The clerestory is in its original fine condition. 
The church contains monuments to the De Vauses, the Dacres, 
the seventh earl of Carlisle who wrote the book entitled " Diary 
in Turkish and Greek Waters," and also to three subsequent 
earls. A stone inserted into one of the walls commemorates a 
distinguished native physician, Thomas Addison, M.D., Presi- 
dent of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of England, and of Guy's 
Hospital — date 1860. He was the son of Jonah and Mary Addi- 
son of St. Mary's Holm. From a brass on the wall the following 
was copied : — 

" Sir Roland de Vaux that sometyme was ye Lord of 
Tryermayne. 
Is dead, his body clad in lead, and ligs law under 

this stayne. man. 

Even as we, even so was he, on earth a levand 
Even as he, even so moun we, for all ye craft we can." 

The date of this Sir Eoland is 1445. 

"The priory, church, and monastic buildings," says Dr Bruce, 
" are almost entirely composed of Eoman stones. They may 
have been procured from the Wall ; but the mind can scarcely 
divest itself of the idea that there has been a station here."'^ It 
was remarked by the present visitors that the numbers of mason 
marks on the building were unprecedented. In the cellar or 
vault were preserved a number of Eoman altars ; one which came 
from Birdoswald reads thus: "To the holy god Silvanus, the 
hunters of Banna (venatores Bannse) have consecrated this." 
Another stone from the same place represents Jupiter and Her- 
cules ; and another altar is dedicated to the god Cocidius, by the 
soldiers of the 20th legion in discharge of a vow. The emblem 
of the 20th legion — a boar — appears at the foot of it. Among 
the Eoman stones lies a broken obelisk with dog-tooth ornamen- 
tation, and an unintelligable assortment of letters, with the 
* WaUet-Book of the Roman Wall, pp. 189-190. 



278 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

words " haec crux Scot facta," at its base. The cross in tbe 
lawn in front of tbe vicarage is of similar workmanship, and is 
said to mark the place where the buying and selling took place, 
and where public preachings would be delivered. 

The various intricate passages to apartments in the monastery 
were threaded, but there was nothing particularly gratifying to 
be seen. It was inhabited by its latest owners — a branch of the 
Dacres — who converted the dormitory into a hall ; and the strong 
beam of wood which formed its mantel-piece bears the initials of 
Christopher Dacre, 1586. 

An attempt was made to botanize the ruinous parts of the 
structure. Jungermannia Hepatica, Cardamine Mrsuta, and Gera- 
nium Rohertianum occupied the floor ; Linaria Cymhalaria was 
pendent from the outer walls ; and Verhascum Tha/psus grew in 
the vicarage garden ; which displayed also some shewy phloxes, 
although of common sorts — white and crimson. There was much 
yellow wall-flower on the ruins ; and a sprinkling of the feverfew, 
Pyrethrum Parthenium. Briars, carrying hips, grew triumphant 
on the top of the choir walls ; and a few plants of Hypericum 
perforatum ; and young ash and elder trees had rooted themselves 
in the chinks. In the headway of the clerestory in the south- 
east angle of the choir is an altar to Jupiter erected by the first 
cohort of the Dacians -styled the -^lian. Within the letters, 
which are in the shade, the same white lichen was noticeable, to 
which attention was drawn the day before at Coombe Crag. A 
wide look out on the haugh in which the priory stands was ob- 
tained from top of the turret stair. A pair of pied wagtails 
were flitting about the roof in pursuit of flies, the latest seen for 
the season. 

Lanercost priory, it is said, was. built by Eobert de Yallibus or 
Vaux, the second Norman lord of Gilsland, in expiation for the 
crime of having slain the dispossessed proprietor, Gilles Bueth, 
who, after making many attempts to regain his inheritance, had 
been invited to a friendly meeting for settlement of differences, 
and then was treacherously murdered. It is somewhat remark- 
able that when doubts of the verity of this story had begun to be 
promulgated, it should have been corroborated by a discovery in 
1864, of a Eunic inscription on a crag at Baronspike, lying 
about two miles to the N.E. of Bewcastle Church. Dr Edward 
Charlton reads the inscription thus ; " Baranr writes (these) to 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 279 

GilleslDueth. who was slain in truce (by) Eob de Yaulx at Feter- 
lana now Lanercosta."^'' It is from this Gilles, it may be re- 
marked, that Gilsland obtains its name ; and Bewcastle still 
commemorates Bueth his sire. 

The priory is not older than 1164. It was liable to be 
grievously disturbed and pillaged by the Scots. In 1280, 
Edward I. and his queen dwelt here to enjoy the recreation of 
hunting in Inglewood Forest. In 1296, the Scottish army burnt 
the conventual buildings; and in 1297, William Wallace and 
his men plundered it once more. In winter 1306-7, Edward I., 
breathing out vengeance against the Scots, on his last campaign, 
resided here during a long illness ; having, it is thought, occu- 
pied on that occasion the Edwardian tower. In August, 1311, 
Eobert Bruce and his army rested here three days ; and in 1346, 
David II., during an invasion, spoiled it so completely that it 
henceforth relapsed into obscurity.f On the suppression of the 
monasteries the priory and adjacent lands were granted to an 
illegitimate branch of the Dacre family. 

What is called the Chronicle of Lanercost, was the work of a 
friar minor at Carlisle, and has no other connection with the 
place, than that the MS. was preserved in the library of the 
priory. The Chartulary or Eegister of Lanercost is to be found 
in the Transactions of the Eoyal Society of Literature, vol. viii., 
new series.^ 

We re- crossed the Irthing on our return to Naworth, took the 
footpath up a secluded dean in the woods, which ultimately be- 
comes a steep ravine as it winds round behind the castle, and is 
enlivened at the bottom by a little burn, which forks into a 
second " beck". These streams enclose between them the 
elevated tongue of land on which the castle flanked by precipices 
is situated. The following plants were noticed near the path- 
way : — Equisetum Telmeteia {maximum) ; E. syhaticum ; Stellaria 
nemorum ; S. Solostea ; Hieracium horeale ; Mercurialis perennis ; 
Ctrccea Lutetiana ; Asperula odorata ; Lonicera Periclymenum ; 
Viburnum Opulus ; Ajuga reptans ; Eubus suherectus ; Geranium 
Rohertianum ; Melica uniflora ; Polystichum aculeatum ; Vacci% 



* Archseologia iEliana, N.S. vol. vii., p. 83. For the opposite opinion se( 
Jenkinson's Guide, &c., p. 88 ; Sidney Gibson's Northumbrian Castles, iii. 
p. 6. 

t Se© Jenkinson's Guide, pp. 91-92. t Ibid, pp. 89-90. 



280 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Myrtillus ; Fragaria vesca; Lysimachia nemorum; Nepeta Glechoma; 
and Galium Mollugo. Tlie rhododendrons were luxuriant. 
Prunus laurocerasus was mucli injured by late winters. The only- 
bird visible was a wren. Caterpillars, striped green and black, 
were suspended by a thread from the elms ; and afterwards the 
perfect moth was captured by one of the party and proved to be 
Abraxas JJlmata. This species is not uncommon on the Derwent 
near Gibside. 

On arriving at the castle the whole company were mustered, 
and obtaining admission, saw the ancient parts of the building, 
which includes the Warders' gallery, which was Lord William 
Howard's work, and extends along the central block of the 
building, looking out to the south. It contains tapestry and 
family portraits, which mostly came from Castle Howard. The 
articles previously in this gallery were consumed by the fire, 
which partially destroyed the castle in 1844. To abbreviate the 
Eev. Canon Ornsby's account, this gallery, " at its eastern end 
communicates by a newel stair, with the library, oratory, and 
bedroom, which occupy the upper stage of ' Belted Will's' Tower. 
These remain very much in their original state, having been un- 
injured by the fire. An oaken door, of great strength, with 
massive bars and bolts, protects the entrance to these rooms. 
The library still contains a portion of the books and MSS. which 
Lord William collected. The windows are unaltered. They are 
very small and narrow. The roof is very beautiful. It is of low 
pitch. It came from Kirkoswald. In the oratory is a painting, 
dated 1514. It has the Crucifixion in the centre, with the 
Scourging on one side and the Eesurrection on the other." 
There are many other subjects of antiquarian interest in these 
apartments. " The bedroom adjoining has a large stone mantel- 
piece, the armorial bearings carved on which identify this upper 
stage of the tower as the work of Thomas Lord Dacre." The 
outlook from the leads is very extensive. " The Waste of Bew- 
castle, dreary and desolate, lies to the north. On one side are 
the dusky hills of Scotland, on the other side those of Tynedale 
and Eedesdale, in Northumberland. The rich and pleasant 
valley of the Irthing stretches from east to west at the foot of the 
Castle walls, whilst immediately around lie the home grounds, 
the grey walls of the garden, with its rectangular grass walks, 
little altered, probably, since Lord William enclosed and laid it 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 281 

out ; a straight umbrageous walk beyond it, wbich. lie is said to 
have planted, and which bears his name, the wooded ravines 
which skirt the Castle walls, and the park beyond, diversified by 
masses of woodland and scattered groups of venerable trees."* 

Before the great fire, the Castle was roofed with grey flags, 
and they were fastened down with sheep-shanks or "trotter- 
bones" — the metacarpal bones of sheep. "The bones were 
driven into the flag till flush with the upper surface, and sus- 
pended on the rafter by the part projecting below."t 

" The lower stages of this Tower are occupied by dungeons. 
Access to them was provided from the Lord's apartments above. 
It is very possible that in Lord William's time the room or rooms 
immediately under the library and oratory may have been fitted 
up as a place of concealment for a priest. "J 

We were then taken to the noble hall, which belongs to the 
renovated part of the building. The five pieces of tapestry in 
the hall came from Castle Howard. " Along the whole length 
of the hall," says Mr Sidney Gibson, " on each side, heraldic 
shields are displayed on the corbels supporting the ribs of the 
roof. Beginning at the upper (the south) end, there are on the 
eastern side the shields of Howard, Mowbray, Braose, Segrave, 
De Brotherton, Fitzalan, Warren, Tilney, Audley, Uvedale, 
Cavendish ; on the western side, Dacre, De Multon, De Morville, 
Vaux, Engaine, Estravers, Greystoke, Grimthorp, Bolebec, De 
Merlay, Boteler — a 

' Long array of mighty shadows.' 
The hall contains many family portraits, and several pieces of 
armour. "§ What is called Belted Will's armour is too short and 
small for persons of the bulk of the present day. 

A very old jasmine spreads over the doorway of the great hall, 
which has awakened the poetical susceptibilities of three succes- 
sive earls of Carlisle. The Castle-court is said to be the scene of 
Frith's painting, " Coming of Age in the Olden Time." On the 
walls of the court, Polypodium vulgare, Parietaria diffusa, and 
Linaria Cymbala/ria were growing. 

* Introduction to Lord William Howard's Household Books, pp. Ixx, Ixxi, 
and Ixvii. 

t On Trotter Koofing. By Professor Duns, D.D. Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1880, pp. 180, 181. 

X Introduction to Lord William Howard's Household Books, p. Lxxi, 
§ Gibson's Northumbrian Castles, &c., iii., pp. 40, 41. 



282 Beport of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Tke antique garden appears to grow little more tlian vegetables 
for the bousebold. Tbe apple-trees were old and decayed at the 
top. By way of ornament there were a few old yews clipped 
into pyramidal shapes ; there were few flowers, and these be- 
longed to a past age of gardening. There were some bright 
looking phloxes ; Solomon's seal ; and the single CheUdonium 
maj'us ; and there was a little rockery with wild ferns at the en- 
trance. " On the walk outside the eastern wall of the Castle, 
and near ' Lord William's Tower,' a noble old yew-tree stands 
on the edge of the declivity — a venerable contemporary of the 
founders of Naworth Castle." So says Mr Gibson, but from in- 
adequate information, none of us saw it. 

To give the history of Naworth would be altogether superflu- 
ous. Eather let me quote from Canon Ornsby's Introduction to 
Lord William Howard's Household Books, published by the 
Surtees Society, a few paragraphs that will be new to most mem- 
bers of the Club, in vindication of Lord William from misrepre- 
sentations of his history, that are constantly being repeated, and 
which Sir Walter Scott by giving them the sanction of his 
authority, has rendered still more widely credited. 

" The year in which Lord William actually made Naworth 
Castle his residence cannot be fixed with absolute precision. 
Here, at all events, he was certainly living in 1607. From that 
time until his death it was his chief residence, and the place 
around which there has been such* an outgrowth of traditions 
respecting him." — "By the name of Belted Will, he is now popu- 
larly known, and by the title of Lord Warden he is still tradition- 
ally designated. Tradition tells us also, and the statement finds 
a place even in the sober pages of the historian, that he main- 
tained a garrison of 140 men at Naworth; whilst stories based 
upon the rough and ready chastisement which he is supposed to 
have meted out to the banditti who infested that wild country, 
still meet with unhesitating acceptance and undoubting belief." 

"It is a somewhat ungrateful task to throw the light of his- 
torical evidence upon wild and picturesque legends which, in 
successive generations, have charmed the ear of eager childhood, 
when told by some hoary grand-sire or some ancient grand-dame, 
to a listening group around the winter hearth. But legends 
these really are, so far, at least, as Lord William is concerned. 
The popular idea which prevails concerning him, even amongst 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 283 

educated people, is as purely imaginary as Sir Walter Scott's 
portraiture of his outward man. He never was Lord Warden. 
Sucli an appointment, with Elizabeth's feelings towards the 
Howards, could not have taken place whilst she occupied the 
throne, and after the accession of James I,, George, the third 
earl of Cumberland, was selected to succeed Thomas Lord Scrope, 
and was the last who filled that high office. He died in 1605, 
and the government of the Borders appears to have been subse- 
quently vested in Commissioners, who were partly Scotch and 
partly English, appointed by the Crown. The first Commission 
in which Lord William Howard's name appears is in the year 
1618. Previous to the issuing of this Commission Lord William 
Howard possessed, apparently, no office which gave him any 
peculiar authority." " There is no evidence whatever of a garri- 
son being maintained at Naworth." 

" Equally improbable is the tradition which pourtrays Lord 
William as promoting or maintaining order in the country by 
means of the sharp and summary procedure of martial law. 
There is not a trace of his having acted at any time in such a 
manner. That he was active and energetic in bringing marauders 
to justice there can be no question, but it was justice administered 
by the law of the land. The very list, drawn up by his own 
hand, of those offenders who expiated their offences by death, 
during many years of his residence at Naworth, goes to prove 
this. In many cases the place of their execution is noted ; some 
suffered at Durham, some at Newcastle, not a few at Carlisle, 
and others in Scotland, showing that they were brought to trial 
at the assizes in the ordinary way." 

" These traditions belong really to an earlier time. They be- 
long to a time when the banner of the Dacre, with its silver scal- 
lops (upon a martiall red), still proudly waved over the towers 
of Naworth. They were stories half -fact and half -legend, asso- 
ciated in the first instance with the powerful chieftains who, for 
two generations, had been entrusted with the powers of Lord 
Warden of the Western Marches, and who unquestionably main- 
tained a garrison of resolute and faithful retainers within the 
walls of Naworth, always ready to raise the wild shout of ' A 
Daker, a Daker ! a read bull, a read bull !' and to rush with as 
much eagerness to a raid upon the Scottish Border as though it 
were a scene of joyous pastime."* 

* Introduction, &c., pp. xxi.-xxx. 1 J 



284 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

Canon Ornsby has also satisfactorily shewn that Lord William 
died at Greystock Castle either on or about October 7th, 1640; 
not of the plague, but from natural decay, and that he was buried 
in Greystock church.* 

During the Club's short stay at Gilsland, but a slight acquain- 
tance could be formed with the Natural History of the neigh- 
bourhood. Saxifraga aizoides was seen on the dripping shale 
strata approaching to the Spa — Vicia sylvatica and Rubus saxatilis 
grow among the rocky scaurs of the Irthing, Bird-cherry ap- 
peared on the haugh opposite the Spa. A broad-leaved helle- 
borine, without flowers {Epipactis, sp.), was gathered in the 
woods ; and Neottia Nidus-avis grows there. Galium horeale and 
Equisetum variegatum are both recorded for Wardrew. Mr 
Parkin, photographer, now of Wakefield, brought a plant of 
Asplenium viride from Cramel Linn on the Irthing to shew to the 
Club. It was once plentiful there, but has been nearly all carried 
off, except from inaccessible positions. Hypericum humifusum 
was got in the fields near Gilsland, and again near Naworth. 
The Primula farinosa was said to bloom profusely in marshes near 
Brampton. With regard to birds, Mr Parkin said that wheat- 
ears built frequently in the stone- walls near the Eailway Station ; 
that stone-chats were not rare ; but whin-chats were scarce. The 
gray wagtail is common, on the Irthing. The titlark was known. 
Of the titmice, besides the common species, the cole, and the long- 
tailed tits occur at Gilsland ; the marsh titmouse is scarce. When 
the galls produced on the spruce firs by Adelges Abietis open to 
allow the insects which develope within them to escape, the trees 
present a busy scene, for the young tits watch their exit, and do 
all they can to clean the trees. The merlin builds regularly on 
the top of the clifPs in the dean at Gilsland. The rough-legged 
buzzard was a visitant, a few years since. In addition to gnats 
and midges, the Simuliimi midge bites severely. 

When Gilsland Spa came into vogue does not appear. It was 
much frequented before 1753, when the third edition of Gibson's 
Camden was in the press (fol. 1038). Its early name then was 
Wardrew Spa. Wardrew house was built in 1752, on the site of 
one much older, and is situated in Thirlwall township, in North- 
umberland, on a wooded eminence on the opposite banks of the 
river to the hotel. The poet Burns visited it in June, 1787 — 
* Introduction, &c., p. Ixiv, 



Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 285 

"Left Newcastle early and rode over a fine country to Hexham 
to breakfast, from Hexham to Wardrew tbe celebrated Spa 
where we slept." It was at Wardrew that Sir Walter Scott first 
met with his future spouse. A pane of glass in one of the win- 
dows, with Sir Walter's name upon it, said to have been written 
by himseK, was taken out by Mr Hodgson Hinde, when he rented 
the house, owing to the annoyance caused by the hundreds of 
strangers who visited the place to see the writing.*" 

The "Popping-Stone," the scene of his courtship, was duly 
visited. He has sketched it in the Introduction to " The Bridal 
of Triermain." 

" Come, rest th.ee on thy wonted seat ; 
Moss'd is the stone, the turf is green," &c. 

A modern piece of superstition is developed here. The stone 
is now only one half its original size, portions of it having been 
chipped off by foolish visitors, under the belief that when placed 
under the pillows of the unmarried of the fair sex, dreams of 
their future partners will be vouchsafed to them.f 

Not very long since a remnant of well- worship survived here. 
"Within my own recollection," writes the Eev. G. Eome Hall, 
"the yearly pilgrimage to Gilsland Wells (there are both a 
chalybeate and a sulphur medicinal water here) on the Sunday 
after old Midsummer Day, called the Head Sundaj', and the Sun- 
day after it, was a very remarkable survival of the ancient cultus 
of primitive times. Hundreds, if not thousands, used to assemble 
there from all directions by rail when that was available, and by 
vehicles and on foot otherwise. They were wont to walk or drive 
annually at the summer solstice, even from North Tynedale, the 
neighbourhood of Wark and Birtley, to Fourstones, and thence 
by railway to liose Hill Station, that they might take, uncon- 
sciously, it may be hoped, their part in a heathen solem- 
nity."t 

" The Shawes," the name of the hotel, was a farm in the manor 
of Triermaine, in 1621 and 1633. Wardrew was a farm in 1633.§ 
Edmund Carrock was tenant of Shawes, 4th Oct., 1609, being one 
of those who resigned to his lord the claim of tenant right, 

* Jenkinson's Guide, p. 61. t Ibid, p. 68. 

X On Modern Survivals of Ancient Well-worship in North Tynedale, 
Archseolog. ^liana, N. S. viii., p. 72. 

§ Household Book of Lord William Howard, pp. 155, 182, 279, 288-9. 



286 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

preferred by the border-farmers at that period, alleging that 
they held their allotments by a fixed tenure for border services.* 

The anniversary meeting was held in the King's Arms Hotel, 
Berwick, October 13th. There were present — the Eev. J. F. 
Bigge, M.A,, fStamfordham, who officiated as chairman ; Mr 
Hardy, Secretary ; Mr Middlemas, Treasurer ; Eevs. William 
Dobie, M. A., Lady kirk ; Ambrose Jones, M.A., Stannington ; 
Duncan McLean, B.D., Allanton ; and E. Hopper Williamson, 
M.A., Whickham ; Drs Eobert Carr Fluker, Berwick ; John 
Paxton, Norham ; and Henry Eichardson, Berwick ; Lieut.-Col. 
Grossman, C.M.G., E.E. ; Captain Forbes, E.N., and Capt. Nor- 
man, E.N., Berwick ; Messrs Thomas Arkle, Highlaws ; E. Q-. 
Bolam and Greorge Bolam, Berwick ; Andrew Brotherston, Kelso ; 
M. T. Culley of Coupland Castle ; Thomas Darling, Berwick ; 
Eobert Douglas, Berwick ; James Greenfield, Eeston ; James 
Heatley, Alnwick ; William H. Johnson, Edinburgh ; Peter 
Loney, Marchmont ; W. G. Macdonald, M.A., Berwick ; James 
Nicholson, Murton ; Thomas Patrick, Berwick ; James Purves, 
Berwick ; Adam Eobertson, Alnwick ; William Shaw, Eyemouth ; 
John Thomson, Kelso ; William Wilson, Berwick ; Matthew 
Young, Berwick. 

A number of members from a distance, who had arrived on the 
previous evening, had enjoyed the advantage of examining Mr 
Bolam's valuable collection of books and documents relative to 
Northumbrian history, antiquities and topography. In the 
morning, by appointment, they went to Spittal to see the artificial 
manure works of Messrs Grossman and Paulin, and not only ac- 
quainted themselves with the processes in the manufacture which 
the various substances employed undergo, but enjoyed the trip 
by water across "Tweed's fair river broad and deep," when 
augmented by the full tide. They afterwards assembled in the 
Museum, where Col. Grossman in explaining the Map of the old 
fortifications of Berwick, drew attention to the fact, that Berwick 
had once a " Eottenrow," which passed Eavensdown from the 
" Palace" towards another notable place in ancient Berwick. 

* Houseliold Book of Lord William Howard, p. 413. At the same period 
Eichard Carrock was occupant of " Lawe Burdoswald," and John Carrock of 
Wrigarth. Margaret Carrick, whose soubriquet was " Meg of Mumps Hall," 
who died 4th Dec, 1717, aged one hundred years, " the last of the iron race 
of the olden time," was probably of this stock. See more about her ia " Guy 
Mannering." 



Export of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 287 

In the course of the day, a number of members visited Mrs 
Carter's residence in Berwick, to view the numerous drawings 
and other relics which she has so carefully preserved. While 
searching among some old family papers recently Mrs Carter 
came upon two important documents, and these she laid before 
the members. One paper was a copy of the order of battle given 
on board the Victory by Nelson, on September 29, 1805, and the 
other Lord Collingwood's thanks to the officers and seamen the 
day after the battle, October 22, 1805. These copies were sup- 
plied to the commanders of the various ships in the British Fleet, 
and came into the possession of Mrs Carter's father, Dr Johnston, 
through her uncle, who was on board the Eoyal Sovereign, under 
Lord Collingwood, on the day of the great battle. There was 
also on exhibition a picture of ancient Berwick (sent for the in- 
spection of the members by Mr E. Willoby), shewing the ruins 
of the castle, the English gate, the bell tower, &c. Miss Dickin- 
son, Norham, had, as usual, brought a selection of her clever 
and numerous drawings of plants, as well as specimens of the 
winter moth in all its stages, from the caterpillar to the full- 
grown moth. The caterpillar of this moth ( Cheimatolia hrumata) 
was last year, it will be remembered, very destructive to goose- 
berries, eating its way into the heart of the berry and ruining 
the fruit. 

At one o'clock the members met in the billiard-room of the 
King's Arms Hotel ; the Eev. J. F. Bigge presiding in the ab- 
sence of the retiring president, Mr Charles Watson, whom 
necessary business had called elsewhere. The Secretary then 
proceeded to tead the Anniversary Address, which concluded by 
Mr Watson nominating the Eev. Thomas Brown, F.E.S.E., 
Edinburgh, as his successor. The nomination was agreed to, 
and Mr Brown's letter accepting the office was read. He then 
read abridged notices of the meetings held throughout the season. 

Meetings for 1881 were appointed to be held at the following 
places : — Dunbar for Belton, Biel, and Presmennan, on the last 
Wednesday in May ; Grant's House and Abbey St. Bathans for 
the Jubilee Meeting in June ; Elsdon and Otterburn, July ; 
Kelso, to meet the Durham and Northumberland Archaeological 
Society, in August ; Innerleithen for Traquair and the Glen, in 
September ; Berwick, in October. 

The following were duly proposed and seconded, and, along 



288 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

with those nominated at other meetings during the year, were 
admitted members of the Club : — Eev. Thomas Ilderton of Ilder- 
ton ; Dr Edwin Thew, Alnwick ; Mr Thomas Walby, Alnwick ; 
Mr William Newton Morrison, New Bewick ; Mr William Alder, 
Berwick ; Eev. Charles Baldwin. Berwick ; Mr Eobert Weddell, 
Berwick ; Mr George Weatherhead, Berwick. Miss Eussell of 
Ashiesteel was elected an honorary member of the Club. 

Mr Middlemas, Treasurer, stated that the total income for the 
past year had been £99 6s, while the expenditure amounted to 
£116 odds, leaving a balance due to the treasurer of £5 2s 2d. 
The Club had £53 on deposit receipt, which, with the accrued 
interest, was available. The arrears were stated to amount to 
£45, and, on the suggestion of the treasurer, a resolution was 
passed unanimously enjoining members to pay their subscriptions 
regularly when applied for. 

Mr Bigge suggested Fungi as a special study for some of the 
members, who might bring to the meetings selections of edible 
and poisonous fungi. The suggestion met with general approval. 

Mr Brotherston stated that he had found the petty whin, Vlex 
Gain near East Fodderlie, between Eule and Jed waters. Mr 
Tait of Eglingham, a few years since, noticed Ulex Galii on 
Beanley moor, Northumberland. Mr Brotherston brought speci- 
mens of Polytrichum strictum, Doecleuch, Sept. 9, 1880; Hypnum 
fluitans, Skelfhill, Sept., 1880 ; Sphagnum ruhellum, Primside Bog, 
March 30, 1879; Jungermannia Floerkii, Nees., Skelfhill-pen, 
Sept., 1880 ; Gymnomitrium concinnatum, SkeKhiU-pen, Sept., 
1880. 

Mr Watson had sent for exhibition a plain gold ring, which 
had been turned up by the plough on the farm of Cairncross in 
1875. The ring had been caught up by the point of the sock, 
and was much thinned and rubbed before it was detected. On 
the inside in a writing hand of the 16th or 17th century, is cut 
this inscription : "I bleise god my best abod." Mr Watson has 
also a spindle-whorl, which has been painted black, which is 
labelled : " Stone for keeping Witches off Cattle, brought from 
Billie in 1748 to Bankend, by John Landels (1834)." 

Five members of the Club have died during the year — 1. Capt. 
Charles Gandy, Alnwick. 2. The Eev. Eobert Orange Bromfield, 
minister of Sprouston, who died at Strathpeffer, August 28th, 
1880, in the 37th year of his ministry there, having been 



Beport of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 289 

transferred from Lanarkshire, in 1843. He was a native of Bel- 
ford. Mr Bromfield was widely known as a pomologist, and took 
a great interest in horticultural matters generally. In these de- 
partments he had few equals, and his contributions to the 
journals devoted to these subjects were highly valued. The 
manse garden was a model, and shewed in an unmistakeable 
manner his unusual skill. Apples of his raising were in great 
request. He had visited Australia and India and made the tour 
of the Holy Land. He was a faithful and kind-hearted minister, 
an elegant and effective preacher, a deeply-read scholar, and a 
firm friend. References to Mr Bromfield may be found in Mr 
William Henderson's "■ Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties," 
and "My Life as an Angler." 3. John Ord of Over-Whitton, 
who died 30th September, 1880, in his 70th year; a prominent 
and useful country gentleman and magistrate In private life 
Mr Ord was esteemed as few men are, and his counsel was much 
sought and ever readily accorded. 4. Alexander Crosbie, M.D., 
an eminent medical officer in the Eoyal Navy, and surgeon to the 
Challenger expedition, who died at Haslar Hospital, Gosport, on 
the 16th November, 1880, in his 46th year. Dr Crosbie was a 
son of Mr Thomas Crosbie, long of Kelso Mills, and was educated 
at the Kelso Grammar School. When on board the Challenger 
he never neglected any opportunity offered for study and re- 
search, and his observations were often fortunate, and always 
made with discrimination and skill. While on the expedition his 
native town was not forgotten, and the numerous articles he pre- 
sented to the Kelso Museum will long be regarded with peculiar 
pride. 5. The Eev. Samuel Arnot Fyler, Rector of Cornhill, 
who died November 2nd, 1880, aged 77. Mr Fyler was the 
eldest son of Samuel Fyler, Esq., of Twickenham, Middlesex, by 
his second wife. Miss Arnot, a Scottish lady of the family of the 
Arnots of Balcormo, Fifeshire. The late Hugo and Dr David 
Boswall Eeid were his cousins. In 1834, Mr Fyler was nomin- 
ated by the Dean and Chapter of Durham to Cornhill, which he 
held continuously for 46 years. His care for his parish is at- 
tested by the restoration of the fabric of his church, and by the 
improvements of his schools. His only publication was a 
brochure in 1850, entitled, " A Brief History of Church Eates." 
He became a member of the Club, June 25th, 1 849 ; and wrote 
for its " Proceedings," vol. vi., pp. 344-348, " A brief History of 



290 Report of Meetings for 1880, by James Hardy. 

the Village of Cornliill." 6. Mr William Chartres, died at his 
residence, Summerhill, A3rfcon, 5th December, 1880, aged 71. He 
was the second son of Thomas Chartres, who was for a long time 
a merchant in Berwick, and who was elected mayor of the 
borough in 1832. His son William was enrolled as a freeman, 
Jan. 1st, 1830, and served his time as a solicitor. At the time of 
his death he was one of the oldest solicitors of Newcastle, his ad- 
mission dating from 1832. Mr Chartres was head of the firm of 
Chartres, Youll, and Wilkinson, but it is some time since he re- 
tired from the active practice of his profession. Mr Chartres had 
a highly cultivated mind, and was well-known for his amiable 
and kind-hearted disposition. He was fond of flowers and 
gardening. Till latterly when he came to reside at Ayton, he 
had not much opportunity to attend the Club's meetings ; but he 
felt a great interest in the Club's prosperity. He joined the 
Club, June 25, 1863. 



291 

Notes on Relics of Alexander Wilson, Poet and Ornitholo- 
gist, exhibited at a Meeting of the Berwickshire Natural- 
ists' Club, held at Dunbar, 26th May, 1880. By Robert 
Gray, F.R.S.E., Secretary of the Royal Physical Society. 

(\. Portrait with Autograph ; 2. Letter addressed to Miss Sarah 
Miller ; 3. Original drawing of Hermit Thrush ; 4. 3S Proof- 
Plates of Wilson's Work on Birds ; 5. Rough Medallion 
Portrait ; 6. Photograph of Wilson's Grave. J 

More than 90 years ago Alexander Wilson, the well-known 
poet and ornithologist, in passing through this town (Dunbar), 
made the following entry in his journal : — 

" Septem. 24, 1789. — This morning rose early to take a view of 
the town of Dunbar, which is pretty large ; the main street, 
broad and running from north to south, contains the only build- 
ings of any note. The Provost's house closes the view at the 
north end fronted with a row of trees making a very neat ap- 
pearance. Several narrow lanes lead down to the shore, chiefly 
possessed by fishers. At the west end of the harbour they have 
lately built a battery of stone in the form of a half moon, mount- 
ing seventeen twelve-pounders. This is the effect of Paul Jones' 
appearance in the Firth last war, who came so near this place 
with some of his ships as to demolish some of the chimney tops 
and put the inhabitants in a terrible consternation. They are 
also building a new pier from the battery, which will certainly 
be attended with a vast expense, and even without affording 
general content. A little to the west of this are still to be seen 
the ruins of the Castle of Dunbar, built on a rock that Juts into 
the sea, hollowed with gloomy caves, through which, in a storm, 
the waves roar horribly ; which, joined to the ruins above, forms 
a most dismal appearance." 

Again on the following day : — 

" Septem. 25. — Having done some little business in this place, 
and there being no other town to the east or south, for a con- 
siderable way, have bargained with the master of a sloop with 
whom I intend to embark for Burntisland, in Fifeshire, a town 
about thirty miles from this and almost opposite Edinburgh." 

Then a day later : — 

** Septem. 26. — Went on board early this morning for Burnt- 
island with a good gale astern ; passed the Bass and several 

IK 



292 Notes on Belies of Alex. Wilson, by Robert Gray. 

other small islands, and landed at Burntisland after a pleasant 
passage of six hours." 

"Wilson was then a Pedlar from Paisley, in very humble circumstances, and 
gave but little indication of possessing such talents as distinguished him in 
after life. We all, I daresay, know his subsequent history as given by 
various biographers ; how he was compelled to leave his native town and pro- 
ceed to America, in which country he landed without a shilling and without 
a friend ; how he resumed his business as a pedlar, and how, after many 
vicissitudes, he ultimately betook himself to the study of American Birds, and 
produced a work which has rendered his name famous throughout the world. 
The descriptive power shewn in this book has never been surpassed ; and 
when it is remembered that but few works on the Birds of America had pre- 
viously been written, "Wilson's extraordinary courage in carrying out the task 
he had chosen for himself seems, even at this distance of time to be one of the 
most wonderful instances of enthusiasm on record. The years of solitude he 
spent in the woods and wastes of his adopted country, the many thousands of 
miles he travelled by river and by land in quest of birds, and the triumphant 
results of his wanderings in the publication of his great work, of which 
America is so justly proud, are incidents in the life of "Wilson, which throw 
an air of romance over his scientific career, and invest with a peculiar interest 
all that belonged to him. Impressed with the truth of this, I have the 
pleasure of submitting for the inspection of the members of the Club on the 
occasion of our meeting at Dunbar, one or two memorials of this remarkable 
man. These are mainly a few proof plates of his " American Ornithology, or 
the Natural History of the Birds of the "United States," and an original 
drawing of the Solitary Thrush (Tu7'dus soUtariusJ which he had cut so as to 
replace one of the figures in another of his plates. The relics formed part of 
the contents of a trunk left by his will to Miss Sarah Miller — a lady to whom 
"Wilson would in due time have been married. This trunk contained among 
other things his deed of settlement, pistols, saddle bags, paint box, brushes, 
and colours, books, impressions of the plates for his work on American Birds, 
original drawings, &c. Many of these articles which were left by "Wilson 
himself I have seen along with other relics that had subsequently been placed 
in the trunk by Miss MiUer, who afterwards became Mrs Eittenhouse, and 
who preserved the whole with jealous care until her death. Of these, I have 
brought to the meeting his portrait with autograph and a letter written by 
him to the lady in question, during one of his long excursions in search of 
material for his great work. They were given to me by the late Dr "W. P. 
TurubuU of Philadelphia, who purchased the trunk and the whole of its con- 
tents from the widow of a son of Mrs Eittenhouse, in 1869. I remember ex- 
amining with much interest a presentation copy of his Poems, which was 
found among Mrs Eittenhouse's effects, and which was fuU of annotations ia 
"Wilson's handwriting. I observed that the author, with a sensitive regard 
to his former occupation, had erased with his knife every reference to his 
tramps as a pedlar. His evident desire was that he should be looked upon as 
a lover of birds, and not long afterwards when the hand of death was upon 
him, this desire was even more apparent in his oft expressed wish that he 
might be laid where the birds might sing over his grave. 



293 



List of Plants from the neighbourhood of Gordon. 

The first portion of this List has been drawn up by Dr Chas. 
Stuart, Chirnside, with the co-operation of Mr Sadler, of the 
Plants collected on the day of the Club's meeting at Gordon, in 
June, from the Mellerstain Woods and Gordon Moss : — 

Linnsea borealis, Mellerstain 
woods. 

Goodyera repens, do. 

Listera cor data, do. 

Vicia angustifolia, on edge of 
right hand bog from Gor- 
don. 

Drosera rotundifolia. 

Mollinia coerulea. 

Hydrocotyle vulgaris. 

Pedicularis palustris. 

Briza media. 

Ajuga reptans. 

Viola palustris. 

Orchis latifolia, colours from 
pure white and lilac to 
deep purple. 

0. latifolia, var. incarnata 
(bogs). 

Comarum palustre. 

Menyanthes trifoliata. 

Myosotis ceespitosa. 

M. repens. 

M. versicolor. 

Eanunculus flammula. 

Triglochin palustre. 

Valeriana officinale. 

Montia fontana. 

Lythrum salicaria. 

Genista anglica. 

Mentha aquatilis. 

Eriophorum vaginatum. 

E. polystachion. 

Sparganium natans. 

Habenaria bifolia. 



Hippuris vulgaris. 

Callitriche platycarpa. 

Oarex ovalis. 

C. paniculata. 

C. pulicaris. 

C. panicea. 

C. aquatilis. 

C. glauca. 

C. ampuUacea. 

C. stellulata. 

C. teretiuscula, rare. 

0. curta. 

C. pallescens. 

Catabrosa aquatica, in a ditch 
running north from left 
hand bog (new). 

Utricularia minor, in water 
holes, west end of right 
hand bog from Gordon 
fnew). 

Stellaria glauca, every where 
in the bog, in great 
beauty. 

Botrychium Lunaria, length 
fourteen inches, length of 
flowering stem eight in- 
ches, breadth one-and- 
half inches ; right hand 
bog. 

Lemna trisulca (new). 

L. minor. 

Potamogeton natans. 

P. praelongus. 

P. polygonifolius. 

P. pusillus. 



294 List of Plants from the neighbourhood of Gordon. 



Galium uliginosum. 
Juncus acutifolius. 
Salix repens. 
var. argentea. 



var. fusca. 
Hypnum crista-castrensis. 
Sphagnum cymbifolium. 
Bryum ? 



Mr Beotheeston, who had been early astir, brought to the 
meeting specimens of Linnoea horealis, Lemna trisulca, Sparganium 
minimum, Chara fragilis, Lastrea spinulosa, and Sypnum crista- 
castrensis, Stellaria glauca, Goodyera repens, which he had that 
morning picked up in the course of a walk through part of 
Mellerstain Woods and Gordon Moss, and reported that he had 
seen orpine {Sedum telephium) growing on the roadside. In the 
Moss, Mr Brotherston saw many forms .of Salix cinerea, S. aurita 
and repens with their hybrid amhigua. 8. pentandra, especially 
the narrow-leaved form, was plentiful ; nigricans and phylicifolia 
rarer. A single tree of 8. decipiens was observed on the old 
margin of the bog. 

On the 3rd of August, the Eev. William Stobbs in examining 
Huntly wood, to his great surprise and delight, came upon a 
considerable patch of Linnma horealis in the wood, which furnishes 
a new locality for that botanically classical plant in the South of 
Scotland. Just beside the Linnc&a he came upon the Goodyera 
repens also. In the same situation he got the Pyrola minor. On 
the 18th of August, Mr Stobbs went to the woods in the north- 
east of the parish behind Eawside, and gathered Lister a ovata, 
and a very luxuriant form of a Primula, which is either a cow- 
slip or an oxlip, but not being in flower it could not be deter- 
mined. Lycopodium clavatum grows in one of the plantations 
near the manse. 



List of Lepidopteroj taken in the neighbourhood of Gordon 
Moss. By Mr Egbert Renton, Fans. 

This list comprises the species captured in or near Gordon 
Moss ; and the ground of operations includes two miles west of 
Greenknowe Tower, and a quarter of a mile on each side of the 
Berwickshire Eailway : — 



List of Lepidoptera, by Mr Robert Renton, Fans. 295 



DiURNI. 

Papilio Brassicse. 



Anthocliaris Cardamines ; also 

at Humebyres.* 
Argynnis PapMa. 
Vanessa Urticae. 

Atalanta. 

Cardui. 

Erebia Blandina. 
Satyrus Semele. 
— Janira. 

Hyperanthus. 

Cbortobius Pampliilus. 
Polyommatus Phlseas. 
Lycsena Alexis. 

NOCTURNI, 

Hepialus Hectus. 

Lupulinus. 

Velleda. 

■ — Humuli. 

Nudaria Mundana. 
Chelonia Plantaginis. 

Caja, 

Arctia Menthastri. 
Orgyia Fascelina. 
Bombyx Eubi. 

Quercus. 

Saturnia Carpini. 

Geometr/e. 
Eumia Crataegata. 
Metrocampa Margaritata. 
Ellopia Fasciaria. 
Selenia Illunaria. 
Odontopera Bidentata. 
Boarmia Eepandata. 
Grnophos Obscurata. 
Cabera Pusaria. 



Geometeje, continued. 
Maearia Liturata. 
Halia Wavaria. 
Fidonia Atomaria. 

Piniaria. 

Lomaspilis Marginata. 
Hybernia Eupicapraria. 
Larentia Didymata. 

Ceesiata. 

Peetinitaria. 

Emmelesia Affinitata. 

Albulata. 

Melanippe Tristata. 

Unangulata. 

Montanata. 

Camptogramma Bilineata. 
Cidaria Miata. 

Eussata. 

Inamanata. 

Suffumata. 

Prunata. 

Fulvata. 

Eubolia Oervinaria. 

Mensuraria. 

Palumbaria. 

Anaitis Plagiata. 

Drepanulid^. 
Platypteryx Faleula. 

PSEUDO-BOMBYCES. 

Notodonta Ziczac. 

NOCTTJ^. 

Acronyeta Tridens. 
Gortyna Flavago, 
Hydrsecia Nictitans. 
Xylopbasia Eurea. 

Polyodon. 

Cliarseas Graminis. 



* A specimen of this was captured at Broomdykes by Dr Stuart, July 3, 
1880.— J. H. 



296 A List of Chalcididce, &c., by James Hardy. 



NocTTJ-a;, continued. 
Luperina Testacea. 
Apamea Basilinea. 
Miana Strigilis. 

Fasciuncula. 

Celsena Haworthii. 
Caradrina Cubicularis. 
Agrotis Corticea. 
Trypliaena Janthina. 

Orbona. 

Pronuba. 

Noctua Plecta. 

C-nigrum. 

Eubi. 

Xantbographa. 

Trachea Piniperda. 
Tseniocampa Gothica. 



Nocture, continued. 
Tseniocampa Instabilis. 

Stabilis. 

Oporina Oroceago. 
Polia CM. 
Hadena Adusta. 

Dentina. 

Oleracea. 

Anarta Myrtilli. 
Heliodes Arbuti. 
Plusia Chrysites. 
Bractea. 

Iota. 

V-aureum. 

Gamma. 

Interrogationis. 

Euclidia Mi. 



A List of Chalcididce, Prodotrupidce, and Mymaridce col- 
lected in Berwickshire, and near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
By James Haedy. 

Many years ago I made a collection of the smaller parasitic 
Hymenoptera, cbiefly Cbalcididae and Proctotrupidse, near Pen- 
mansbiel, Berwickshire, and near Newcastle-on-Tyne. These 
were submitted to the late Francis Walkek, Esq., who possessed 
the key to the nomenclature of these minute insects. The speci- 
mens are in my collection. As it is not probable that any one at 
present will take up the study, I give these lists as a small con- 
tribution to a knowledge of the distribution of the species. Ex- 
cept a few Northumbrian Chalcididse collected by the late Dr 
GrevUle of Edinburgh, at Twizell House, and described by Mr 
Walker in the early volumes of the " Annals of Natural History," 
there are no Border species on record. The Newcastle insects 
were chiefly taken by the sides of the Derwent above Winlaton 
Mill, in the Eavensworth woods or grounds, and on the coast 
near Marsden. I have only added the authorities, so far as I 
know them, for the names that belong to other authors than Mr 
Walker. 



A List of Chalcididce, &c., by James Hardy. 297 



Eurytoma curta. 

Argele. 

Isosoma angustatum. 

' Laothoe. 

Decatoma cynipsea, Boh. 

=Aspilus, Walk. 
Callimome flavipes. 

varians. 

confinis. 

. mutabilis. 

apicalis. 

versicolor. 

AsapMs senea, Nees. 
Cyrtogaster vulgaris. 
Pachylarthrus flavicornis, Hal. 

patellanus, Dalm 

Dicyclus fuscicornis. 

cinctipes. 

Toxeuma Ericse. 
Merismus rufipes. 
Lamprotatus rufipes. 
obscurus. 



BERWICKSHIRE. 

CLASS INSEOTA. 

Order Hymenoptera. 

Fam. Chalcidid-s;. 

Pteromalus viridulus. 

microcerus. 

subniger. 

muscarum, Z. 

hemipterus. 

albipennis. 

b alius, 

constans. 

discolor. 



[Found in a house.] 

conifer. 

Ariomedes. 

■ — Naubolus. 

Leodocus. 

Vibullius. 

Leogoras. 



maculatus. 

fuscipes. 

Babilus. 



viridis. 

Seladerma convexum. 
Semiotus diversus. 
Platymesopus tibialis. 
Pteromalus prasinus. 

modestus. 

dubius. 

deplanatus, Nees. 

=domesticus, Walk. 

epistenus. 

perpetuus. 



Cbeiropacbus pulchellus. 
Encyrtus melanopus, Hal. 
Entodon Zanara. 

Eubius. 

Alcoeus. 

Eulopbus lapetus. 

Myodes. 

lantbea. 

Alaparus. 

Leodomas. 

Mandron. 

Amempsinus. 

Westwoodii, Step. 

sericeicornis, Nees. 

=Eneugainus, Walk. 
Cirrospilus elegantissimus, 

Westw. 
Tetrasticbus Sotades. 

Mutilia. 

Anteius. 



298 A List of Ghalcididce, &c., by James Hardy. 



NEWCASTLE- UP0N-T7NE. 

Family Chalcididje. 



Eurytoma Abrotani. 

apicalis. 

brevicollis, ITal. 

Isosoma verticillata, III. 



angustipenne. 

=- minor. 

angustatum. 

dissimile, 

depressum. 

Laothoe. 

Callimome terminalis. 



nigricornis. 

mutabilis. 

posticus. 



[Bred from Spiraea Ulmaria.] 
Asaphis eenea, Nees. 
Gastrancistus vagans, Westw. 

Panares. 

Pacbylarthrus flavicornis, Hal. 
Lamprotatus rufipes. 

obscnrus. 

macnlatus. 

bortensis, Curtis. 

fuscipes. 

Babilus. 



cbrysocblorus, Hal, 

annularis, Curt. 

fuscipennis, 

obscuripennis. 

tarsalis, 

diffinis. 

Scoticus. 

Seladerma Lalage. 
Isocyrtus Isetus. 
Pacbyneuron Pytbocles. 
Micromelus pyrrbogaster, Hal. 
Meraporus graminicola. 
Pteromalus f asciiventris, Westw. 
— tibialis, Westw. 



Pteromalus modestus. 

dubius. 

intermedins. 

gracilis. 



— sequester. 

— famulus. 



constans. 

pulcbripes. 

Mutia. 

Ceropasades. 

Carcinus. 

Ampbimedon. 

Nestocles. 

Cercobelus Jugoeus. 
Encyrtus Pappus. 

Batillus. 

Pbitbra. 

Apbelinus basalis, 
Entedon gemmeus, Westw. 

Mera. 

Sparetus. 

Eubius. 

Epigonus. 

Coenus. 



Lyoeus. 

Alcceus 

Pbruron. 

Ergius. 

Abdera. 

Afranius. 

Lycambes. 

Euderus Ampbis. 
Elecbestus Apbaca. 
Eulopbus ramicornis, 

— Callidius. 

Hedila. 

Acalle. 

Dropion. 



Fah. 



A List of Ghalcididce, <&;c., by James Hardy. 



299 



Euloplius Pisidice. 
— Meriones. 



— Metalarus. 

— Amempsinus. 

— Ehoecus. 

— sericeicornis, Nees. 
=Eneugamus, Walh.^' 

— Euedoresclius. 



Cirrospilus vittatus. 
elegantissimus, 



Westw. 



Diallus. 



Tetrastichus Evonymellae, 
Bouche. 

Xixutkrus. 

— ' — Brunus. 

Eapo. 

[Bred from Spiraea Ulmaria.] 

Nerio. 

Tymber. 

Hippis. 

Emesa. 

Zoilus. 

Orsillus. 

Ehode. 



Fam. Pkoctotrupid^. 



Aphelopus Daos. 
Drymus Alorus. 
Antaeon Penidus. 
Bethylus cenopterus, Latr. 

fuscicornis, Jur. 

Labeo excisus. 
Microps Eubi. 
Teleas Lycaon. 
Platygaster ruficornis, Latr. 

Nereus. 

Tarus. 

Orus. 

■ Cotta. 

Catillus. 



Platygaster SoncMs. 

Eoboris. 

Acrisius. 

— elongatus. 

Tisius. 

Dermades. 

Olorus. 

Otreus. 

Manto. 

Cliodseus. 

lolas. 



Fam. Mymarid^. 
Lymsenon litoralis. 
Polynema fumipennis. 
atratus. 

Besides these I find among tbe minute Ichneumons, Platymis- 
chus dilatatus, Eemiteles areator, Pezomachus agilis, P. vagans, and 
P. hicolor, from the Newcastle district. 

* I give the synonym on the authority of the late A. H. Haliday, Esq., a 
most accomplished entomologist, with whose correspondence I was long 
favoured, 

XL 



300 

A Notice of some rare Books by Morpeth Authors, contained 
in the Library of the Morpeth Mechanics' Institution. 
By Mr James Fergusson, Morpeth. 

In tlie library of Morpeth Mechanics' Institution there is a 
small collection of rare and interesting works by Morpeth 
authors. They were given by William Woodman, Esq., Stob- 
hill, as part of a memorial gift by the Barony of Morpeth, in re- 
membrance of George W. F., seventh earl of Carlisle. They are 
as follows : — 

" A New Hebball, wherin are conteyned the names of Herbes 
in Greke, Latin, English, Duch, Frenche, and in the Potecaries 
and Herbaries Latin, with the Properties, Degrees, and Naturall 
places of the same, gathered and made by Wylliam Turner 
Phisicion unto the Duke of Somersettes Grace. Imprinted at 
London by Steven Mierdman, Anno 1551. Cum priuilegio ad 
impremendum solum. And they are to be solde in Paulles 
Churchyarde. 

"The Seconde Parte of UUilliam Turners herball, wherin 
are conteyned the names of herbes in Greke, Latin, Duche, 
Frenche, and in the Apothecaries Latin, and somtyme in Italiane, 
wyth the vertues of the same herbes, wyth diuerse confutationes 
of no small errours, that men of no small learning have committed 
in the intreatinge of herbes of late yeares. 

" Hereunto is ioyned also a booke of the bath of Baeth in Eng- 
lande, and of the vertues of the same with diuerse other bathes 
most holsum and effectual, boLh in Almany and Englande, set 
f urth by William Turner Doctor of Physic. Imprinted at Collen 
by Arnold Birckman. In the yeare of our Lorde MDLXII. 

"A Booke op the Natures and properties, as well of the 
bathes in England as of other bathes in Germany and Italy, very 
necessary for all seik persones that cannot be healed without the 
helpe of natural bathes, gathered by William Turner Doctor of 
Physik. Imprinted at Collen in the year of our Lorde MDLXII." 

"The Names of herbes in Greke, Latin, Englishe, Duche and 
Frenche wyth the commune names that Herbaries and Apotecaries 
use. Gathered by William Turner." 

The former of these two volumes is a handsome well-preserved 
folio, and includes the first and second parts of the Herbal and 
the Book of the Baths. The late Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, Bart., 



Rare Books by Morpeth Authors, by Jas. Fergusson. 301 

of Wallington, had a copy of the second part dated 1568, but on 
comparing it with the copy here described, he found it was the 
same edition, even to the " Fautes and errours," with a new title 
page. Along with Sir "Walter's copy of the second part, there 
was bound up a third part of the Herbal. Sir Walter got his 
copy at the sale of the library of the Eev, John Hodgson, the 
Historian of Northumberland. The second of the two volumes 
is a small (duodecimo) book of 166 pages. It is dedicated " To 
the mooste noble and mighty Prince Edward by the Grace of 
God Duke of Summerset," &c., &c., and is dated from "Your 
Grace's House at Syon, Anno Dom. MCCCCCXVIIL, Martii 
XV." The imprint is at the end as follows : — "Imprinted at 
London by John Day and "Wyllyam Seres, dwellynge in 
Sepulchres Parish at the sign of the Eesurrection, a little above 
Hoibourne Conduite." 

"A Brief and General Account of the most necessary and 
fundamental Principles of fc^tatics, Mechanics, Hydrostatics, and 
Pneumatics ; adapted more especially to a course of experiments 
perform'd at Morpeth, in the County of Northumberland. By 
John Horsley, A.M. Newcastle upon Tine : printed by John 
White for the Author." 

This is a small 12mo of 72 pages with MS. additions respecting 
the Author. 

" Vows LN Trotjele, or a Plain and Practical Discourse concern- 
ing the Nature of Vows made in Trouble and the Reasonableness 
and necessity of a faithful Performance of them. By John 
Horsley, A.M. London : Printed for Eichard Ford, at the Angel 
in the Poultry, near Stocks Market, and sold by E. Akenhead, 
Bookseller at Newcastle, 1729." 

This volume is of the same size as the former, and consists of 
108 pages. 

"An Historical Essay on the State of Physick in the Old and 
New Testament, and the Apocryphal Interval : with a particular 
account of the cases mentioned in Scripture and observations 
upon them. To which is added, a Discourse concerning the duty 
of consulting a physician in sickness. By Jonathan Harle, M.D. 
London : Printed for Eichard Ford at the Angel in the Poultry, 
near Stocks-Market 1729." 

With it are bound up — 

' ' Two Discourses : 1 . On the Frailty of Man. 2 . On Conformity 



302 Keyheugh and its " Wishing Well" by Thos. Arkle. 

to Christ. Bj the late Eeverend and Learned Jonathan Harle, 
M.D. To which are added Hymns and Psalms, by the same 
Author. Published at the request of many of his hearers, with 
an account of his Life, and a Sermon preached on occasion of his 
death. By John Horsley, M.A. London, Printed for Eichard 
Ford at the Angel in the Poultry, near Stocks-Market 1730." 

This volume is an octavo, the first part containing 180 pages, 
and the second 132. Eichard Ford appears to have been the 
Nonconformist publisher at that time, for on a fly leaf are adver- 
tised five works, among which there is "Logick" by I. Watts, 
D.D., just published. 

Along with the books described there is a volume of Eeprints 
from Hodgson's Northumberland, containing "Memoirs of the 
Lives of Thomas Gibson, M.D., Jonathan Harle, M.D., John 
Horsley, M.A., F.E.S., and William Turner, M.D." 



The Keyheugh and its " Wishing Well" By Mr Thomas 
Arkle. 

In the Parish of Elsdon, about a mile south of Midgey Ha', 
on a steep hill called Darden, is a perpendicular precipice of 
freestone rock, which is a striking object from the Elsdon and 
Eothbury road, at a point a little to the east of Graslees Mill. 
The rocky face extends to a considerable length, the greatest 
height being about sixty feet. On the southern or higher side 
the ground is level with the top of the cliff, whilst below a large 
area is covered with detached fragments of rock, of all sizes, 
scattered about in the wildest confusion, the whole place present- 
ing clear indications of the tremendous power of glacial action. 

Such is the wild and romantic place called Keyheugh, which, 
though now lonely and deserted, was in olden times the attractive 
Sunday resort of the young people resident in the adjacent 
neighbourhood. At a little distance from the main precipice is 
a Well, on the bottom of which, a century ago, might always 
have been observed a number of pins, or as my informant, who 
had visited the place in his youthful days, expressed himself " a 
heap of pins," each visitor dropping in one to further the fulfil- 
ment of wishes silently breathed over the magic fountain, or as 
an offering to propitiate the genius loci for the unauthorised in- 
trusion into his secluded and romantic territory. 



i 



Notice of Treasure Trove, by J. J. Vernon, F.S.A., Scot. 803 

The name Keyheugh. is probably derived from tbe Saxon 
words caeg, a keyed or blocked-up place, and hou, or heugh, a 
steep and rugged bill ; whilst Darden comes from the British 
dwr, or dur, water, and dun a hill, in corroboration of which 
latter etymology a lake called Darden Lough yet remains in the 
hollow formed by the two highest ridges of the moor. 

Access to Keyheugh in a straight line from the point on the 
Elsdon and Eothbury road, from which it is seen, is toilsome and 
tedious ; but from Midgey Ha' the approach is comparatively 
easy. 

Eighlaws, Morpeth, SOth Oct., 1880. 



Notice of Treasure Trove, February, 1880. By J. J. 
Vernon, F.S.A., Scot., Hawick. 

In February last, whilst a shepherd at Langhope, parish of 
Kirkhope, Selkirkshire, was going his rounds, he discovered in 
a drain a bronze pot partially uncovered by the action of the 
water. Upon unearthing his hnd it was seen to be of bronze, 
urn-shaped, having three legs, and lugs for handles, but without 
lid when discovered. It is ten inches deep, seven inches wide at 
the mouth, and twenty-nine in circumference at the bulge, the 
feet being four inches long. The contents proved to be of con- 
siderable value, as it contained nearly a stone-weight of coins, 
fibulae, &c. The coins were principally silver pennies of Alex- 
ander III., John Balliol, and Eobert Bruce of Scotland, and of 
the contemporary kings of England, besides a number of pence 
struck on the Continent. What jewellery there was may never 
be known, but there were disposed of in Hawick two silver 
buckles of excellent workmanship and design— see Plate — 
the larger of which weighed 615 grains, and the other 244 
grs. There was also a finger ring of silver having the inscrip- 
tion JESU NAZAE -|- ; a massive silver pin, and a portion of 
plate, use unknown. The finder handed over the pot and its 
contents to his master, who proceeded to realise its value (!) by 
disposing of the coins by the pound weight. Such a "find" 
could not long be kept secret, and it is satisfactory to know that 
the proper authorities succeeded in recovering the bronze vessel 
and some of the coins and jewellery, which, in course of time, 
will find their way into the National Collection of Antiquities in 
Edinburgh. 



304 

On the Effects of the Winter 0/ 1879-80, on Animal and 
Vegetable Life on the Borders. 

BEEWICKSHIEE. 
INTRODUCTORY. 

Judging from my own experience, I did not expect that tlie 
winter of 1879-80, would be so calamitous to out-of-door vegeta- 
tion, as I soon came to know from my friends and correspondents 
it turned out to be. This state of matters has obliged me for 
consistency's sake to do much of last year's work over again. I 
have now to thank those non-members of the Club, who paid 
such ready attention to my questionings, or who have aided those 
members who kindly lent me their assistance. Situations near 
the sea-coast have formed no part of the inquiry, as most of them 
escaped harm ; but a few examples have been admitted. If any 
grievous cases have been omitted, we shall hear of them subse- 
quently. I feel particularly grateful to those gentlemen in the 
Tyneside district, nearly all of them strangers, who have given 
such a minute and valuable account of what happened in that 
neighbourhood ; of which we would have remained wholly un- 
informed, but for their endeavours to furnish a complete state- 
ment. The reports on the valleys of the Coquet, the Aln, the 
Glen, and the Till, are almost exhaustive. That there is so little 
from the Wansbeck is from want of acquaintance with that part 
of the country. North of the Borders the examples are as typical 
as could be obtained. 

My own observations for this year have been on a small scale. At Renton 
House, which is sufficiently elevated to stand above the fog that gathers in 
the valley of the Eye, on Jan. 7, 1880, some evidences of December's severity 
had become manifest. Cotoneaster microphylla and Jasminum nudiflorvmy on 
the front of the house, where they are much exposed to the bitter frost winds, 
were much scorched. The Ivy was untouched, but a Holly hedge was exter- 
nally withered. Aueuba Japonica in the shade was nearly killed to the 
groand ; but bushes fully exposed were unimpaired. The Furze by the post- 
road sides near Grant's House had been quite browned by the frost and the 
piercing winds. With the advance of the season, it became evident that 
Furze on both sides of the valley of the Eye had been completely blighted, 
and shewed no symptoms of verdure. Broom is a hardier shrub than the 
Furze, and some of it escaped. The top twigs of Ashes, Oaks, and Sallows, 
suffered between Grant's House and Coveyheugh ; as appeared by the scanty 
foliage. At Grant's House there was very little fruit. Hawthorns and 
Laburnums were most meagre in blossom, even in the most sheltered grounds. 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 305 

At Dunglass, the wood of the previous year in fruit trees did not ripen, and 
in consequence of this and the destruction of fruit-spurs, fruit-crop was 
very deficient. An Araucaria whs killed there, and others were very much 
scorched, and there was, as might be expected, a considerable shrivelling of 
the leaves of evergreens. Myrtles in the open air still survive at Dunglass. 
Several of the fine old Hollies in the Pease Dean woods were injured, although 
the most of them have escaped. In June when passing by the Ralway, T 
observed some Oaks between Houndwood and Reston, leafing only half way 
up the stem ; at Chirnside Station an Elder hedge had been killed, and some 
wayside trees, either Oak or Ash, were destitute of foliage; at Edrom 
Station, Laurestines, Oaks, Broom, Poplars, and Yews had either been cut 
down, or were shattered. At Marchmont, the shape of the fine Hawthorns 
was impaired, either from dead blanks, or a deficiency of foliage. Furze was 
kUled in the woods near Legerwood. The shew of wild Rose blossoms in the 
end of June was most profuse and beautiful, and " dog-hips '' were plentiful 
in the autumn, and were untouched by any bird. Many luxuriant Jiosa 
canina on the sea -coast here were killed to the root, but developed strong 
new shoots. In Bowshiel dean, Furze was blighted both on the north and 
south sides ; Oaks were shattered at the summits of shoots on the low ground 
near the burn, and were but sparsely foliaged. Many Juniper bushes were 
killed, and most of the underwood of old tall Junipers dropped off ; but on 
exposed hill-sides the Juniper grew as vigorous as ever. At Dunbar several 
Lombardy Poplars lost their tops ; at Prestonkirk, Laurels were rendered 
very unsightly ; and the Furze hedges at Tyninghame were cut to the 
ground. The fine Holly hedges there are pining away with gangrene, but 
none of them were blighted. I saw the old Walnut and Laburnum near the 
garden gate, putting forth their last efforts, in a few tufts of leaves, before 
the final collapse. A second growth of twigs and foliage has been pretty 
general in almost every wood. 

Missels, Song-thrushes, Wrens, Tits and Blackbirds continued scarce all 
the year. The Cuckoo and the Gray and Pied Wagtails were alao scarce. 
Fieldfares, that have returned in autumn, are few in number ; not more than 
a dozen were seen here. There is no decrease of the number of Larks any- 
where. Starlings are fewer. Hedge-sparrows [Accentor modularis) have 
multiplied ; and Domestic Sparrows and Green Linnets are on the increase. 
I met with no instances of birds perished during the winter. 

JAMES HARDY. 

Oldcambus by Cockburnspath, 1880. 



The Effects of the Severe Cold of the Winter 1879-80, in Berwick- 
shire. By Charles Stuart, M.D., Chirnside. 

August 24th, 1880.— The unprecedented cold experienced in the district 
around Chirnside in Dec. 1879, has left behind it effects, which will not be 
obliterated for many years to ( ome. The Oak and the Holly were never, in 
the memory of man, so nearly killed, in situations near the rivers. At 
present, in low lying places, the appearance of the Oaks is very remarkable. 



306 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

The great branches are nearly killed, while here and there great tufts of ab- 
normally -sized leaves have made their appearance within the last six weeks. 
The trunks are densely clothed with a forest of shoots, where previously a 
leaf was never seen. In some instances the trees seem dead entirely. I 
walked through the park at Swinton House in the begiuning of July, and 
near the Leet especially, remarked the destruction the cold had caused to 
the fine old Oaks, many of them centuries old. At that time there were no 
appearances of fresh growth, but I daresay now, there will be a tufty spring- 
ing of young shoots, which another severe frost would undoubtedly finish 
entirely. In similar situations Standard Hollies are killed to the root. A 
fine row of them which grew on the bank above Hutton Bridge, which, in 
ordinary years, were shining at Christmas with scarlet berries, were, in De- 
cember last, killed to the ground. No shoots having shown themselves from 
the roots this summer, I thought they were killed outright, but within the 
last few weeks the tender green shoots are showing themselves. Whether 
the wood will ripen to enable them to stand the winter remains to be seen. 
At Blackadder gardens, where, on the 4th December, the exposed thermome- 
ter registered 23° below zero, the destruction to shrubs, trees, and fruit trees 
has been very great ; Peach trees being killed into the ground— Standard 
Apples the same— both planted for long periods. Common Laurels, Rhodo- 
dendrons, Pinuses, &c., are utterly ruined. On the opposite side of the 
Blackadder, at AUanbank, situated higher up on the bank, the thermometer 
registered 13° below zero ; while at Kelloe House it shewed 17° below zero. 
The situation at AUanbank is very similar to Blackadder garden ; and had 
the instrument been in the garden instead of at the house, the temperature 
observed would have been as low as that at Blackadder. At Ninewells, on 
the Whitadder, the mercury was in the bulb of the iustrument at 8° below 
zero. The temperature at Chirnside Bridge was 6^" below zero — while on the 
hill, out of the rind, the instrument was never much below zero. It was near 
the river where the frost rind lay, that the low temperatures were observed. 
On the Tweed and Teviot, this was well seen, where at Spriugwood Park and 
Ormiston, very low temperatures were registered. The Common Ivy is 
everywhere killed in low situations, and many a tree is denuded of its ancient 
friend. The Oak, the HoUy, and the Ivy, three plants we are accustomed to 
associate iu our minds with everything that is hardy and sturdy, seem to be 
the most remarkable instances of the damage caused by the frost. All three 
have suffered equally. No such state of matters has ever been observed by 
the oldest men now living. 

A small bird was observed frozen to death while drinking from a water- 
pipe. The water froze in an icicle and attached the bird, so that it could not 
again move. This was observed at the paper works near my house. It will 
take many years before the Thrush will be as plentiful as of yore, and other 
smaU birds have also decreased in numbers. During the snow-storm in 
December, three persons in this district perished in one week from exposure, 
and many very severe cases of frost-bite were treated at the time. I think I 
have given you sufficient proof of the stinging cold we experienced, which I 
hope may never in our time again be felt by any of us. 



I 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 307 

Oct. 21, 1880.— To-day, when out driving I picked an Oak leaf, dislodged 
by the frost and wind, measuring 11 inches in length, and 7 J in breadth at 
its widest part. I have been watching them in their green state, as I never 
saw them so large before. 

Dec. 9. — In all shrubberies I observe the Mahonias to have suffered less 
than other shrubs from the frosts of the last three winters. And, if we con- 
sider how attractive this evergreen is, whether in flower or in frxrit, it is 
worthy of extensive planting, from its great hardiness. The Cotoneaster 
mierophylla, which covered the entire front of Sunwick farm-house, and was 
when in berry, a most beautiful object in winter, is completely killed by last 
winter's frost. 

At Blackadder House, where the temperature marked 23° below zero, the 
consequences were most disastrous. The Peach trees were killed to their 
roots— trees that were planted by Lady Boswall's father 50 years ago and 
more ; and Apricot and other fruit trees, which had retained their healthy 
condition upon the walls for a long series of years, were killed outright. The 
Bay Laurels, Portugal Laurels, Rhododendrons, Hollies in many instances, 
Wellingtonias, Araucarias, and Deodar Pines were all killed. An English 
Tew which had been planted on the nativity of Lady Boswall, and had 
attained to considerable dimensions, was also killed. Many Oaks are dead ; 
others sustained the loss of the previous summer's shoots, and two last year's 
wood. 



Frost in November, 1880. By the Same. 
No one ever recollects the low temperatures we have experienced lately in 
the month of November. On the hill at Chirnside 350 feet above sea level, 
my thermometers were never lower than 21°. At Chirnside Bridge, on the 
20th, the instrument registered 10° ; on 22nd (Sunday), I saw the thermome- 
ter there at 6 p.m. at 15°, and on the morning of the same day here 21° were 
registered. 4° were registered at Kelloe on the same morning, and 3° at 
Blackadder, or 29° of frost. Symptoms of thaw shortly supervened, which 
became more pronounced on the 23rd, — since we have had rain and very high 
S.W. gales till the end of the month. Temperature high for the season on 
the 29th November. 



Notes on the Effects of the Frost of the last three seasons at 
Blackadder. By the Same. 
On the 15th Feb., 1881, I visited Blackadder for the purpose of inspecting 
the damage done by frost there to shrubs and trees, to compare with that 
done at other places. I could not have credited had I not seen the destruc- 
tion caused by the extreme temperatures, which seems to have been worse in 
the Vale of the Blackadder than elsewhere in the county. All the ever- 
greens —Laurels, Portugal Laurels, and Hollies, with the Ehododendrons are 
killed to the ground. The Yews, Irish Yews, Cupressus Lawsoniana, Pinus 
Pinsapo, and Abies Douglassi, are fatally damaged, many killed outright. 
Pieea Nordmcinniana fine and untouched. Picea nobilis, Wellingtonia and 

iM 



308 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 



Araucaria, Deodars, Cedrus Lihani, Boxwoods, Privets, Ivies all killed. 
Weymouth Pine blasted by frost. Arbor Vitses alive but much browned. 
Cupressus Lawsoniana, var. erecta, Finns Gembra, Abies Canadensis alive, but 
much blasted. Oaks in low situations killed. Yew planted when Lady Bos- 
wall was born, killed into the ground. Fine Tulip tree injured. Walnut 
tree killed entirely. 190 fruit trees in garden, consisting of Plums, Apples, 
Pears, Peaches, &c., had to be dug up and removed. Both wall trees and 
standards suffered. Over 70 trees in garden at Allanbank, situated on the 
opposite side of river, had to be dug up completely dead. The fine old Ivy 
so ornamental at the gate and on some of the old trees, was completely killed. 
Fifteen years judicious planting by the late Mr Eae is completely wrecked, 
and the beauty of the place greatly destroyed for many years to come. At 
Kelloe, about a mile higher up the stream, the gardener informs me that 
there is not an evergreen left — that on the night of the 26th January, when 
the thermometer was 20" below zero, the Limes and Oaks were heard to rend 
with a loud report from the expansion of the sap. This was heard also at 
Blackadder and Kimmerghame, where there is also great destruction to trees. 



The Great Frost of January, 1881. 
Observations taken at Blackadder Gardens by Mr Eeed : — 



DATE. 


MAX. 


MIN. 




DATE. 


MAX. 


MIN. 


1 


34« 


30° 




17 


18° 


22° below zero* 


2 


42 


37 




18 


25 


12 


3 


44 


33 




19 


35 


13 


4 


41 


30 




20 


32 


13 


5 


40 


21 ■ 




21 


31 


3 


6 


42 


24 




22 


25 


1 


7 


39 


19 




23 


33 


24 


8 


35 


20 




24 


32 


10 


9 


25 


13 




25 


28 


3 below zero. 


10 


30 


15 




26 


35 


16 below zero t 


11 


30 


21 




27 


24 


12 


12 


26 


13 




28 


27 


17 


13 


30 


24 




29 


36 


24 


14 


34 


6 below 


zero. 


• 30 


34 


29 


15 


29 


1 below 


zero. 


31 


45 


30 


16 


25 


12 below 


zero. 









[At the half-yearly meeting of the Scottish Meteorological Society, March 
3, 1881, Mr Buchan, the Secretary, said that the thermometer at Blackadder 
was an exposed one, and could not be taken into account in making compari- 
sons with other places.] 

* Wood-pigeons observed to fall ofE the trees frozen and starved. Many cases 
of frost bite. 

t Wood-pigeons allowed themselves to be caught by the hand at the sheep- 
boxes in the fields. Partridges also caught by the hand, and Water-hens the 
same. 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 



309 



List of Plants killed and injured at Blachadder. By Mr Eeid. 



Abies Dougiasi ; much damaged. 

,, Menziesi ; killed. 
Araucaria imbricata ; killed. 
Biota aurea ; damaged. 
Cedrus Atlantica ; killed. 
,, Deodora; killed. 
,, Libani ; killed. 
Cryptomeria Japonica ; killed. 

,, elegans; damaged. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana ; much damaged 

,, erecta, viridis ; ,, 
Ked Cedar (Juniperus Virginiana) ; 

killed. 
Picea lasiocarpa ; browned. 
,, nobilis ; browned. 
,, Nordmanniana ; browned. 
,, Pinsapo ; killed. 
Pinus excelsa ; killed. 
Eetinospora in vars. ; damaged. 
Wellingtonia gigantea ; kUled. 
Taxus baccata (English Yew) ; killed 

to ground. 
Taxus fastigiata (Irish Yew) ; killed. 
Thujopsis dolabrata ; damaged. 
Thuja Lobi ; damaged. 
Ampelopsis in var. ; killed to ground. 
Aristolochia Sipho ; much damaged. 
Aucuba Japonica ; killed to ground. 
Berberis Darwini ; , , 

Buxus, Box tree ; killed. 
Clematis, in vars. ; killed. 
Crataegus oxyacantha (Hawthorn) ; 

much damaged. 
Crataegus Pyracantha (evergreen) ; 

killed. 
Laburnum in var, ; killed. 



Deutzia crenata, flore-pleno; much 

damaged. 
Garrya elliptica ; kiUed. 
Ivy in vars ; killed. 
Ilex. Holly in var ; all killed. 
Jasmines in vars ; aU killed. 
Laurus nobilis ; killed to ground. 
Ligustrum (Privet) ; all killed to 

ground. 
Lonicera invars. ; very much damaged 
Mahonia Japonica ; killed. 
Siberian Crab [Pyrus baccata) ; much 

damaged. 
EngUsh Oak {Quercus Robur) ; very 

much damaged. 
Turkey Oak {Quercus Cerris) ; very 

much damaged. 
Evergreen Oak {Quercus Ilex) ; killed. 
Eibes vars. ; killed to ground. 
Skimmia Japonica ; killed. 
Spiraea in vars. ; much damaged. 
Periwinkle ( Vinca) ; much damaged. 
"Weigelia rosea ; much damaged. 
Azalea Pontica ; much damaged. 
Rhododendrons ; killed to ground. 
Eoses ; killed to ground. 
Laurel, Portugal {Cerasiis Lusitanica) , 

killed to ground. 
Laurel, Common {CerasKs Lauro- 

cerasus] ; killed to ground. 
Apples ; many killed ; all damaged. 
Pears ; many killed ; all damaged. 
Peaches ; all kiEed. 
Plums ; many killed ; all damaged. 
Cherries ; a few killed ; all damaged. 
Nectarines; all killed. 



Ay ton Castle Gardens. By Mr William Eobertson. 

We have suffered most dreadfully here from the effects of last winter. All 
the Bay and Portugal Laurels have been killed to the ground, and a good 
many kUled outright. Laurestinuses were utterly killed. Yews have 
suffered very much ; a good many of them killed. Hollies from 20 to 35 and 
40 feet high, were cut to the ground, and some fine Holly hedges shared the 
same fate. Wellingtonias were very much scorched, and Araucaria imbri- 
cata was killed outright. In Peach trees, on a south wall, the wood was 
killed back to the two-years-old wood. Apricot buds were completely 



310 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 



destroyed. Ivy on walls was all cut to the ground. In Walnuts the young 
wood killed hack to two-years-old wood. A few of the finest Hybrid Rho- 
dodendrons were utterly killed. The Standard Roses are aU dead. 

Subjoined is a list of the temperatures for December, 1879, and January, 
J880: — 



1879— Dec. 1— 4° of frost and fall of 


1879— Dec. 13- 2« of f 


rost. 


snow. 


„ 16- 2 , 




„ 2— 12« of frost and 12in. 


„ 18- 2 




of snow. 


„ 19— 5 




,, 3 — 21 freezing all day, 


„ 21— 6 




most severe. 


„ 25- 2 




„ 4—31 do. do. 


„ 26— 5 




„ 5—24 of frost. 


„ 27— 3 




,, 6 — 9 „ more snow. 


1880-Jan. 12— 4 




„ 7—12 


„ 13- 5 




„ 8—14 


„ 19— 9 




„ 9- 9 


„ 20-10 




„ 10- 5 


„ 26-10 




„ 11—15 


„ 27- 8 




„ 12-11 




[Some of the killed Araucarias were fine trees. In the Pinetum here there 


are some grand old examples of Finus Austriaca ; Wellingtonia gigantea rises 


30 feet high ; Picea Nordmanniana, 40 feet ; and P. nobilis, 60 f 


3et]. 
N, Esq. 


Kimmerghame. By Archibald Campbell Swinto 



of last Winter'' s Frost. 

The Laurels, both Portugals and Bays, were killed to the ground, and it 
has been necessary to cut them all over without a single exception. Even 
the Rhododendrons (generally very hardy) have partially suiiered. Nearly 
all the HoUies were killed. Yews did not look so bad at first, but as spring 
advanced, they withered more and more, and a considerable portion of them 
wiU require to be cut to the ground. Of Coniferce very few have sustained 
any injury except Wellingtonias and Deodaras. The latter are in great 
measure destroyed. Of the former nearly all the lower branches are killed, 
which will greatly affect their shapely appearance. Of forest trees, the Oaks 
alone seem to have suffered. Many old Oaks have thrown out very scanty 
foliage, and in most of these instances the leaves that have been produced are 
of enormous size — sometimes as much as a foot in length. With vigorous 
pruning, and cutting off the dead branches, most of these Oaks may, it is 
hoped, be allowed a chance of recovering next year. Neither Thorns nor 
Laburnums blossomed last spring ; and there was literally no fruit of any 
kind -numbers of Apple trees especially being killed. Whins and Wild 
Roses (especially the former) are also killed. 

Mr David Jack, the gardener at Kimmerghame, supplies a few additional 
remarks. " During the frost of December, 1879, 1 had two thermometers out- 
side ; one hung on a wall 4 feet above ground facing the north, but well 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 311 

sheltered by trees and side walls ; the other 2 feet above ground, facing the 
north, with no shelter ; a spot always very frosty. Both glasses went down 
8'^ below zero. In the garden the fruit buds of the Peach, Apricot, Pears, 
Apples, and Sweet Cherries were killed. The trunks of the Apples were rent 
in all directions ; the rents were from 6 to 18 inches long, and about linch 
wide. I have taken out as useless above a dozen of them." 



Milne Graden and Paxton House. 
Mr Milne-Home mentions in a note from Milne Graden, dated Dec. 14th, 
1880:— "All the Laurels were destroyed here, and at Paxton last winter. 
Some large Holly trees at Paxton were kiUed. Here half of the large Yew 
bushes lost their stems, whilst the lower branches near the ground were un- 
scaithed." 



Notes on the Weather and its Effects on Vegetation, during the past 
Winter at The Sirsel, Coldstream. By Mr John Cairns. 

The lowest temperature registered here last winter was on the morning of 
the 4th December, the thermometer being 6** below zero. We cannot vouch 
for the accuracy of our instrument, but judging from effects and the readings 
at other places, we may safely assume that we were not far wrong. The 
storm was sudden, short, and severe, "being in marked contrast to the winter 
before, when we had a whole season of cold, which, because of its long dura- 
tion, followed as it was by the most sunless summer on record, iU prepared 
trees and shrubs for the trying ordeal that they had to pass through.' ' Had 
we had a fine summer, and as the result, well-ripened wood, the consequences 
would not have been so disastrous as they proved to be. 

Shrubs and plants suffered here very severely, more so than they were ever 
known to have done. Fortunately for us, along with the frost we had a 
covering of almost a foot of snow, which made all dwaxf things snug and be- 
yond harm, as evidenced by the escape of our Dwarf Eoses ; while Standards 
were entirely destroyed, and Teas and other tender sorts, though having the 
protection of a wall, were cut to the ground. Clematises and other like 
climbing plants suffered much; though, of course, not injured permanently, 
as they have come away nicely from the root. Portugal Laurels which 
passed through the previous vsdnter unscaithed, were quite blackened, and 
hence had to be cut down to the ground. They are now breaking away 
again. The Bay Laurel which was cut down so much the winter before, did 
not suffer correspondingly with other shrubs ; but the young shoots which 
had come away during the summer were of course killed, being soft and im- 
mature. The hardier sorts of Ehododendrons were not in the least injured, 
but some of the finer hybrids were destroyed. "We have a good many large 
Hollies here, which have not been hurt with frost for many years, if at all ; 
but, unfortunately, some have been killed, and others quite crippled, shewing 
no growth till well on in summer, and even then of a weak and flickering 
nature ; but as in seeming contradiction, side by side of the killed and maimed 
you have Hollies in the most robust health. There is another curious fact, 



312 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 



requiring explanation, viz., that those Hollies that have suffered most, in 
fact, some of them killed outright, were those that were heavily laden with 
berries, these remaining hanging on the dead branches till well on in summer. 
Had the effort in bearing such a crop of fruit, it may be asked, enfeebled the 
constitution of the tree for the time being, and hence made it more suscept- 
ible to injury from the extreme cold ? Aucuba Japonica where not covered 
with snow, was much hurt. The Oaks which suffered so much farther up the 
Tweed, and more especially on the Teviot, were not hurt here. The foliage 
was healthy and early. Enquiries have been made by correspondents in the 
public prints as to the absence of Hawthorn blossoms this season. In the 
grounds here the " May" in ordinary seasons is unusually fine, and in great 
quantity ; but this season there has been almost none. There can be no doubt 
such is owing to the ungenial summer last year. The same bears on the 
failure of the large-fruit crop. There were certainly blossoms of a kind, but 
of that weak, unhealthy sort, that did not properly set ; — in fact, if we have 
not sun we cannot expect either flower or fruit. 



Minimum Temperature at The Hirsel Gardens, Coldstrea 


1879.— Dec. 1— Thermometer at 25«. 


„ 2— 


„ 3 




, 3— 


„ 3 




, 4- 


„ ,, 0-6 below zero. 




, 5- 


„ 0- 




, 6— 


M 7 




, 7- 


>, » 8 




, 8- 


n 10 




, 9- 


„ 10 




, 10- 


„ 24 




, 11— 


M 9 




, 12- 


» 19 




, 13— 


„ 19 




, 14— 


„ 34 




, 15- 


„ 38 




, 16— 


„ 27 


August 21, 1880. 







Mertoun House Gardens. By Mr "William Fowler. 

Mektoun House being so near the river Tweed, and consequently more 
liable to hoar frost than some places of greater elevation, although only a few 
miles distant, but more open and with a freer circulation of air, has under- 
gone an immense devastation, while in comparison they have suffered com- 
paratively little. In the winter of 1860 and 1861, 1 think. Bay and Portugal 
Laurels suffered severely, but never duiiag my experience of 35 years have I 
witnessed such havoc on trees and shrubs in general, as in the past two 
winters. The last one, 1879-80, partly from the effects of the previous severe 
one of 1878-79, was much more disastrous in its effects. Much of this is, no 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 318 

doubt, due to the cold wet summer of 78 and 79, when the temperature of the 
earth never rose sufficiently to induce healthy growth, even in our native 
fruits. Some of our varieties of Apple trees, although previously healthy, 
during the cold rains went on dying piecemeal, and what growth there was 
made, was too late in the autumn to get at all ripened ; the wood being quite 
green and soft, altogether unfit to withstand the sudden and severe transition 
from a growing temperature to that of 12° below zero, as was the case in this 
district in December last. It is to this that I attribute such havoc during 
the past two winters in our gardens and shrubberies, as in a sunnier clime we 
have seen many of the trees and plants that have been killed or injured during 
the past two years, withstand more than 20° below zero with impunity ; thus 
illustrating the great necessity in this climate of planting on dry bottoms, 
with a free circulation of air around the plants to facilitate the early ripening 
of their growths. 

As hinted above, many of our best varieties of Apple trees died altogether ; 
others were very much injured ; and all more or less. Pears, even on the 
walls, had many of their fruit spurs killed to the main branches, and conse- 
quently bore no friiit. Owing, however, to the fine warm summer, they have 
made good growth, and with another good year, their former healthy con- 
dition may be established. Peaches are so badly cut up, that scarcely any of 
the trees are worth keeping, and most of them have been thrown out. They 
used to be healthy and bear abundant crops. Apricots are not so bad, 
although much injured. 

But the chief disaster was in the shrubberies. All the Bay and Portugal 
Laurels had to be cut to the groimd. English Yews, which I never knew to 
be injured before, and of large size, were killed to the ground ; also Hollies 
of great age. Hedges of tree Box were very much injured or killed. Of 
Deodars some were killed, others much injured ; and the same remark applies 
to Araucarias. Of English Walnuts the branches were killed. Roses of all 
kinds were killed to the snow-line ; even climbers on walls, such as Gloire de 
Dijon of large size and thickness ; and the same thing happened to Clematises. 
The Oak trees were injured, but I believe more from the effects of cold wet 
summers than frost. The devastation has been most severe in glens and large 
thick clumps ; in fact wherever there was least circulation of air the destruc- 
tion was greatest. 



ITbte of the Effects of the Frost of December, 1879, on Vegetation at 
Thirlestane Castle, Lauder. By Mr James Whitton. 

The intense frost of last December has been the most destructive to vege- 
tation in this district within the memory of any one living here. Although 
it was not more severe nor so long continued as that of December, 1860, it has 
done far more damage to plants, which is no doubt to be accounted for by the 
extremely unfavourable summer of 1879, leaving the wood so very im- 
perfectly ripened. 

As showing the very unfavourable nature of the summer of 1879, 1 may 
mention that neither Kidney Beans nor Vegetable Marrows produced a single 



314 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

fruit here, although growing m our most favourable borders, and the latter 
grown under hand-glasses. 

Lowest Readings of Eegistering Thermometers in Box, 4 feet above 
ground, Black Balb on grass :— 

1879.— Dec. 3 —4^ —7° 

„ 4 -8° -11° 

„ 5 —1° -5° 

The following plants were aU killed to the ground, or very nearly so : — 
Common and Portugal Laurels, Eoses of sorts ia whatever position grown. 
Clematises, Hollies (both green and variegated), Cedrus Beodora, Libocedrus 
decurrens, Acer Negimdo var., Cotoncaster 3IicrophyUa, and C. Simmonsi, 
Fernettya mucronata, Menziesia polifolia, Osmanthus (silver), and Escallonia 
maerantha. 

Many of the following have suffered severely ; a good few of some sorts 
killed : — Ehododendrons, Common and Irish Yews, Tree Box, Privets in 
hedges and otherwise, Wellingtonia, Laburnums, Spireas, Guelder Eose, 
Barberries, Common Lilacs, &c., &c. 

Fruit trees also suffered very much, not only were the young wood and 
fruit buds of a great many of them quite destroyed, but several of the Standard 
Apple trees quite killed, so that our fruit crop this year is all but a total 
failure, except some of the small fruits, and I am afraid we have not seen the 
last of it, as many of the wall trees, especially Pears, have shed their leaves, 
and are throwing out fresh growths. 

Snow fell on December 2nd, to the depth of 7 inches, which with calm 
weather, helped to save our vegetables. Autumn planted Cabbage, German 
Greens, and Leeks, were little the worse, about one -half of Brussels Sprouts 
and Savoys killed, while of the several varieties of Broccoli grown, "Knight's 
Protecting" was the only one that survived. 

I ought to have mentioned that though our place is 558 feet above the level 
of the sea, it lies in a sheltered hollow within 300 yards of the river Leader, 
and about 20 feet above its bed. There are also two tributaries of the Leader, 
one on each side of us, and within 300 yards, so that we are very much sub- 
jected to hoar frosts. 

The Gardens, Thirlestane Castle, Lauder, 2\st August, 1880. 



List of Trees and Shrubs hilled and injured in Berwickshire, in 1878 
and 1879-80. By Mr Peter Loney, Marchmont. 

The observations that I have to offer on the effects of the severe frost of 4th 
December, 1879, on trees and shrubs, apply chiefly to the Valley of the 
Tweed ; where in seveial well authenticated instances the minimum Ther- 
mometer registered 1 2 or 44 degrees of frost. This low temperature occurring 
so early in the season and after so cold and sunless a summer as 1879, operated 
the more fatally from trees and shrubs being then fuU of sap. In general, 
the Oaks were in full leaf, and ill prepared for such an attack ; consequently, 
many fine old trees were kUled, while most lost the growths of the five pre- 
vious years. There were instances also of the bark of trunks and branches 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 



315 



being split from top to bottom, which indicated that the growth had not been 
completed. The unfavourable summer conditions for healthy development of 
perfectly ripened wood, will be better understood by quoting the rainfall and 
sunshine in hours, for the two years preceding 1879 : — 

Year 1877.— Eainfall, 46.06 ; Sunshine, 1572 hours. 

,, 1878.— Do. 35.46; * Do. 1760 „ 

„ 1879.— Do. 33.92; Do. 1375 „ 

The great amount of rain in 1877 affected the growth of 1878 ; which in 

turn retarded the rising of the sap in 1879. Again, in August, 1877, the 

rainfall amounted to 7.98 inches ; August, 1878, 5.64 inches ; while in June 

and July, 1879, the rainfall was 5.32 and 6.40 inches respectively, or, about 

llf inches ; and the sunshine in hours only amounted to 244 for these months, 

or 2 hours less than we had in July, 1878. The following is a list of trees 

and shrubs killed and injured, principally at elevations under 300 feet above 

the level of the sea ; above that the destruction was not so great : — 



Laburnum. 

Oaks (Common and Turkey) . 
Yew (Common and Irish). 
Mountain Ash. 
Chestnut (Spanish). 
Abies Menziesi. 
Araucaria imbrioata. 
Cedrus Atlantica. 

,, Deodora. 

, , Libani. 
Cupressus Lawsoniana. 

,, viridis. 
Picea Pinsapo. 
Thuja Lobbi. 
Wellingtonia gigantea. 
Thorns, of sorts. 
Apricots on walls. 
Peaches do. 
Nectarines do. 
Eoses, especially Standards. 
Berberis vulgaris. 



Box Tree, of sorts. 
Cotoneaster. 
Holly (Common). 
Laurel (Common). 

,, Portugal. 
Privet, of sorts. 
Rhododendron Ponticum. 
Arborvitse. 
Aucuba Japonica. 
Garrya elliptica. 
Laurustinus. 
Pyracanthus. 
Pyrus Japonica. 
Philadelphus grandiflorus. 
-Ribes sanguineum var. album. 
Sweet Bay. 
Aristolochia sipho. 
Escallonia macrantha. 
Lonicera, of sorts. 
Hedera, of sorts. 



Jasminum, of sorts. 

A great proportion of the above were killed ; and others cut down to the 
snow line, the snow being fortunately about nine inches deep. Laurels in 
most instances have come away from the root. 

January, 1881. 



EAST LOTHIAN. 

North Berwick. By Mr Thomas Lees. 
I beg to give the following answers to your questions :— As regards the 
effects of the last two severe winters on trees, shrubs, and garden pro- 
ducts, I cannot find that the severe frost or cold has in any way effected 
trees. Many of the sprouts succumbed to the severity and sudden frost of 

In 



316 On the Effects of the Winter o/ 1879-80. 

last December, 1879, such as Aucubas, Euonymuses, Tamarisks, and Hoses ; 
its effects being more striking in the case of half-hardy shrubs than the 
ordinary kinds. I think here, and around this district, that garden products 
generally suffered less this last winter, than during the former one. That 
may partly be accounted for from the fact of our situation being close upon, 
and open to the sea, and therefore exposed to the east winds ; which, this last 
spring, were not so continued as they were in the former spring of 1 879. 
Regarding our height. North Berwick rises from 6 to 50 feet above the sea- 
level; such situations as Archerfield and'Leuchie rising respectively from 75 
to 180 feet. The lowest temperature here was one night in the winter of 
1878, when the thermometer fell to 15° ; and last winter it fell to 13° ; so 
that we had 17 degrees of frost in 1878, and 19 degrees of frost in 1879. 
North Berwick, Sept. 10th, 1880. 



Leuchie Gardens, North Berwick. By Mr W. M. Alexander. 

In giving a few notes on the effects of the last two winters, on the vegeta- 
tion at this place, I will state first that Leuchie is situated about two-and-a- 
half miles from the sea, and has the German Ocean to the north and east, and 
the Firth of Forth to the west, and is placed on a slight eminence, which 
would fully expose it to the bitter east winds which prevail here in spring, 
except for the closely wooded plantations which entirely surround the house 
and grounds. The lawn is well closed in with tall trees of Beech, Elm, Ash, 
Spruce, Fir, &c , with a thick undergrowth of Laurels, so that the more 
tender shrubs and trees — in the margin and on the grass— are not exposed to 
the full influence of the cold. 

Some of the more tender shrubs have been crippled and killed. Laures- 
tinuses, as single specimens on the grass, are mostly killed to the ground. 
Sweet Bays growing up amongst the other shrubs on the edge of the 
grass are killed ; generally one or two having just escaped, but very much 
crippled. Arbutuses are looking well and healthy, where they have been ex- 
posed to the sun and plenty of air ; but where they were shaded by taller 
trees they were killed entirely last winter— they escaped the winter before. A 
large bed of Roses, well exposed to the west winds but sheltered in every 
other quarter, has escaped with few or none of the plants going off. These 
Roses are making better growths this summer than they have done for a year 
or two. Pampas grass killed in different parts of the country, has escaped 
here. Aucubas escaped the winter of 1878-79, but were very much browned 
and crippled in that of 1879-80. 

In the flower garden, which is here surrounded by high walls, many 
Laurestinuses were killed last winter. They were very little the worse the 
winter before. The same remark applies to Euonymuses on the wall, looking 
east, but in both cases they are growing away from the ground again. A 
very old plant of Aloysia citriodora growing on the wall looking west was 
quite killed in the winter of 1878 and 79. On the same wall growing beside 
it are four old plants of Myrtle ; one having been there about fifteen years, I 
believe. They had no covering whatever in the winter before last, and were 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 317 

very little the worse, growing luxuriantly and flowering beautifully last 
summer. Last winter we covered them with Laurel branches, tying them 
closely over them. This summer they are growing a little and flowering 
very well, but look a little rusty. Tea Roses on the same wall are very much 
crippled; all old wood being killed last winter, only young shoots were left. 
Several Standards were also killed, but there were no deaths among the 
dwarfs. 

In the herbaceous borders, Stocks, Wallflowers, and Pentstemons, were 
among the killed of the winter of 1878-79. Last winter all of these escaped. 
No doubt the snow lying so long on them was the cause of their death during 
the first of the winters. 

Vegetables in kitchen garden also sufiered more the first winter than the 
last one. 

The soil here, except in some parts of the garden, is a very stifE, wet, ad- 
hesive clay ; the shrubs in all cases, and also several kinds of Coniferse, grown 
in. that kind cf soil, thrive very well in it. 

The lowest temperatures for 1878-79, after February, and for that month, 
19 degrees of frost, Fahrenheit, on the 18th and 20th. On the 14th of 
March, 12 degrees. In April we had three nights in succession, I7th, I8th, 
19th, at 2 degrees ; and on the 3rd of May, we had 2 degrees. 

For the winter of 1879-80 we had in December 30 and 28 degrees two 
nights in succession, on the 3rd and 4th. In January the thermometer only 
got down to freezing on the 28th February ; on the 9th, we had 7 degrees ; 
only getting down to freezing two other nights, 13th and 27th. March 9th, 
we had 3 degrees; 18th, we had 5 degrees; and on 19th, we had 7 degrees. 
April, on the 23rd, we had 4 degrees. 

We had no deaths among fruit trees. Peaches and Apricots are growing 
very luxuriantly this summer. There is no Peach crop out of doors— but a 
fair crop of Apricots. Apples and Pears are a very poor crop both last year 
and this. Small fruits were very plentiful both years. 



Tester Gardens. By Mr Alexaiojeb Shearer. 

With our high and cold climate here, we have never planted many of the 
more tender trees. We stand 425 feet above the level of the sea. The 
winter of 1878 did not do us any harm in regard to any of the trees ; and 
even the last winter was not so bad, as at some other plases. Certainly the 
Laurestinus was killed to the ground, as well as Aucuba Japoniea. The 
Garry a elli2)tica stood well enough, and none of the Pinuses were touched. 
Eoses did not grow much all the summer, and though killed to the ground, 
they have all grown stronger this year. I cannot say that we lost one by the 
frost. A Gloire de Dijon on an east wall without any protection, was not the 
least injured. Fuchsia Eiccartoni stood out uninjured, with a slight covering 
of straw-litter on the bushes. On the other hand. Globe Artichokes were 
nearly all killed. Those left are only giving fruit at this date, instead of in 
the end of August, and in September. I did not cut over a dozen of Broccoli 
axtd Cauliflower during the winter of 1879 and spring of 1880, out of 800 



318 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

planted at the usual time. Peas again were a month later than usual. I 
attribute nearly all these effects to the cold, wet and sunless summer of 1879, 
and very little to the cold of the winter. 

At Sir Robert Stevenson's, Stevenson House, below Haddington, and close 
to the banks of the river Tyne, all the Laurels were killed, and large Hollies 
from 20 to 30 feet high were killed to the ground ; while our Laurels were 
not touched. Our lowest temperature was 2 degrees above zero. It was 
lower at Haddington. 



Gardens. By Mr Allan McLean. 

The damage here from frost has been very great. We are within 200 
yards of the river Tyne, and the air is always very damp. All the Laurels 
have been cut down ; most of the Hollies also, and the remainder of them are 
very sickly. Twenty -four of our Apple trees were quite killed, and a great 
many of the Gooseberry bushes. The Pears on the walls suffered terribly, 
and also our Peaches. 

As regards forest trees, young Oaks and Larches suffered very much, and 
will never make handsome specimens. One Oak, bordering the carriage- 
drive, 50 feet high, has only a few leaves on it, and wUl require to be cut 
down. Others of the Oaks are split up in the centre, but seem to be healthy. 
Fimis excelsa, Araiica7'ia hnbricata, and some yoimg Wellingtonias are killed. 
We have a number of very old Walnut trees, which have perished. 

All the Privet on the estate is quite destroyed, and there is not one green 
blade of Whins or Broom left. 

Uh November, 1880. 



Report of the effects of the Winter of 1879-80 at Tynninghame House. 
By Mr E. P. Beotherston. 

Befoke giving notes on the damage received by vegetation from the winter 
of 1879-80, it wiE be well to draw attention to this fact, that many of the 
shrubs, &c., which finally succumbed to the late severe frost, really received 
the first blow from the extremely cold wind in the late spring of 1877. Hedge- 
rows in fresh leaf and exposed to the full force of that wind were left as if a 
flame of fire had swept over them. A large specimen of Garrya elUptica 
standing in one of the shrubberies is only now recovering from the damage it 
received, whilst other things, as Arbutus Unedo, have not only not recovered, 
but were damaged, in some instances, so much that they were either killed 
outright during the past winter or are now dying. The destructive force of 
cold winds is not sufficiently estimated. Only lately I had my attention 
called to some shrubs exposed to the gale which destroyed the Tay Bridge 
last December. The sides of these to the west were completely destroyed, 
nothing remaining but bare branches and twigs. The waU devoted to apricots 
in the garden is exposed to strong winds from the east ; and it is only when 
the wind changes from that quarter that the trees commence to make their 
summer growth ; one consequence of the trees being kept in a state of semi- 
stagnation up to the end of June showing itself, in all trees young and old, 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 319 

developing to an extraordinary degree the puzzling disease which results in 
the death of large branches, and sometimes the whole tree, throughout the 
summer. This however, by the way. Only it is well when estimating the 
damage occasioned by last wiuter's frost that this fact should not be lost 
sight of. 

Perhaps the greatest individual damage effected by the severity of the past 
two or three years has been borne by a fine old Walnut tree, staading in the 
green in front of the gardener's cottage here. This particular tree had a 
large Umb removed some years back, and to this Lord Haddington attributes 
the primary cause of its decay. The Psoci which are so destructive to the 
foliage of some fruit trees, have also had a share in the mischief. Last sum- 
mer these insects destroyed to a leaf the whole foliage of this tree, and the 
fine autumn induced the growth of young shoots, which were caught by the 
frost of December. This year the tree stands with all the smaller branches 
and twigs dead, and young growths pushing from the main trunk and large 
branches. The large Strawberry trees which stood in various positions in 
the shrubbery and on the lawns near the house have, with the exception of 
one specimen, been irretrievably damaged. Several have been cut down to 
the ground, and the remainder look as if it were a mere question of time for 
them to follow. The south-east wind which has been already alluded to as 
being so destructive to the Garrya elliptica, was not seconded by the frost in 
the case of this shrub, so that this fine decorative shrub may be considered 
frost-proof in this locality. Two large specimens of Sweet Bay were killed 
to the ground, others killed at the points of the shoots, and some not at all 
damaged. In aU cases these are making strong young growths again. 
Laurestinuses were served in the same manner ; in some positions some were 
killed to the ground, some considerably cut up, and others had only the 
foliage destroyed. Some that were not cut over in spring have since given 
way under the force of the sun. A fine Laurestinus hedge, 10 feet high by 8 
feet in breadth, was cut in to 8 feet in height by 5 feet through ; up to the 
present date it is making a very satisfactory young growth. It is, however, 
not to be depended on, as the bark of many of the main stems is split at the 
base. All ie«/c«s^m«/ormos« was kiUed to ground. Benthamia fragifera scndi 
Escallonia macrantha in open shrubberies, were kiUed slightly back ; Aucuha 
Japonica was more or less damaged. Geanothus was the only shrub on walls 
killed back. Myrtles, however, were somewhat damaged. At Smeaton, 
where the lowest winter temperature was only 5°, Myrtles and Escallonias 
are killed on walls. Commoner shrubs, as Laurels, were only damaged, in 
so far as the watery growths of 1879 were kiUed. AU Eoses, with the ex- 
ception of Moss Koses in the open border, and Gloire de Dijon on walls, were 
cut back ; Fuchsia Hiceartoni the same. Tritomas, Salvia patens, Gynerium 
argenteum, Agapanthus vmiellatus, were aU killed down, but are making 
strong growths again. A New Zealand Flax {Phormium tenax) is probably 
killed outright. Two or three old Apple trees (not in good health previously) 
were killed ; many others damaged. Fig tree was kiUed at point of shoots, 
but again bearing this autumn. All kinds of vegetables, with the exception 
of young Cabbages, young Cauliflowers, Parsley, Spinach, young Lettuces, 
Brussels Sprouts, and Celery, were kiUed. 



320 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

The lowest temperatures here, in winter 1873-80, were on December 4th, 
when the glass 3 feet from the ground gave 0°35, the next night was 0°1. 
The evening of December 3rd gave no appearance of an extra hard frost, 
and the following morning, between six and seven o clock, when I had occa- 
sion to grasp a piece of iron I was surprised to find it stick to my hand and 
still more so when the thermometer was consulted, and a degree below zero 
indicated. By da5dight 3^° below zero was reached when the cold became 
less intense. 

With regard to the warmest day of the present season ; on Thursday, 
August 11th the thermometer in the shade registered 80^, and is up to pre- 
sent date the warmest day of the present year, or of several years back. In 
gardens, the present year is remarkable for the small crops, and in some cases 
no crops of fruit : even the commoner fruits, as strawberries, gooseberries, 
&c., being below the average very much. There is, however, every prospect 
of next year's crop being an abundant one, trees of all kinds making an 
abundant and firm growth, only requiring a warm autumn to all but ensure 
that the season of 1 88 1 will be as remarkable for the abundance of its fruit 
crops as that of 1880 is for its scarcity. Such quick growing and short lived 
subjects as flowers and vegetables are generally very fine this season. 

Tynninghame, August \lth, 1880. 



NOETHUMBEELAND. 
BanTcMll, Berwich-upon-Tweed. By Mr John Scott. 

Owing to the wet and cold summer of 1879, the trees on the Bankill never 
fairly leaved, and there was no new growth in them. They had all the sum- 
mer the appearance of being in a weak state of health ; and when the hard 
cold winter of 1879-80 set- in the frost nipped them, and death was the result. 
I should say this result was not so much owing to the hardness of the frost, 
as to the want of vitality in the plant from previous inclement and unsuitable 
weather. 'J he trees came under my observation nearly every day of the year. 
The authorities have now removed the dead trees and planted Planes in their 
place. The dead trees were Lombardy Poplars. 

Dec. 31, 1881. 



Tweed Villa, JVbrham. By Miss Dickinson. 

Privet hedges killed to the ground. Aucubas and Portugal Laurels all 
killed to the ground. 1 Fir killed, the others all more or less injured. 
Hollies very much blighted. Lavenders killed. 1 Plum and 1 Apple tree 
killed ; all the others much injured ; and only 1 or 2 of them have blossomed 
this year. Poplars killed. The Laburnums never flowered, and very few of 
the Lilacs. Almost every Rose killed to the ground ; also Jasmines, both 
yellow and white. Gooseberry bushes much blighted. All Gladioli which 
escaped the preceding winter were killed. The Laurels and Laurestines 
were all killed down to the ground the winter before; and all the young 
shoots of last summer were destroyed. 

The garden of the next house, l<osebank Villa, has suffered much the same, 
except that there is a Yew nearly, if not quite, killed. 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 321 

Ford Castle Gardens. By Mr Henry Trotter. 

The glass fell to 11° below zero on the night of the 3rd and 4th of Decem- 
ber, 1879 ; the glass was about three feet above the snow. The frost killed 
some of our Peach trees, and injured others very much ; also all our Laurels, 
both Portugal and Common, were killed down again. All plants of Aucuba 
Japonica were cut down. Many large bushes of Common Yew were cut 
down, and others very much injured. Irish Yews were also injured. 
Wellingtonias suffered considerably. Of large plants of Thuja gigantea, about 
one half are killed and disfigured ; while others standing by their side were 
not touched. Not one of our Cypresses was touched. Cedrus Beodora was 
cut down, also small plants of Araiicaria imbricata. Cotoneasters were all 
killed. Garrya elUptica was killed down. Evergreen Oaks and Sweet Bays 
were cut down ; and a great deal of different kinds of Ivy ou the walls was 
killed, while other kinds are springing from the wall again. Quantities of 
Common Privet were killed. Of herbaceous plants we lost few. Of Tritoma 
Uvaria we lost many large plants. Roses suffered most ; of Standards we 
have none left ; Dwarfs also suffered very much. 

At Etal all Peach trees were killed. 

August 23rd, 1880. 



Coupland Castle. By Matthew T. Culley, Esq. 

August 20, 1880. — As I told you before, the severe winter of 1878-9 
destroyed very many of my Laurels and Hollies ; all tender shrubs of course 
perishing, and Oaks suffered severely in their young shoots. The winter of 
1879-80 was comparatively mild, but had one night— that of December 3id 
—of intense frost. Not having a registering thermometer, I cannot tell the 
exact degree of intensity here, but it was 8uffi( lent to kill all the Hollies and 
Laurels (except two or three Hollies) that had been spared from the winter 
before, and to cut liown to the ground the young shoots springing from the 
cut shrubs, and very luxuriantly they had sprung during the wet summer of 
1879. The Oaks again suffered frightfully ; many young, and I fear more 
than one old one are killed ; the young wood which was taking the place of 
that destroyed the winter before was cut off, as well as the growth of at least 
one year previous. Very few leaves appear on the Oaks here this year, 
though what there are appear to be of large size. Several small Yews, too, 
are seriously injured, and the Box -trees, of which there are many, nearly all 
turned brown that same night. These, however, I did not cut down, and I 
am happy to say that many of them show signs of recovering. Our Eoses 
were aU cut to the ground, though they have shot wonderfully this year. 
The Calceolarias (under covert, of course,) were destroyed. 

Jan. 8th, 1881. — Here, as at Fowberry, the leaves on the blighted Oaks 
are of huge size, though how to account for this I do not know. We have 
them here quite equal in extent to the largest at Fowberry, which is 14 
inches by 7. Ours is certainly the largest I ever saw, 16 inches by 7 ; it is a 
most curious looking thing. The next in size is 11 inches by 6. 

A vast quantity of my Oaks have had to bo cut down ; they were chiefly 



322 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

small ones ; the larger will, I trust, recover, and I am in great hopes that 
many of the Boxwood trees will revive ; at first they looked hopeless, but I 
did not cut them and they improved wonderfully during the summer. 



Some Notes on Effects of Winter of 1879, at Fowherry Tower, on the 
river Till. By GtEoege Culley, Esq. 

At 5 A.M. on the 4th of December, a thermometer, 18 inches from the 
ground, in the garden shewed 16*^ below zero (Fahrenheit). At 9 a.m. a 
thermometer, 20 feet from the ground, marked 1" below zero, and never 
rose during the day above 4*^ above zero ; the same thermometer marked 28° 
above zero at 9 a.m. on the 5th, i.e., showed a rise of 35° in 24 hours. 

The extreme cold lasted little over 24 hours, but its effect on trees and 
shrubs was very great. It killed, amongst deciduous trees, several Standard 
Apples, several Apricots against south wall, the only two Standard Damsons, 
all the Laburnums, three or four Peaches against south wall, two or three 
Plums, and grievously damaged all the Oaks. Some Oaks had no leaves 
above stems during the summer of 1880, while others put out tufts of im- 
mense leaves on the branches where 4 or 5 years' growth had dropped off. 
The longest Oak leaf gathered measures 14 inches by 8 ; the most grotesque 
is 8 inches in what ought to be its length, by 10 wide ; many leaves vary 
from 11 and 12 inches long to 7 and 9 wide. Many Oak trees are split. 

Amongst Conifers scarcely any tree altogether escaped, except Abies Cana- 
densis, Albertiana, Douglasi, Menziesi, Cupressus Nootkaensis, Lobbi, 

All Piceas suffered slightly, including the conmion SUver Fir. 

Most of the true Pines are unhurt. 

AU English Yews (some a hundred years old) are killed, or nearly so. 

Nearly aU old Box-bushes Hlled. 

All WeUingtonias are killed. 

Many fine specimens of Cupressus Lawsoniana are killed ; aU damaged. 

All sorts of Ivy kiUed to ground. Many Privet hedges kUled out. 

The only large HoUy which survived 1860 and 1878, was killed to snow 
mark. 

Many Rhododendrons were killed to ground. 

Feb. 2nd, 1881, 

CMllingham Castle Gardens. By Mr Eobekt Bowie. 

Report of some of the Effects of last Winter's Frost on Trees 
and Shrubs here : — 

Oak, I have not noticed any that are quite dead, but many are nearly so. 

Walnuts, age not known, but must be from appearance not less than 200 
years, all but dead. 

Yews, Common, many are killed, others are stiU dying ; they invariably 
begin doing so at the top. Some are of large size, having been transplanted 
to where they now are, more than 60 years ago. At that time they were 
trees of great>ge. 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 323 

Cedar of Lebanon, many quite dead, others still sickly. 

Of the Deodar Cedar, as yet none are dead, but going fast. 

Wellingtonia gigantea, some that were planted J8 years ago, are nearly 
dead, others have lost branches from the ground to nearly half their height ; 
in low situations, on strong clayey-loam, they are worst ; on soil of a lighter 
nature, and only a few feet higher, they are in the best of health. 

Hollies, in iow situations, are nearly all killed to the ground, those in the 
higher and more exposed parts of the park are but little hurt. Laurel, Por- 
tugal, killed to the ground. 

Laurel, Bay, dead to the ground, many are now sprouting. 

Wistaria Sinensis, one plant which must be amongst the oldest in this 
country, was nearly killed to the ground. It covered some 1350 feet of wall. 
Box tree, many are quite dead. Araucaria, several are quite dead. 

Eoses, Standards, all but 2 or 3 are dead, although protected with fern and 
straw. 

Apple, Standards, of large size, planted nearly 50 years, are now all but 
dead ; some sorts have sustained more damage than others, but none are now 
producing fruit. 

Apricots, on south walls, some are dead, others sickly ; several young trees 
are healthy, having been protected with mats previous to the frost being so 
severe. 

Peaches, not many grown outside ; what are were protected in a way 
similar to Apricots, and are now very healthy. 

Chillingham Gardens, July 21nd, 1880. 

Mr Bowie in his accompanying letter says : " The sad havoc amongst our 
trees and shrubs is to me a matter of great regret, having planted the greater 
part of them, and having been in the habit of looking on them as very near 
relations, for a number of years. Despite of the loss we have sustained, 
Chillingham is still very beautiful— nothing that I know of as a park sur- 
passing ' The Home of the Wild Cattle.' I am uncertain as to the lowest 
temperature we had last winter ; that which I noticed was 9° below zero, but 
our thermometer having been exposed for some years, I fancy that it might 
not be quite correct ; the more so, as some of our neighbours, at only a mile 
and a half from us, had as much as 7° more, but even the lowest we had 
would not have done the damage it has, had we been blessed with a more 
propitious summer. I am very glad to tell you that almost none of our 
healthy young specimens of Coniferte are at all injured, which is one thing to 
be very thankful for." 

Reporting to the Gardeners' Chronicle, in August, Mr Bowie says of the 
fruit crop : — " Since the formation of the garden, in which fruit is growing 
(upwards of fifty years ago), there has not been such a scanty crop (small 
fruits excepted) grown outside against walls, and as Standards ; I might 
almost with truth say of many sorts we have none, all are most unhealthy, 
and of some sorts many trees are dead." 



lo 



324 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

Zilhurn Tower. By Mr John Deas. 

Since I saw you we have passed through two most memorable and severe 
winters, and certainly they have left their mark, or rather traces of where 
things once stood. We have suffered severe enough here, but not even so 
bad as some of our neighbours immediately around us, such as Chatton, Fow- 
berry, &c., &c., where it is said there is nothing left. However, I consider we 
are bad enough, every one of our Common and Portugal Laurels is killed ; 
fine large Yew bushes which had stood "the battle and breeze" for long 
years had to succumb to the severity of two successive winters ; whilst rather 
strange, others immediately around are uninjured. This is rather unaccount- 
able when you consider that soil and situation are the same. I have several 
hundred yards of Yew hedging of about 25 years' standing, where every here 
and there of from 2 to 6 yards are killed. Of Hollies, large and small, some 
are killed, some left, including all the varieties ordinarily grown. Holly 
hedges aU killed, also Privet, Common Ivy climbing walls and trees, &c. 
Some of the Ivy I find is pushing again. Tree Box and even a good deal of 
Box edging is kiUed. Cotoneaster covering walls is also killed. I find that 
this is caused by the sun melting the snow off during the day and exposing 
it to the frost at nights. Wherever those things have been hid from sun 
they are unhurt. Every Standard and Climbing Eose is killed, and Dwarfs 
down to snow line. Some of the more tender are killed altogether. Amongst 
ornamental trees we have lost none but Cedrus Deodara ; Wellingtonias, and 
other Pines have stood, many of them uninjured. Many Oaks and Ashes 
have had quite a struggle to push again, and are not yet in full leaf, and if 
the next winter proves severe, for a certainty they are doomed. Fruit trees 
have also suffered severely. Peach trees are all killed ; Apricots partly so. 
Many Pears and Apples are severely crippled, so much so that they are only 
now (July ] 7) beginning to push. These are exceptional cases, the most of 
them having ere this made long growths, especially Wall Pears ; but we 
have little or no fruit — a thing we have never failed in for these last thirty 
years. Cherries are also a failure, and hurt by frost; although they 
blossomed profusely, the cause I do not attribute to the severe winter, but to 
the cold gloomy summer of last year. All wood being imperfectly ripened 
was unable to resist the frost ; and the fruit blossom, weak and deformed, 
after a partial expansion fell to the ground. I was not disappointed for I 
frequently said, twelvemonths ago, what the result would be. 



Rock. By Charles B. P. Bosanquet, Esq. 
At Rock we are more than 250 feet above the sea. We lost all our Laures- 
tinuses last winter, which were killed to the root, excepting where the snow 
protected the lowest branches ; also Arbutus and Roses, but we did not suffer 
much otherwise. We have not a Peach on our hot wall this year. Last 
year we had a good crop. 



Alnwick Castle Park. By Mr Coxon. 
For the winter of 1879-80, 1 have to report a much more serious one on 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 825 

tree and shrub life than the winter of 1878-9. I think it has been the worst 
in my experience. Ahnost all Portugal and Common Laurels and Hollies 
have been cut down to the snow line. About half of the Evergreen Oaks 
and a great many Yews have also suffered in low situations. After getting 
about 70 or 80 feet above the level of the river, we have lost very few of the 
above shrubs. Trees with us have not been so severely dealt with, although 
a good many Oaks up to 50 years of age, have been considerably cut. But 
the fine growing weather we had in summer, has enabled them almost to re- 
cover. In coniferous trees we have not lost a great many. A few Cedrus 
JDeodara, Araucaria imbrieata, Picea Pinsapo, and P. lasioearpa have been 
considerably cut and discoloured. But Abies Douglasi, Picea Nordmanniana, 
P. nobilis, and Wellingtonia gigantea have all stood very well. 
November, 1880. 

Major Holland in transmitting these remarks, observes : — 
" In my own small garden, almost the whole of the Eoses (more than 500 
in number) were cut down by the frost of December 3rd and 4th to the snow 
line. The thermometer registered here 1 degree P. minimum ; or 31 degrees 
of frost. I felt indebted to the snow for a protection that enabled me to have 
a very fine blow of Eoses when the summer came. The vigour of their 
growth was something remarkable. I never saw shoots so long and so strong 
thrown from the lower stems of the plants." 



Report of Injury to Trees, Evergreens, Sfc., at Shawdon, Northum- 
berland, hy the Frost in the years 1879-80. By Mr James 
Thomson. 

Shawdon HaU, the residence of W. J. Pawson, Esq., stands on the north 
side of the Vale of Whittingham, 245 feet above the sea level. It is half-a- 
mile distant from the river Aln, and owing to its situation and surroundings, 
shrubs and evergreens planted here suffer much from frost. In December, 
1879, the thermometer feU to 11^ below zero. The frost continued for 
weeks, accompanied by a dense atmosphere, very destructive to vegetable 
life. All the Laurels, young Hollies, and many Yews, were kiUed here by 
this severe and continued frost. The winter of 1880 completed the destruc- 
tion of many old Yews and HoUies that must have stood here, uninjured, at 
least for a generation. " The Shawdon Hollies" are so much injured by the 
frost of January, 1880, that it is doubtful whether they ever recover its 
effects. The lowest temperature recorded here in this month was 13° below 
zero. The Hollies referred to have been a feature of this place for several 
generations. They consist of two rows, sixteen feet apart ; the row facing 
south is composed of the Golden Edged, or Queen Holly. Originally there 
were seventeen trees in this row, planted about seven feet asunder. The 
height of the tallest tree in this row is 45 feet ; the other row consists of the 
common Green Holly, and several of them have been blown down. Fifteen 
trees are still standing, the bole of the largest measures seven feet in circum- 
ference three feet from the ground. Two trees in this row are joined to- 
gether, at a height of thirteen feet from the ground, the inarch is so complete 



326 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

that the two trees form one head. These interesting old Hollies were 
severely injured by the frost of 1879 ; and the winter of 1880 has killed most 
of their branches, and although new shoots are breaking from the main stems, 
it is doubtful whether they will ever recover the effects of two such severe 
winters. There is no means of judging the age of these Hollies ; George 
Henderson, now in his 95th year, played under them when a boy, and they 
appeared old trees at that time. The Cedrus Deodaras here are Idlled to the 
ground, the same fate has befallen the Sequoias, which grow rapidly here ; 
but the rarer Coniferae have never been really grown here in sufficient num- 
bers to test their hardiness. 

The effects of the frost of January last in the Flower and Kitchen Garden 
here, were the destruction of every Standard Rose, with many of the Dwarf 
varieties. Peach trees are killed ; they escaped the frost of 1879, which, in 
its results, cannot be compared to the destruction caused by the frost of 1880 
in this district. Many Oaks standing in certain situations are killed, or so 
severely injured that they have to be cut down. The Furze that covered 
many heights around this place are killed to the ground ; in many places the 
Heather has suffered severely. Judging from the effects, the frost of the 
years 1879-80 has been more destructive to vegetable life in this neighbour- 
hood than any frost on record. 



EsUngton ParTc. By Mr Joseph Oliver. 

Eslington Park, one of the seats of the Earl of Eavensworth, is situated 
close to the Aln, and is ten miles west from Alnwick, and one-and-a-half 
from the foot of Ryle Hills. 

During the long and severe winter of 1878-9, although the thermometer 
marked (at four different times) 6" below zero, yet the damage done to ever- 
green shrubs and trees was nothing in comparison to that done during the 
two nights' severe frost which occurred in the beginning of December, 1879, 
when the thermometer fell to 9° below zero. 

At the former period only the lower branches of Common and Portugal 
Laurels were killed. Evergreen Oaks and Garrya elliptica were both killed 
back to the main stems. During the two nights' frost in December last, 
every plant of both Portugal and Common Laurels was killed down to the 
ground. Even the Hollies have suffered in a way we never could have ex- 
pected. Many fine plants that have been planted over fifty years have been 
killed to within three feet of the ground. It is rather strange that the varie- 
gated varieties have suffered much less than the common sorts. Garrya 
elliptica, Aucuba Japoniea, Evergreen Oaks, and a large plant of Wistaria 
Sinensis growing upon the front of the house, have all been killed to the 
ground. Many of the Apple trees have suffered severely, but none are killed. 
Strange to say the Coniferae have almost escaped without any injury, with 
the exception of one plant of Cedar of Lebanon, about twelve feet high, 
which is entirely killed — no other harm is done. This plant was growing 
about seventy yards from the river Aln, and about seven feet higher than the 
bed of the river. Other plants of the same variety, growing upon higher 
ground, and a little further from the river, are quite unhurt. Rhododendron 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 327 

Pontictim has stood -well, the blossom buds being all killed, but little harm 
done to the -wood. Yews, both English and Irish, Arborvitses, Junipers, 
Tree Box, and Barberries, have all passed through the severe ordeal without 
betraying the slightest appearance of having received any injury whatever. 
Forest trees have not suffered at all. 

At Glanton Pyke, about 1| miles from here, but much higher, everything 
is quite unhurt. 

About 25 years ago the Laurels were all killed, the same as last December ; 
but only the lower branches of the Hollies were then destroyed. The ther- 
mometer then marked 6° below zero. 



Biddleston. By Mr .Tames Dickinson. 

Our shrubs, particularly Laurels, have suffered a good deal, but not nearly 
so bad as our neighbours nearer to the Coquet. W6 had some beds of Com- 
mon Laurel cut down, which had not been cut in the same manner for twenty 
years, namely, 1860. All other trees and Conifers, of which we have only a 
small collection, are little the worse. Two years ago we suffered very little, 
as we had an immense covering of snow when we had the most severe frost ; 
but we never had more than 28° that year. Last winter we had 34°, two 
below zero ; while some of our neighbours had 7° below ; and some even 
more. Last season, having such a cold, wet summer, the wood was never 
ripened, which made things more liable to the effects of the frost. Vegetables 
suffered a good deal. Broccoli was nearly all killed in both winters. Small 
plants did not suffer so much, as they were well covered with snow. Small 
birds were very much thinned last year. We never had to put nets on our 
fruit, but they have made up for it this year. It is very wonderful how they 
have gathered up. We have Blackbirds and Thrushes by hundreds. We 
had great difficulty in saving small fruits, not only from the birds, but from 
Wasps, which have been unusually numerous this year. Wild animals do 
not seem to have suffered much. 

N.B.— There is a very nice lot of old trees on the place, mostly Ash, 
Beech, and Sycamore. 
. October 9th, 1880. 



Rarlottle. By Mr Anthony Oliyer. 
Account of the Effects of the Winters of 1878-79 : — 

We passed through the winters of 1878-79 without the least damage to 
fruit, or ornamental trees, or to shrubberies ; there being a good covering of 
snow during the severe frosts. The lowest temperature registered was 27° 
of frost. 

Birds suffered to a great extent. The Thrush was nearly killed out ; and 
very few Blackbirds were left ; so much so that it was not necessary to pro- 
tect the fruit with nets, there being no birds to destroy it. The spring and 
summer of 1879 were cold and wet up till September, when we had a few 
weeks' dry weather, but not sufficient to ripen the wood and buds of the 



828 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

previous summer. Hence when the winter of 1879-80 set in so severely, 
everything suffered more or less. Portugal and Common Laurels, Aucuba 
Japoniea, Clematises, Roses, Holly (both green and variegated), were MUed 
right and left. Very many of the buds of Apple, Pear, and other fruit trees 
were killed. The glass went down to zero. Those buds that escaped the 
frost broke into life so weak that they soon became a prey of insect life. 
Never did I see such a swarm of pests ; not only fruit trees and bushes, but 
many forest trees lost nearly all their leaves. 
October bth, 1880. 



Brenchhurn Priory. By C. H. Cadogan, Esq. 

With reference to the effect of the extreme cold that passed over the 
Border counties in December, 1879, we appear to have nearly escaped its 
ravages at Brenckburn, where nothing is killed, except one or two large 
Hollies, and these most capriciously selected from out of a crowd of others, 
very likely individuals of a tenderer type ; for I have in former cold winters 
noticed the same thing, two Hollies side by side, the one killed, the other left 
untouched, soil, situation, and every external appearance being equal. My 
Araucarias are unhurt. Picea Cephalonica has the top killed about three feet, 
tree thirty-five feet high, otherwise it is entirely uninjured. Cupressus 
macrocarpa was killed to the ground, tree about 20 feet high. Picea Smithiana 
severely injured, is alive and pushing again. Italian Artichokes are killed. 
Whins, Blackberries, and Broom are generally killed. The top growth of 
one of three Wellingtonias was killed about 6 inches ; otherwise they are not 
hurt. These trees are all in near connection and close to the riverside. Of 
course, the Common Laurels are killed in most places, but not in all situa- 
tions. Virginian Creeper, on the wall of both house and church, is quite un- 
injured ; but one on an unattached garden wall is almost entirely killed ; it 
is alive and that is all. I attribute this capricious effect mainly to the very 
narrow valley in which all the plants mentioned are placed. I think it too 
narrow for the frost to gain full power ; or it may be the morning sun does 
not afEect the place, owing to the high precipitous bank to the south and 
south-east. 

20th October, 1880. 

Felton Park. By Mr John CROSSLma. 
I am glad to inform you that the frost has not done so much harm here, as 
at many other places. The shrubs have hardly been hurt, except the Laures- 
tines and the Bays ; and I have lost a few Roses. The Peach trees also are 
hurt, and there is no fruit this season. Apples are a bad crop. The hardest 
frost was on the 4th of December, when we registered 32*^. We have a very 
dry subsoil at Felton, which saves our shrubs. The Wasps have been most 
dreadful this season. My men have already taken 112 nests round the 
garden. We had almost none last season. Whence have they sprung after 
so hard a season ? On account of their numbers, we will have very little 
fruit left ; the more we kill the stronger they come. The slugs are almost as 
bad. In milder winters we have them much less in quantity. 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 329 

Morwich. By tlie Eev. James I. Dand, Cheyington Eectory. 

Morwick is situate on tlie south bank of the Coquet, two miles west from 
"Warkworth, 100 feet above the sea, and 50 feet above the Coquet, from which 
it is distant about 400 yards. The grounds are exceptionally well sheltered 
by trees, and a hill towards the east, effectually breaks the "sea breezes." 
The lowest temperature on the " cold Wednesday night and Thursday morn- 
ing" in December, 1879, was 6° Fahr., i.e., 26° of frost. The thermometer 
which registered this degree of cold was placed against a wall facing W., 3ft. 
from the ground. 

Trees and Shrubs which bore this cold with impunity ;— 

All forest trees, such as Oak, Ash, Lime, Scotch and Spruce Firs (Alders 
and "Willows, near the river also), escaped. 

Araucaria, Douglas Pine, Columbian Pine, WeUingtonia, Acacia (this tree, 
a very fine one, of 60 or 80 years' growth, suffered slightly). Tulip Tree, 
Cedars, Yew, Rhododendrons of aU kinds, Portugal Laurel, hardy Eoses 
(such as " John Hopper," " Gloire de Dijon," and others of that nature), 
Standards. 

The more delicate Eoses, trained to a wall with a south aspect, and a very 
fine "Wistaria (I am not siire that I have given you the correct name of this 
climber, it is evidently allied to the Acacia, and has a long fiower of a pink 
colour, shaped like a Laburnums), which was also trained agaiast the same 
wall, were killed to the ground, but are now growing again. The Common 
Laurel, or Bay, was also killed to the ground. The Whins were quite killed 
and have not yet sprung again. There are some very fine Ilexes on the lawn, 
probably the largest in the North of England. Their leaves were aU 
shrivelled and browned, and dropped prematurely, but they are now in very 
fine foliage. A Fig tree, also against a south wall, was killed to the ground, 
but is now shooting from the root (this tree is probably 70 years old). 

The smaller birds. Tits, Wrens, &c., have disappeared. Thrushes have 
almost vanished. Fieldfares, I think, died to a bird. Blackbirds and Eobins 
did not suffer so greatly. Eooks did not suffer at all. There were, three or 
four years ago, a great number of Owls— the common Brown Owl — now I 
hear none. (They have never been interfered with, and I think the frost 
could scarcely be the cause of their absence). I might mention that Wasps 
are numerous this summer, beyond all precedent, and have constituted them- 
selves a plague ; attacking people engaged in harvest work, and most un- 
pleasantly invading any room whose windows are left open during the day. 

Eabbits have become nearly extinct ; their absence is no doubt owing, in a 
great measure, to the long -continued snow of the previous winter. The snow 
covered the ground, it never " drifted," to the depth of two feet, and re- 
mained for ten or twelve weeks. Partridges suffered severely ; so apparently 
did Woodpigeons. Pheasants did not suffer at all — they are very numerous 
this year ; they have not been reared artificially, 

Sept. 6th, 1880. 



BarnMll, AcMington. By John Tate Esq. 
The •winter of 1878-9 was a severe one here. Bay trees, Laurestines, and 



330 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

Whins were cut down to the ground, and our Roses suffered a good deal. 
Last winter, however, was either stm more severe or the Shrubs hai not re- 
covered the shaking their constitutions had received in the former year, for, 
with the exception of three, every Standard Rose we had died, and other 
delicate shrubs suffered iu an equal ratio. One very fine double Whin, after 
looking tender for one year, is now altogether gone ; and the Laurestines are 
putting out very feeble shoots. The large Whin Coverts adjoining the river 
banks here, which used to have an overpowering perfume in spring and 
summer have not flowered for two years, and many show no signs of life. 
Sept. 25, 1880. 



Morpeth. By Mr George Egdell. 
Effects of tlie Frost on Slirubs, etc., in different stations : — 

At High Church, Morpeth, with an elevation of 175 feet, the thermometer 
fell to 5.0 on the 5th, and to 3.0 on the 6th December, with 1 foot of snow 
on the ground. 

The only shrub that suffered from the frost was the Aucuba Japonica. 
HoUies, Laurels, WeUingtonias, &c., were not injured in the slightest, while 
in the town of Morpeth, 90 feet above sea level, with the same degrees of 
frost, the snow lying on the ground quite a foot deep, a great number of 
shrubs were cut down to the snow line ; while others suffered severely by 
losing aU their foliage, which had a brown, miserable appearance aU the 
spring, until thrown off by the new growth. 

Portugal Laurels and Hollies suffered especially. 

It may be noticed that there was no wind during this severe weather. I 
have often observed that when a frost is accompanied by a wind, shrubs 
suffer more, even when the frost is not quite so severe. 

The summer of 1879 was very wet, and in some low-lying sheltered situa- 
tions the various evergreen shrubs kept growing until late in the autumn, 
and as we had a heavy fall on the 8th November, with severe frost, the 
young growth was not matured sufiiciently to bear the extreme cold which 
followed. 

High Church, Morpeth. 



Dunston Hill, Co. Durham. By Ealph Oarr-Ellison, Esq. 

On tlie Effects of Low Temperature on Vegetable Life, and 
on Birds : — 

The second severe season of November and December, 1879, has left some 
instructive effects. These indeed are quite sufficient to show how rapidly a 
repetition of cold summers, early and protracted winters, followed by tardy 
and chilly springs, would reduce our Northumbrian vegetation to a condition 
not very superior to that of Iceland. 

The Cypress-like, or more briefly Cypress-Poplars, improperly called the 
Lombardy Poplars (as it is not a native of Italy^ but of Persia) , has been 
quite killed in many localities by the cold of last winter, which, in low 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 331 

situations fell to zero of Fahrenheit. To endure such, a temperature this 
Poplar must have been previously invigorated by warmer summers than it 
enjoys with us. In other words it can bear intense cold only in a climate 
which possesses compensating summer heat, and where perhaps the mean 
temperature is somewhat higher than ours, and equal to that of Central Eng- 
land. It has escaped, however, unhurt with us in many moderately-elevated 
sites. I remember the Cypress -Poplar (for so it is well named in French 
and in Latin) being killed at Whittingham by frost, when 40 feet high, and 
now again the only few trees of the species there have been destroyed, 
though growing in the fine deep soil of the inn garden. Ten or a dozen of 
my own at Dunston Hill, of similar height, have escaped unhurt. But at 
Riding Mill, near Bywell, many vigorous young specimens, 20 feet high, 
have perished, though standing well above the river upon a fine sandy soil 
among flourishing birches, and enjoying adequate shelter. 

The Black Italian Poplar {Populus nigra, monil'ifera) has nowhere been 
harmed. It is a true European native, springing up abundantly from seed 
on the extensive gravel-beds of the Italian rivers, and, so far as I could per- 
ceive, with remarkable uniformity of foliage. I looked narrowly on these 
gravels for young plants of the Cypress -Poplars (so improperly called Lom- 
bardy in England) but could see none, though the hedge-rows were well 
furnished with this species. If it propagates itself by seed in Italy, it does 
not do so apparently on the river gravels, but perhaps requires the soil of a 
field or garden. 

By the way, the name of Populus nigra, monilifera, the Black or Necklace- 
Poplar, was given to the other species from the very dark colour of its long 
crowded and conspicuous catkins in spring, which, when they fall, are strung 
by children into necklaces. But this inflorescence is seldom seen in the 
North of England. 

I lost last winter, at Dunston Hill, nearly half the plants of a fine coverb of 
Yews, about 10 feet m height. They were growing with great vigour 
among Hazels and Elders at the bottom of a small dene, which has a northerly 
descent. The terrible frost of November and December caught them as if by 
surprise, and utterly destroyed the large proportion just mentioned. 
Happily, enough remain to extend themselves over most of the vacancies. 
The thickness of the stems was, near the ground, generally that of a man's 
arm. In other places my Yews are unscathed, whether old or young. 

Aged Hollies have been killed, or sorely scathed, in many localities all over 
the country, whilst young healthy plants have resisted the intensity of tho 
cold successfully. Portugal Laurels have been destroyed whf^re old and de- 
clining in vigour, but not young or when thriving and healthy. The same 
is true of the Common Box, in every shrubbery. It is for the most part un- 
scathed. Araucarias, Deodars, and Wellingtonias have all stood unharmed 
at Hedgeley ; also the thriving plants of Laurus Azorica growing there. But 
at Dunston Hill this fine species will barely exist. It requires a deep and 
fertile soil with a somewhat humid air, unless the climate be warmer than 
ours. 

I rejoice to say that some venerable Ilexes, growing in shrubberies at 
Whickham, have survived both these last most severe winters, and are 

IP 



882 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

struggling to re -establish their verdure, though I believed them to be ab- 
solutelj'- dead in the spring of 1879. 

Cupressus Lawsonii propagates itself freely by seed at Hedgeley, being 
quite hardy there. 

On our dry, light soil at Dunston Hill, the Cryptomeria Japonica succeeds 
best, surpassing Thuja borealis, which prefers a moister soil and atmos- 
phere like that of the neighbourhood of the Cheviots. 

As regards birds, the Song-thrush was very rare here last spring, but num- 
bers came in August and September, from other districts, frequenting our 
turnip-fields and shrubberies. They all departed in November from Dun- 
ston Hill, whilst, for the first time, we are likewise without any Blackbirds 
this winter, there being no berries of any kind to tempt them to stay. 

Yew-berries are the favourite food of the Song-thrush in early winter. Of 
these there was but half a crop this season. 

Not a single Redwing or Fieldfare is visible or audible in our neighbour- 
hood. It is probable that the small numbers of both species that can have 
reached Britain in the autumn of 1880, after the great mortality of them 
from cold and hunger in 1878-9, have gone far southward to the region 
where mistletoe is plentiful, that is to say, the South of England, together 
with Northern and Central France, with Switzerland. 

As respects the tenderness of the Redwings under the English winter, 
though natives of Norway and Sweden, we must bear in mind that by far 
the greater number of them, which visit us in ordinary autumns, are 
assuredly little more than nestlings, which perhaps could barely fly at the 
end of the preceding June, owing to the lateness of spring in the high 
latitudes they inhabit during the fine season. Consequently they are not so 
vigorous as even our youpg Song-thrushes, which were capable of flying six 
weeks or two months earlier. The same is true, in a lesser degree of Field- 
fares, of which the younger ones suffer severely. It is pretty certain that 
the young of our English Missel- thrushes migrate largely into France, as 
there is a great accession of the species there in October and November. 
Their annual arrival is hailed by the bird-catchers, and by the epicures, with 
especial interest. A French cook will send up a dish of Missel-thrushes and 
Redwings in an irresistible form to the best tables, each bird enveloped in 
some delicate jelly of pearly hue ; not in the rude and naked fashion which 
an EngUsh cook would be content to follow. 



Middleton Ball, Wooler. By George P. Hughes, Esq. 

At Middleton Hall, our chief loss has been in Laurels, killed by the frost 
of November, 1879. I had promised to plant the north side of the Ilderton 
Chtirch with Portugal Laurels, but when we went to lift them last spring, 
we found the best pLmts, 6 or 7 feet high, growing in a mossy cut with the 
shelter of a young plantation behind, completely killed to the root. In our 
garden, large Laurel hedges have been killed to the main stem, but are send- 
ing out fresh branches in the majority of cases. "We had many flowers, 
especially Roses and Geraniums, killed in the greenhouse during last and the 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 333 

preceding winter ; even with a large paraffin lamp burning beside them, a 
few inches off. 

My young Californian Conifers have in, I may say. every case come 
through ; but a valuable Australian Eucalyptus, 9 or 10 feet high, was killed, 
much to our grief. 

Our Forest Trees have suffered very little, though at Chillingham a num- 
ber of old trees had died. 

2lst July, 1880. 



List of Trees and Shrubs injured hy Frost last Winter, 1879-80. 
By Messrs William Eell & Co., Wentworth Nurseries, Hex- 
ham. 

Araucarias, very severely cut down. 
, Aucuba Japonica, do., even worse. 

Cedrus Atlantica, cut in the young wood. 

„ Deodara ; a good deal affected, but not so bad as last season. 
Cryptomeria Japonica suffered severely. 
Taxus baccata (Com. Yew) severely cut with the frost. 
Thuja Chinensis suffered in those branches not well ripened, 
Thujopsis Borealis suffered, but not so bad as last year. 
Wellingtonia gigantea — very severely, especially large specimen plants. 
Berberis Darwinii, severely injured. 

,, Stenophylla do. 

,, Jamiesonii, touched, but not so bad as above. 

„ Empetrifolia, do. do. 

Broom (White and iSpanish), badly cut up. 
Box, partly injured, especially in low situations. 
Daphne Cneorum, rather severely touched. 
Hollies, common and variegated, both very severely cut. 
Jasmine (White) badly cut. 
Laurus nobilis (Sweet Bay) badly cut. 
Laurel (Common) do. 

Laurel (Portugal) very badly cut. 

Laurestinus do. 

Privet (oval leaved), very badly injured. 

,, (common or evergreen), touched in wood and stripped of foliage. 
Poplars (Lombardy), rather severely affected. 
Oaks (evergreen) cut a little. 
Whins, the double, affected ; single, not. 
Apple trees slightly affected. 
Pears not so bad as Apples. 

Peaches, Nectarines, and Apricots, rather badly injured. 
Walnuts slightly cut. 
Rhododendrons slightly affected. 

N.B. — The above nuxeeries cover many acres of ground. 



334 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

Vicinity of HexJiam. By Mr James Hewitt, Hexham. 

Trees destroyed or damaged at Spital, half-a-mile W. by N. 
from Hexham : — 

Ivy, almost totally ; Peach trees (on walls) very mucli ; Laurels (both. 
Common and Portugal) and Privets cut down to the ground. Yews very 
much damaged. Ivy covering the gardener's house— many years old— cut 
down to the ground. Ivy, which had adorned a very large Oak tree 60 or 
70 years, totally destroyed. 

At Hexham Cemetery, a mile-and-a-half west of Hexham, one mile from 
Spital — Hollies, Laurels (both kinds), Privets, and Yews, aU sore damaged. 
A very fine specimen of the Araucaria imbricata nearly killed, and as brown 
as a nut even now. 

At Hermitage, half-a-mile direct north from Hexham, destruction general. 
Out of somewhat over twenty Holly trees adorning the hedgerows, I counted 
eighteen cut down to the hedgetops. At Beaufront and Sandhoe mansions, 
2 to 3 miles N.E. from Hexham, the destruction of evergreens nearly com- 
plete ; and the same at Newton Hall, about six miles eastward, and the same 
at every place within the same radius. In the town of Hexham some Ivy, 
covering the walls of a gentleman's residence, which has escaped unscathed 
during many years, was almost totally destroyed, although under the shelter 
and protection of large trees. 

Sexham, Nov. 1, 1880, 



Hexham. By Messrs Joseph Eobson & Son, the Nurseries, 

Bank Foot, Hexham. 
Aucuba Japonica almost destroyed. 
Bay Laurels bad. 

Do. Rotundifolia, hurt, but not so bad as the above. 

Do. Colchica, do. do. do. 

Do. Caucasica, do. do. do. 

Do. Portugal, badly hurt. 

Do. Common, worse, if anything, but more likely to come again. 
Hollies of aU kinds, except Aquifolium, verj' bad. 
Ivies bad. 

Khododendrons very slight. 
Yews scarcely touched. 
Common Privet bad. 
Ovalifolium Privet do. 
Roses bad. 
Fruit trees, Peaches, Nectarines, very bad. Apricots scarcely touched. 

,, Pears and Apples, wood much damaged. 
Plants not damaged: — 
Eetinosporas— the whole of these have stood without a tinge of frost, 
notably, plumosa, F. aurea, lepioclada, squamosa, Erieoides, &c. 
Cupressus Lawsoniana and varieties stood well. 
Yews all stood well. 
ArborvitsBs— American, Chinese, and other sorts, good. 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 335 

Temperatures, ^e., in the Hexham District, for Decemher, 1879. 
By Mr "William Trotter, Soutli Acomb, Stocksfield. 

Snow fell on six days, and the amount when melted amounted to 0-82 of 
an inch. The rainfall in the corresponding month of last year was 3*62 in. 
The total rainfall for the year ending December 31st, amounts to 29-00 in., 
against 35 inches for the previous year ; the decrease on the year being 6-00 
inches. The temperature for the month was about an average. The first 
week was exceedingly cold, being the coldest on record in the locality. The 
second week was also below an average ; but the third and fourth weeks 
were much above an average, there being only two cold days, viz., 26th and 
27th. On the 4th the minimum thermometer stood at 1 degree, or 31 de- 
grees of frost ; and on the grass at 5 degrees below zero, or 37 degrees of 
frost. The maximum thermometer in shade during the day did not reach 
more than 16 degrees, or 16 degrees of frost. The mean temperature of the 
week was only 20 degrees. The nearest approach to the cold on the 4th was 
on Christmas Day, 1860, when the readings were 2 degrees higher. Barometer 
variable: highest reading (corrected) 30 542 inches on the 10th; lowest 
(corrected) 29-502, on the 27th. Snow fell on 1st, 2nd, and 5th. Gales 
occurred on 27th and 28th. Beautiful lunar halo on 28th at 6 p.m. Prevail- 
ing winds SW. to NW. on 24 days ; on remainings 7 days from NE. to SE. 

Mr Trotter makes the following observations : — "Newton Hall, Col. Joicey's, 
stands at a considerable elevation above the river Tyne, and between two and 
three miles north of it, opposite to Stocksfield Station. The frost there was 
not nearly so intense ; the instrument showed 3 degrees below zero. There 
was scarcely any damage. A few Common Laurels suffered, and some double 
flowered Furze was damaged. At Minsteracres, the seat of Henry Silvertop, 
Esq., which stands considerably higher than even Newton Hall, but on the 
south side of the Tyne, nearly on the crest of the high hills which divide the 
valleys of the Tyne and the Derwent, there was comparatively no injury 
done. I was over the crest on the evening of the 3rd December— the coldest 
night in 1879 — after dark. The road is very much exposed, and it was cer- 
tainly very cold, but it was infinitely worse, when 1 got into the vale. On 
the hills the atmosphere was quite clear, but in the bottom there was a damp 
haze, and do as one would, one could not keep the cold out. The frost at 
Stocksfield was 5 degrees below zero. At Riding Mill, two miles west, it was 
16 degrees below zero. How there happened to be a difference of 10 degrees 
in so short a distance, and at about the same altitude, is a matter of conjec- 
ture. There is no doubt of the accuracy of the observer." 

On my way to Gilsland, Sept. 28th, I halted at Hexham. Near Stocks- 
field, I noticed the havoc among the Lombardy Poplars. One of the com- 
pany remarked that in Derbyshire, where he had been recently, most of the 
Poplars were destroyed. The Oaks there, I saw, had suffered, and were full 
of new shoots, and in the plantations about Hexham, the young trees carried 
crops of summer-formed leaves, as if in a state of rejuvenescence. At the 
Beacon, Admiral Waddilove's, high Hollies were much shattered, and some 
Laurestines were cut down. I was told that over that part of the country, 
there was very little fruit on trees, either old or young, one reason assigned 



336 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

being that 1879 having an ahnost sunless summer, the young -wood never got 
ripened. 

On this subject, Mr A. Kerr makes the following remarks as more particu- 
larly applicable to the Border districts : — " In regard to fruit produce, it is 
well known that in England and Scotland the present year (1880) has been 
one of the most barren on record. This remark applies to Apples, Pears, 
Plums, Apricots, and Peaches. This failure can only be attributed to the in- 
fluence of excessive wet and the absence of solar heat throughout the entire 
year of 1879, succeeded by an unprecedentedly early frost, as intense as that 
of a Russian winter. This proved too much for vegetation in its immature 
state, stopping and congealing the life-giving sap in the vessels of the plants, 
rupturing the tissue in the tender unfinished growths, and thereby killing 
them back to the old wood. As a natural consequence the trees produced 
little blossom of a perfect kind ; and although I must admit having seen 
numerous trees well furnished with flowers, the majority of these flowers, 
when inspected by a practical eye, were found ' decrepid abortions,' showing 
the fertilizing organs, less or more, incomplete, and therefore impotent to 
produce fruit. Much depends also upon the weather, when the fertihzing 
process is in operation. Should it happen to be cold and very wet, little fruit 
may be expected. The combined influence of wet and cold robs the pollen of 
its fertilizing quality, and this, together with other influences, affects the 
fruit crop." J. H. 



Memorandum of Trees which suffered from the severe Winter of 1879, 
in Tyneside District. By Mr John Balden, Jun. 

Ash.— The Ash has suffered most of all the deciduous trees, both young and 
matured trees in many cases being killed. 

Elm. — Both the English and the "Wych have suffered, the latter especially, 
from Frost -rent. 

Holly. — In low lying parts near the river (and consequently under the 
influence of the Frost-rimes), many fine old trees have been killed, and others 
severely damaged. In the higher parts they have not received quite so much. 

Lakch. — Among the whole of the Forest Trees none have fared worse than 
this valuable tree ; in many places they have been killed by hundreds. In 
plantations up to 30 years of age, the most damage has been done, the older 
and mature trees have not suffered severely. 

Oak.— Damage to the Oak does not exceed the twigs and branches, although 
some have suffered from Frost-rent. 

Poplar. — Twigs and small branches killed and growth checked. 

Privet, Thorn, and Whin suffered more or less, and growth thrown back 
many years. 

Among the ornamental trees those which have suffered most are the Arau- 
caria imbricata, Arborvitae, Cedrus deodara, Wellingtonia gigantea all of which 
have either been killed or severely damaged. Also the Laurel has been 
killed to the ground, 

Dilston Office, Corbridge-on-Tyne, Dec. 22, 1880. 



On the Effects of the Wimter of 1879-80. 337 

Chesters, Walwich, and ParTcend, North Tyne. By John M. 
EiDLET, Esq., of Walwick Hall. 

Mr Bosanquet received the following report from Mr Eidley, 
when writing to ask him to send particulars about the cracking 
from frost of a Maple, at his brother's, Mr Thomas Eidley' s, 
Parkend, North Tyne : — 

What happened to the Maple at Parkend. "befell all the Beech trees at 
Chesters, where you may see the marks down the stems of the trees for many 
feet, where the sap of the spring has run down, escaping from the wounds 
caused hy the cracks in the stems and branches, by the severe night when the 
thermometer was 13 degrees (14'') below zero, Fahrenheit. All the Hollies 
are cut down there to the ground, many quite killed. Most of the Yew trees 
were killed, especially those under trees, where you would have expected them 
to have suffered least. I observe the foUowiog to be killed : — 

Elm, Oak, Yew, Hollies of 100 year's growth and under, Broom and 
Gorse, Ampelopsia, Roses of all kinds, Piptanthus Nepaulensis, Cotoneaster 
against wall, Jasmine against wall, Honeysuckles various, and Peach trees ; 
while all the Cypresses have escaped. 

Forsythia, Cupressus Lawsoniana, and the delicate species have all escaped 
scot free. 

We are 240 feet above Chesters, and our thermometers {accurate\^&cQ and at 
Chesters, being well-made and tested instruments) were not below 9 degrees 
below zero, Fahrenheit. The special Maple alluded to is a tree of 50 year's 
growth. 

Just at sunrise it cracked with the report of a pistol, the stem, gaping wide 
enough to admit a man's hand to its centre, is 2 feet 8 inches in girth, and 
the bark is now so closed up you cannot see the fracture, but there it will be 
so long as the tree exists. I doubt if a vertical fracture of this kind ever 
heals ; it is a shake, formerly called a vnnd shake, but evidently one from 
temperature. I cannot explain the phenomena of the Dutch Elm breaking 
off short across in great heat in full foliage. Of course, the foliage adds to 
the weight, but it keeps off the sun. Why should the wood break straight 
across the grain under these conditions, whereas in a wind if broken it would 
be much more of longitudinal fracture P this Elm is a short -grained wood 
anywhere. 

August 19^A, 1880. 

Tyneside. By Eev. J. 0. Bruce, LL.D. 

I see you are to read some remarks upon the frost of last winter. 

Nowhere (I should suppose) have its ravages been more remarkable than 
at Hexham and ChoUerf ord. A long line of very fine tall Hollies at the Her- 
mitage (on the south side of the river, in the hedges beside the road), have 
been killed. In Mr Clayton's garden at Chesters the Laurels and Portugal 
Laurels have been almost exterminated, and Holly trees that had stood the 
frosts of a hundred winters have been destroyed. I am persuaded it was the 
moisture accompanying the cold that did the mischief ; for at Walwick which 
is considerably above Chesters no harm was done. The Yew trees suffered 
severely at Chesters and elsewhere. 



338 On the Efeets of the Winter of 1879-80. 

Effects of Winter 1879-80, at E'umshaugh, Northumberland. By 
the Eev. Hugh Taylob, Humsliaugli-on-Tyne. 

Humshaugh House is about 280 feet above sea-level, and about 100 above 
the North Tyne. A thermometer certified at Kew to be at 32" . . , -f 0-7, 
placed in Scottish Met. Soc. box, registered on Dec. 1 to 2, 1879, 2° ; Dec. 3 
to 4, 1879, 11" below zero, and at 9-45 on the 4th, still 1° below zero. 

All the Shrubs mentioned (except those stated to be older), were obtained 
from nurseries in 1875, good specimens only being taken, and were very 
healthy up to the autumn of 1878. Many were injured iu the winter of 1878 9 
and received the finishing stroke in 1879-80. At Humshaugh House the 
following were killed : — Aucuba of varieties 10, Araucaria 2, Spanish Broom, 
Chinese Box, Cedrus Libani, Deodara 3, common Yews in a hedge about 40 
years old 6, Japanese Yew {? Fodoearpus Ja2)onica), very large Irish Ivy on 
north wall of house 3, and Roegneriana on south wall (where Fedata was un- 
injured), large white Jasmine on south wall 2, and a Cherry, E%'ergreen 
Privet, roundleaved, in a hedge and open, about 30, Japanese Evergreen 
Privet 3, Laurestinus 2, Daphne Mezereum 3, Double Whin, Sycamore 8ft., 
3, all Wallflowers single and double, all Lothian Stocks, Penstemons, Antir- 
rhinums, 2 Pj'ramid Pears, Duchesse d' AngoulSme, and a few others. 

Cut to the ground or much injured, have made fresh shoots, but some pro- 
bably not worth keeping : - Berberis Barwinii ; common Holly up to about 40 
years old 20, all the Golden and Silver variegated (including 2 Silver about 
80 years old) 12, Skew-leaved, Rodgensii 3, Mijrtifolia 3, Yellow-berried, 
Hedgehog; Cryptomeria elegans, 2; all the Portugal Laurels, including a 
dozen large bushes, 3ft. high, the Bay and its upright variety, 30 ; Orleans 
Plum 3, Abies Douglasii 2, Ficea Nordminniana 3 ; large Fyrus Japoyiica in a 
neighbour's garden; Wellingtonia 4 ; Cherry 2 and Plum 2 on east wall, 
much J oung wood killed ; all the Whins in the neighbourhood, except a few 
in woods. Roses ; Gloire de Dijon, Souvenir de Malmaison, Celine Forestier 
on south wall of house (where Coupe d' Hebe and Madame Victor Verdier 
little worse) ; Gloire de Dijon 2, Depuy Jamain, Duchess of Edinburgh (tea'', 
on east wall ; all in the open ground, about 200 ^except a few of the old white, 
blush, and cabbage, which were little injured) ; but all made vigorous shoots 
and bloomed weU last summer. 

Slightly injured: — Berberis Aquifolia, Beutzia Crenata ^. pi., Fyrus 
Japonica 2 small; Ivies— Minima, Algeriensis, Rcegneriana ; Common Privet, 
Weigelia Rosea, Wistaria on south wall of house ; 5 Apricots had a very large 
crop in 1879, though Moorparks did not ripea their fruit, last year only a 
few fruit - the first failure in 8 years. Orchard Apples same as Apricots. 

Uninjured : — Common, American, Siberian, and Chinese Arbor Vitae ; 
Box — Common and S^ndsivorthieasis ; common yews 12 up to 60 years old, 
Irish yews 6, Taxus Adpressa, Taxus stricta 6 ; cupressus Lawsoniana 8, Thu- 
j'opsis Borealis 6 up to 9 feet, Finus cembra 2 ; Ghent azaleas, hardy azaleas. 
Ivies : - sagittcefoUa, digitata, pedata, argentea of 4 varieties large and small 
leaved, 4 others, all on an east wall ; yellow jasmine on south front of house ; 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 839 

Fieea nobilis, Retinospora squarrosa, plumosa, plumosa aurea ; Thtija Lobbii 12, 
Viburnum Opulus. Rhododendrons— 2 or 3 hybrids dead, but about 20 unin- 
jured. Clematis— /ac^-m«w«i, Star of India, Alexandra, Mrs Bateman, and 
6 others, on walls or trellis, though all cut to the ground, flowered well. 

In the winter of 1878-9, Brussels Sprouts, curly greens, celery, much 
injured ; brocoli killed ; cabbage, lettuce, and prickly spinage uninjured here. 
Last winter, vegetables were not much injured, only a few brocoli which had 
not been ** laid down," were destroyed. 

At the Chesters (Mr Clayton's), about a mile from Humshaugh, 240 feet 
above the river, 14° below zero was registered. All the Hollies except two 
email ones, many very large and other Yews, aU the Box-trees and Privet are 
dead. Many Elm, Beech, and Oak trees are split. Several large and small 
Yews, however, are uninjured. 

At Lincoln Hill, about one mile west of Humshaugh, 400 feet above the 
sea, Hollies and Yews much injured and many of them dead. Laurels all cut 
down. 

At "Walwick Hall, about half a mile west of Lincoln Hill, 495 above sea 
level, 315 above the river, there are many fine Hollies but none injured in the 
least, merely the tips of a very few leaves on some of them being •' scorched." 

As distance above a river seems to have generally so much to do with the 
effect of frost, I may mention that Humshaugh House is about half a mile 
from the North Tyne, " as the crow flies," Chesters a quarter, Lincoln Hill 
three-quarters, and about 220 feet above it, Walwick Hall three-quarters. 

In the North Tyne valley, so far as I can learn, only one Thrush was heard 
in 1879. Blackbirds, usually very numerous, have been so few in number 
that it has not been worth while to net the fruit. Last spring there seems to 
have been an immigration of Thrushes, for there were six or seven pairs within 
two miles of Humshaugh. Starlings seem to have been much thinned. In 
some parts of the south of England Chaflinches were said to be nearly extinct, 
but here I saw last spring at least one flock of about 300. Dabchicks reared 
young for some years at Haughton Castle pond near this. A single bird 
appeared in 1879, but I did not see one in 1880. 
Jan. 1, 1881. 



BingfieUf Corlridge-on-Tyne. By John Coppin, Esq. 

At this place, about 450 feet above the sea, with a northern aspect, the 
weather last December was extremely severe, the thermometer in a Stevenson 
box, four feet from the ground, marking 10° on December 4th. Large Por- 
tugal Laurels, Common Laurels, Cotoneaster mierophylla, against a wall ; 
another standard Cotoneaster, Berberis Darwinii, Common Privet, Menziesia 
polifolia, JRuscus aculeatus, Sypericum calycinum, Selianthemum rosncm, and 
woodbine were killed to the ground. The common Yew, Box-tree, and several 
sorts of Holly were severely damaged ; some varieties of the latter were cut 
to the^ ground, whilst others, principally silver-leaved, lost nearly all their 
foliage. Forest trees also suffered very much, especially the Oak, Ash, and 
Lime ; indeed, some of the first two appeared to be killed outright, as they 
produced no leaves throughout the following season. The Hawthorns (almost 

IQ 



340 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 



trees in this neighbourhood) had no bloom on them, while the Whin in the 
adjoining fox coverts was nearly destroyed. We had a large show of blossom 
on the Apple and Pear trees, but very little fruit, except on two or three trees 
against a wall sheltered from the N.E. winds. 

Several of the smaller birds, especially Thrushes and Robins, feU victims to 
the intensity of the frost. 



The temperature was— 






Dec. 2 


niax. 25 


min. 5, 


„ 3 


„ 20 


„ 3. 


,. 4 


» 8 


„ 10. 


., 5 


„ 15 


„ 1. 


„ 6 


„ 30 


» 8 


„ 7 


„ 28 


„ 10. 


Dec. Zlst, 1880. 







EOXBUEGHSHIRE. 



Springwood Parh, Kelso. Bj Mr Geoeqe Wemyss. 

The frost which prevailed here in December, 1879, and did so much damage 
to trees and shrubs, was not only intense but unusually prolonged. The 
temperature had begun to decline on the 22nd November, when the minimum 
reached 25°, and from that date the frost continued more or less severe till 
the 15th December, when the minimum rose to 3* above the freezing point. 
The extreme low temperature, however, and doubtless the destructive period, 
extended from the 1st to the 10th of December, when the minimum, with 
only one exception rose to 9° above zero, as may be seen by the following 
readings of the thermometers during these ten days : — 



Date. 


max. 


min. 


9a.n 


1879.— Dec. 


1. 


31° 


2° 


26° 


jj 


2. 


33 


—6 


16 


,, 


3. 


11 


— 16 


4 


>> 


4. 


2Y 


—5 


16 




5. 


32 


4 


24 


„ 


6. 


30 


6 


16 


J, 


7. 


31 


5 


23 


„ 


8. 


34 


9 


9 


,, 


9. 


38 


17 


34 


>> 


10. 


30 


8 


17 



Had the previous summer been warm with much sunshine the damage to 
vegetation would have been less, but being otherwise the year's growth was 
not sufficiently ripened — not only the young twigs, but the growth generally, 
as was readily seen by the breaking up of the cellular tissue of many trees 
and shrubs hitherto considered hardy. 

There was also much cloud during the previous summer, and June, July, 
and August furnished a greater rainfall than any of the other months of the 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 341 

year. Of the ninety-two days of these three months there were only ten on 
which rain did not fall. 

The severe frost of December, J 860, when the temperature here went down 
to 9° below zero, destroyed many fine trees and shrubs ; Oaks, Yews, Hollies, 
Box, &c., however, were not hurt. But it has been otherwise with the frost 
of 1879. Oaks have suffered much, and although none have been killed, yet 
the condition of a few is such that it remains a question if they will ever make 
fine trees. All the young shoots, many of the small branches and several 
large ones have been destroyed. Under some of the trees the ground was 
covered with dead twigs during the summer, that had dropped off as the trees 
came into leaf, which was unusually late, as nearly all the buds that would 
have produced young shoots had perished ; and other buds— what may perhaps 
be called latent buds— were destined to take their place in furnishing the 
means of the growth of the tree. Where any of the proper buds had escaped, 
the growth of the shoot was exceedingty rapid, producing in some cases long 
willow-like growths with large unshapely leaves of great substance. The 
longest of these that I found measured six feet ten inches. This shoot was 
taken from an oak eight feet in circumference at four feet from the ground. 
The leaves on this shoot were not remart able, measuring only about six inches 
long, but large oak leaves were very rommon on this tree and many others — 
the largest I have is 12J inches by 7 inches broad. The trunks of oak trees, 
although not frost-split, were hurt, as was seen in the operation of peeling 
them for bark. From an unequal distribution of the sap, large patches of the 
bark adhered persistently to the wood. 

As regards Hollies, many of them are dead, a few slightly hurt, others very 
much ; but wherever there were signs of life in any of them, they have been 
left, if peradventure they may recover from the injury they have sustained. 
It may be worthy of remark that here there were two very old Hollies and 
one has been killed and the other has escaped ; they were of the same variety, 
their age is not known. The dimensions of the one that was killed was 34 
feet high, and with very spreading branches ; the trunk short and 9 feet 
7 inches in circumference. The one that is left is much taller, but not near 
so spreading. 

It was not seen that Yews had sufitered so much till mid -summer, when one 
branch after another continued to die till late in the autumn. In early spring 
it was evident that some would die, but many kept their verdure till summer 
and even autumn before the leaves changed their hue. The large yew hedge 
on either side of the green walk escaped unhurt ; its broad dense top kept a 
heavy coating of snow throughout the intense frost, which, doubtless, formed 
a good protection. 

One Wellingtonia gigantea has been killed, the others are hurt. Walnuts 
were very much destroyed, in one the large branches are dead to the trunk. 
Juniperus Virginiana (Red Cedar) and Cedrus Atlantica, like the Yews, have 
gone off bit by bit ; out of seven trees of the latter, only two remain. As for 
Cedrus Deodar a, all are dead. Elders, Briars (Dog Rose), and Privets in the 
woods are much hurt and made little growth. 

From what has been said of these hardy trees and shrubs, the fate of those 
less hardy will be readily conceived. When speaking of only what is hardy 



342 



On the Efeds of the Winter of 1879-80. 



it may be mentioned that, in the garden, Cherries and Plums stood the frost 
well, but Apples and Pears suffered greatly ; not only were the fruit buds 
killed, bub in many cases the spurs perished. The fact may also be referred 
to, that in trees of the same sort growing side by side, one has been killed 
and another unhurt. The most striking examples are amongst the Yews and 
Hollies. ■ 

Intense as the frost was in December, 1879, it has not been less so in Janu- 
ary, 1881, but as the former was so destructive, the latter had less to do. 
Fortuaately, the summer of 1880 was more favourable to vegetation than 
1879, and consequently the ripening process was more complete. 

It may be of some interest to append the readings of the thermometers 
during tie period of the late low temperature, that they may be compared 
with the above : — 



Date. 1881. 


Max. 


Min. 


9 a.m. 


January 13 


29«' 


10° 


26° 


., 14 


23 


—4 


17 


„ 15 


23 


—8 


2 


„ 16 


17 


—16 


—6 


„ 17 


4 


—12 


—16 


„ 18 


25 


10 


2 


„ 19 


28 


6 


23 


„ 20 


25 


—2 


16 


» 21 


26 


2 


6 


„ 22 


34 


22 


24 


„ 23 


35 


—6 


25 


„ 24 


29 


10 


9 


„ 25' 


29 


-8 


12 


„ 26 


10 


—11 


-7 


., 27 


30 


18 


18 



On comparing these readings of the thermometers it will be found that the 
temperature of 1879 went three times below zero, as marked thus — , whereas 
in 1881 it has gone below zero eight times. 



Woodside, Kelso. By Francis Douglas, M.D. 

We have pretty well gauged the effects of last year's intense frost here* 
Laurels all killed to the ground ; -Acubas killed altogether ; old Holly trees, 
over 80 years of age, either killed to the ground or having some vitality in, 
the stems alone— whether they wiU survive another winter remains to be seen. 
Our Yews have suffered severely— some killed altogether, and others losing 
great branches and causing most unsightly prunings. Walnuts frosted for 
ten or twelve feet, and foliage now chiefly from old stems— recovery doubtful. 
Sweet Jasmine altogether killed. Yellow Jasmine uninjured, as are Mahonias, 
Cypresses, and Retinosporas. Ehododendrons and Azaleas also uninjured* 
Most of my herbaceous and alpine plants escaped injury, being protected by 
8 or 9 inches of snow when the thermometer was 13° below zero. The Balsam 
Poplar usually has short foliage, but one here, in the latter part of the season, 
produced leaves nearly a foot long, by 5 or 6 inches broad. 
October, 1880. 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 343 

Notes on Effects of Frost of Winter, 1879-80, at Floors Gardens. 
By Mr Heney Knight. 

The past winter of 1879-80 was most disastrous to vegetation generally in 
this neighbourhood. In giving a short summary of the damage done, I may 
instance the almost entire destruction of the Portugal Laurels. These, in 
many cases, are entirely killed where the snow had been suspended by trees 
overhead, but where the snow had not been so suspended they are saved ; the 
roots, at least, which during the past summer have made a fair amount of 
growth. Taking the Portugal Laurel as the evergreen plant that suffered 
most of any, the Holly may be named next in order. Out of a large number 
of old trees which had grown tall and lanky, it was found that few were 
worth leaving, they had got so much damage ; they were therefore cut over 
at two feet or so from the ground, and now they are all making good growths, 
and will ultimately make good bushy plants. A singular fact in connection 
with the holly is, that it was found the variegated variety was not so much 
damaged as the green kind — that, in reality, the variegated was hardier than 
the green. The Yew suffered next in order ; but some varieties were much 
hardier, such as the Irish Yew, than others, and little or no damage was done 
to them. Some trees that have a portion of their branches left will have still 
to be cut over in order that they may ultimately make some sort of uniform 
plant. A Yew hedge here, some 2-5 years old, was cruelly punished — some 
parts of it at least again showing the weakness of varieties as compared with 
others. This is a serious damage, as it forms an evergreen wall to a vegetable 
garden. The common Bay Laurel, by the acre, had to be cut over to the 
ground, and these are all making more or less strong growths again. Few 
of these evergreens were killed outright, being very much hardier than the 
Portugal variety, which is not to be wondered at seeing that in France the 
Portugal has been injured some seasons when the Magnolia grandiflora has 
been uninjured. Ehododendrons have proved the hardiest of all our ever- 
greens on the whole, especially the hybrids of the North American and 
Caucasus species. Some varieties of Fonticum, and varieties in which the 
arboreum blood has been introduced have been killed. In future planting, 
therefore, preference should be given to the hybrids of the two first named 
species as they are quite as beautiful flowers. Boxwood was seriously dam- 
aged on low ground ; indeed everything showed a weaker tendency on low 
hollows, and more especially on low water courses ; the effects of the frost 
were distinctly traced on such places, and no doubt the glass would here have 
indicated some degrees more frost than where it was. As it was, we regis- 
tered 10° below zero, or 42° of frost. Many other plants suffered very 
considerably, such as Roses, Coniferse, and brushwood of various kinds. 
Eoses on conservative walls were killed to the ground. Standards were 
killed outright, and Dwarf Eoses in beds were killed to the snow line, which 
is enough to point to a warning only to plant Dwarfs in future. Shrubs, sach 
as Aucuba, Laurestinus, and Kalmia were bitten to the snow line also. 
Amongst the Conifers, the tenderest seem to be the Cedrus Beodara and the 
Araucaria, both of which are seriously damaged, but not killed as in some 
places ; but this may be accounted for by the protection afforded by glass- 
houses close by. Oais were seriously injured; one, two, and three year- old 



344 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

■woods were killed on many varieties, but as far as seen, none outright, though 
in many cases the bark of both Oak and other trees was split up somewhat 
similar to what was found on the Portugal Laurel and Holly. This will in a 
year or two be seen more fully, no doubt. Fruit trees suffered in a large de- 
^gree, for the frost came on us when the trees were in full leaf and full of sap. 
Many Apricot and Apple trees were killed outright, minus the stock, or other- 
wise so damaged that renewal is found necessary in many cases ; as in some 
varieties four year old wood was killed, and the older branches so split that 
they had to be cut out entirely. Some varieties of the common Ivy were also 
killed, and in all cases the leaves were killed as well as the current year's 
growth. 

November 2^th, 1880. 



Floors and Bowmont Forest. By Mr Samuel Eeid. 

The Oak trees at Floors some two, and others of three years growth were 
cut off ; Spanish Chestnuts in the nursery were cut to the ground ; Cedrus 
Deodara was very much cut up ; also in young "Wellingtonia the leaders were 
all cut off. Of Yew trees, where much exposed the tops died off. Hollies 
were all cut back. In shrubs. Bay Laurels, Portugal Laurels, and Laures- 
tinus, were ail cut to the ground. Aucuba was treated similarly. 

Mahonia and Rhododendrons are the two shrubs not injured by the frost. 
At Floors, trees that have escaped are Ash, Beech, Birch, Horse Chestnut, Elm, 
Wych, and English, Laburnum, Lime, Sycamore, Poplars, Larch, Scotch 
Fir, and Spruce. Abies Bouglasi, Silver Fir, Picea nobilis, P. Nordmanniana, 
Finus Austriaca, P. Cemhra, F. Zaricio, Thujo^^sis Borealis, and Cupresus 
Lawsoniana, have all escaped without injury. The lowest temperature at 
Floors was 13° below zero. At Bowmont Forest the damage is very light. 
The trees are mostly Larch, Scotch Fir, and Spruce, which stood the frost 
without injury. There are a few Oaks which were not in the least affected. 
Shrubs that were cut to the ground at Floors, were not damaged here. Green 
Hollies, Aucuba Japonica, and Bay Laurels were not injured ; but it is quite 
a change when you get down to the Kale-banks, just below Caverton Mill. 
In that quarter there are a good many Oaks that are quite dead, a great deal 
worse than they were at Floors ; where nearest to the water, most damage 
has been done. I have no account of the temperature at Bowmont Forest. 

2ith Nov., 1880. 



Ormiston House. By William B. Boyd, Esq. 

The winter of 1879 and 1880 was one of the most severe within my recol- 
lection. The storm commenced on the 1st Dec, with a fall of snow 8^ inches 
deep, with the thermometer shewing 12* of frost, which increased in inten- 
sity till the morning of the 4th Dec, when the thermometer at daybreak 
shewed 50° of frost, or 18° below zero. My thermometer was quite unpro- 
tected, and only 2| feet from the ground. The damage done to trees and 
shrubs was great, and would have been more so had we not had a good cover- 
ing of snow, AU the Oak trees growing below an elevation of 60 feet above 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 845 

the river Teviot, had all the leading shoots killed, and seemed otherwise quite 
dead ; most of them, however^ in ahout two months after the usual time of 
sprouting, made young leaves from the main trunk and some from the 
branches, and others again, have made no leaves at all. Those trees which 
sprouted again have made unusually large leaves (nearly double the ordinary 
size), and the danger will be that with another severe winter on the unripened 
wood the trees wiU be killed entirely. Many other trees suffered as well as 
the Oaks, viz.— Spanish Chestnut, Planes, Elms, and Ashes ; in these many of 
the branches and last year's woods are dead, and the trees wiU be long before 
they assume their original shape, if ever they do so. 

Shrubs also suffered severely, the following were all killed to the ground 
Yews, Hollies, Box, Cupressus Lawsoni, Picea Finsapo, Araucaria imbricata, 
Portugal and common Laurels, Jasminum nudijlorum, Wistaria Sinensis, many 
old apple trees. Peach trees on the wall and Apricots, Schumac, Privet, 
Laburnum, both Scotch and common, and all the Roses, Pernettya mucronata 
and aU the EscaUonias, besides many others. My house here is covered with 
a great variety of Climbing plants, and the only three that were not killed 
down or damaged were Atragene Austriaca, Frunus Sinensis, fl. pi., and Acer 
negundo variegata. From Kelso aU the way to Mounteviot up to an elevation 
of 60 feet above the river Teviot, the Oaks and Spanish Chestnuts are affected 
in the way I have mentioned. Herbaceous and Alpine plants were nothing 
the worse, having such a good covering of snow, in fact some plants such as 
the Libertias, Francoas, and Montbretias which unusually require protection 
were quite unhurt in the open border. 

Oct. 21th, 1880. 



Jedhurgh. By Mr John Hilson. 

The destruction of trees and shrubs by the dreadful severity of the frost of 
Dec. 4th, 1879, is unexampled in this district. Gentlemen's grounds are fuU 
of gaps from the havoc committed. Yews, Ehns, Young Oaks, Rhododendra, 
Laurels, Ivies, and Hollies, all have suffered a fatal blight. The work of 
death was gradual, for it was far into spring, and some extent into summer, 
before vitality shewed itself as hopeless in the trees. Nothing like it here- 
abouts is remembered. All agree that it was the above date which witnessed 
the blow. People unite in saying that it exceeded in severity anything ever 
felt in the valleys of the south of Scotland. I was at Torquay at the time, 
and there the cold was intense, a dry skin-flaying rigour of climate which the 
Channel air did nothing to moUify. A friend in Kelso teUs me that in that 
town the frost was so arctic in keenness that if you grasped an iron handle of 
a pump, the skin of the hand would be left attached. The rest of the winter 
here was not so severe, and when New Year was past it became milder than 
we had it in Devonshire. 

Sept. 2nd, 1880. 



Mounteviot. By Mr John Page. 

I have looked up the weather account, as kept at the gardens here, for the 
the year 1879, showing the height above the sea level, number of wet days, 



846 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 



amount of rain, the greatest heat and severest frost, height of the thermometer 
above ground, with list of plants and trees killed to the ground or severely 
damaged. 

The height of Jedhurgh Market Place is 269 feet above sea level, and the 
gardens here are about the same. 

100 parts to an inch. 



Wet days. 


Days. 


Total for each month. 


January 


3 


•27 lOths of an inch. 


February . . 


12 


. 1-14 




March 


14 


. 1-46 




April 


7 


•76 




May 


10 


. MO 




June 


17 


. 2-98 




July 


13 


. 3.43 




August 


18 


. 2-14 




September .. 


8 


•92 




October 


7 


•83 




November .. 


5 


•97 




December .. 


— 


— 


5 inches snow. 



Eain 114 days. 14 inches. 

August had most wet days : July had the greatest fall of rain. The greatest 
fall of rain in one day during the year was on July 15th, when '84 fell. 
The greatest heat, August Uth, was 75" 
„ 12th, „ 73 
„ 14th, „ 70 
Sept. 6th, „ 70 
These are the only four days when the thermometer reached 70® and 
upwards. 

The severest frost occurred on Wednesday, 3rd, and Thursday, 4th, Dec, 
1879. Thermometer, as noted in my pocket book, commencing on the 3rd at 
8 a.m : — 



8 a.m. 33° 


frost 


1 below zero. 


2 p.m. 12° 


frost. 




12 noon 23 


„ 




4 p.m. 24 


,, 




2 p.m. 12 


jj 




9 p.m. 26 


jj 


6* above zero. 


4 p.m. 32 


>> 


at zero. 


5th. 






9 p.m. 38 


» 


6" below zero. 


8 am. 33 


ft 


1^ below zero. 


4th. 






4 p.m. 29 


» 




8 a.m. 45 


jj 


13' below zero. 


6th. 






10 a.m. 30 


jj 


2° above zero. 


8 a.m. 27 


>> 




12 a.m. 22 


» 




4 p.m. 24 







This frost commenced on November 23rd, and continued every night up 
to December 13th ; it then broke for two nights, 14th and 15th, when the 
thermometer stood at minimum, 3o° and 30° respectively, being 3° and 7° 
above freezing point. The thermon: oters sto )d abovo ground 2 feet 6 inches, 
and were exposed, exceit for a small ledge of f 'ood above them. Thermometers 
(registering ones) made by Adie & S^n, Edinburgh. 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 



847 



List of Trees and Shrubs killed and disabled :— 



Oaks, 1 and 2. 

Yews, 1 and 2. 

Tree Box, 1. 

Hollies, all kinds, 1. 

Ivies of sorts, 1 and 2. 

Laurels— Portugal, Bays, and 
» Sweet Bays, 1. 

Chestnuts, sweet, 1 and 2. 
. Magnolias, 2. 
. Figs, 1. 
. Eoses, old varieties on walls, 1. 

Clematis, on walls, 1 and 2. 
. EscaUonia macrantha, 1. 
. Berberis Darwinii, 1. 
. Buddlea globosa, 1. 

Yellow Broom, 1. 

Whin or Furze, 1. 

Deodaras, 1 and 2. 

WeUingtonias, 1 and 2. 

Araucaria (three stood unscathed 
on Penilheugh), 1 and 2. 
. Pampas Grass, 1. 
. Arundo conspicua, 1. 
. Tritomas much weakened, 
although covered. 



Ehododendrons ponticums and 
hybrids, some fine old bunches, 
1 and 2. 

Aucubas, 1. 

Cotoneaster macrophyUa, 1 and 2. 

Crataegus Pyracantha, 1. 

Cydonia Japonica, 1 and 2. 
. Gum Cistus, 1. 

Garrya eUiptica, 1. 
. Forsythia Fortunfei, 1. 

Privet, common, 1 and 2. 

Paidownia imperialis, 1. 
. Olea ilicifolia, 1. 
. Ehaphiolepis ovata, 1. 

Eibes sanguineum, 1 and 2. 

Santolina, 1. 
. Spanish Broom, 1 . 

Viburnum tinus, 1. 

Akebia quinata, 1. 
. Yucca recurvifolia, 1 and 2, 
and 2. 



Yucca gloriosa, 
Eose Acacia, 1. 
Walnuts, 2. 

Eetinospora Ericoides, 1 and 2. 
Picea Pinsapo, 2. 
Apples, 1 and 2. 
Pears, 1 and 2. 

Note. — 1 means killed, and 2 severely injured. A dot in front of the names 
means they were covered with hay, straw, or mats. 

Owing to a coating of snow at the time all Herbaceous plants were safe. 
The Temperature was low aU that summer only rising to 75°, and that for 
one day only, and only reaching 70° four times during the summer. I have 
only given the number of days on which rain fell. There were also a great 
many dull days, that is days wanting sun but no rain fell. 

Altogether it was a wet, dull, and sunless summer, with a very low tem- 
perature. All Tender Annuals perished in the flower garden after being 
raised in heat, and hardened off, such as Zinnias, Salpiglossises, Mesembry- 
anthemums and a host of such things. In the kitchen garden, French Beans 
would not grow, nor Vegetable Marrows unless under glass ; Tomatoes on 
walls would not grow. Peas were one month later in filling in early summer. 
Fruits would not ripen. Strawberries were quite insipid. Owing to the death 
of shrubs, &c., the appearance of the flower garden is quite altered— the frame, 
as it were, having been taken from the picture. 

Among the plants that stood the severity of the vdnter untouched were 
Mahonias; and without any protection, Thujopsis dolobrata, Ampelopsis 
Veitchii on walls, Aristolochia Sipho, Wistaria Sinensis, Weigelia rosea. 

The simimer of 1880 was fine ; but owing to the Oaks having to break out 
qi old wood, which caused them to be much later, and consequently to be in 

lE 



348 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

an unripe state, I am very mucli afraid that that unprecedented frost in 
October, 1880, when the thermometer went 3° below zero will finish what the 
year 1879 began. If so, Oaks in the flower garden here, which I have no 
doubt are 200 years old, will aU perish. 
January IZth, 1881. 



Minto House Ga/rdens. By Mr John Galloway. 

1878-9.— I am sorry I can give you no reliable information, as regards the 
damage done on the banks of the river Teviot upwards, but it evidently must 
have been great owing to the amount of debris that came down the morning 
following the memorable night of the 28th December last. The storm com- 
menced on the 1st December, 1878, and broke up on the 5th February, 1879, 
except three fresh days we had on the 12th, 13th, and 14th, of January, 1878. 

The thermometer feU as low as 30° of frost during that time. 

The damage done to plants and shrubs was very trifling, except that I lost 
some Pampas grass, and a few Tritomas. 

1879-80.— Frost set ia again on the 28th of November following, with 10" 
of black frost for three nights runnirig. and 3 inches of snow on the day fol- 
lowing. 

December 1st, 11° of frost, 2nd 27°, 3rd, 4° below zero, and on the morn- 
ing of the 4th was the lowest that was registered here, 8° below zero ; on 
the 5th at zero, 6th, 17°, 7th, 15°, 8th, 24°, 9th, 23°, 10th, 12=^, Uth, 17^. 
12th, 17°, The thermometer was standing exposed 4 feet above ground. 

"We had fresh weather from the 5th to the 9th January, and the storm 
broke up on 28th January, 1880. 

The damage sustained by trees and shrubs, owing to the last severe winter 
I have mentioned, was almost exclusively confined to Laurestinuses, Euony- 
muses. Acacias, Jasmines, Oarrya elliptica and Cotoneaster ; all those I have 
mentioned are on Minto House, and under the shelter of a balcony, and are 
aU more or less iajured by frost. Laurestines were frozen to the ground, but 
are all coming away from the root. 

Hollies, Portugal Laurels, and Laurel -Bays. — Those that were well 
exposed to the Ught, were only partially destroyed, but those that were under 
the shelter of trees in lower ground were all frosted, but are coming away 
from the root. Of two of Thuja gigantea, not over 20 yards apart, one is al- 
most frosted to the ground, the other is scorched the same as if it had been 
done by fire. 

Peaches, Pear, Apple and Apricot Trees.— The frost struck the trees 
while their leaves were quite green. It froze them through and fixed them 
on The withered leaves shrivelled as if fire had at once scorched and fixed 
them. This gave the trees a ghastly death-like appearance. Some of the 
green wood shared a fate similar to that of the leaves and was severely 
bruised and discoloured. The branches have all the appearance of the cold 
having hit them a violent blow, or as if they had been held vice-Uke in the 
cold crushing gripe of the frost. 

But now October 1st, I am pleased to say that all the trees are in a duly 
healthy condition, and I have gathered a nice crop of fruit off them all §xcept 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 349 

Apple and Pear trees. Out of a collection of 400 dwarf Roses, I did not loss 
one. Of Standards, I nearly lost all. 

The only Forest tree that was spoiled by frost, was the Elm, which was split. 

The Estates of WeUs and Cavers suffered rather more by the severe frost 
of 1879-80, than has been experienced at Minto. 
Oct., 1880. 

SELKIEKSHIEE. 

On the Effects of the Winter, 1879-80, on Gardens, Shrulleries, Sj-e., 

in Selkirkshire. By the Eev. James Faeqtjhaeson, M.A., 

Selkirk. 

The winter of 1879-80 differed in several respects from that of 1878-79, 

The cold, whUe it lasted, was much more intense ; but it passed away quickly. 

While the six months' winter of 1878-79 was characterised by a uniformly 

low temperature, scarce relieved by any milder interval, that of 1879-80 was 

notable for a sudden dip into intense cold at the beginning of the season. The 

thermometer in many places fell below zero in the beginning of December ; 

but after that " cold snap " the winter months were comparatively mild. The 

difference between the two seasons wiU be seen by a glance at the average 

thermometrical readings for the various months, which have been obligingly 

furnished to me by Mr Mathison, from the Meteorological Society's Station 

at Bowhill. 



1878-79. 


Max. 


Min. 


1879-80 


Max. 


Min. 


October 


53-19 


43-26 


October. 


53-22 


35-70 


November 


41-10 


32-60 


November 


45-50 


33-27 


December 


34-09 


25-32 


December 


39-40 


26-25 


January 


34-25 


23-58 


January 


37-27 


28-16 


February 


36-96 


28-57 


February 


45-22 


35-00 


March 


42-30 


31-23 


March 


49-90 


30-29 


AprU 


47-10 


33-80 


April 


52-00 


35-14 



In 1879-80 the lowest readings were — in November, 2nd, 23°, 14th, 21° 
15th, 22° ; in Dec, 2nd, 19°, 3rd, 8°, 4th, 3° ; in Jan., 14th and 19th, 19°, 
20th, 15° ; in Feb., 9th, 27° ; in March, 19th, 22° ; and in April, 30th, 25°. 

It will be observed that the thermometer reached its minimum at Bowhill 
on Dec. 4th, 1879, when it stood at 3°. BowhiU, however, stands at some 
height above the river, and is much sheltered by wood ; and at several more 
exposed places down the valley of the Ettrick, and on a level with the river, 
the readings on the same day were considerably below zero. But keen as the 
frost was, it was not so intense in this upland district as that reported from 
the lower reaches of the Tweed ; and its influence on vegetation, although 
sufficiently destructive, was not so disastrous as in many low -lying districts 
along the Borders, It is evident also from the reports about to be referred to 
that the injurious effects of the cold diminished as the elevation increased, and 
were less marked at Ettrick Manse near the head of the vaUey than in this 
Parish at its lower end. 

In estimating the influence of the winter in question on vegetation, it must 
also be borne in mind that the preceding summer (1879) had been exception- 



350 On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 

ally cold and wet. The young wood of slirubs and trees had, in consequence, 
to encounter the blighting frost in an unripened state, and suffered much 
more than would have been the case after a summer of average character. 

I have endeavoured to make the inquiry as to Selkirkshire more complete 
than in the note furnished for the Proceediags last year, and have been fa- 
voured with short reports, bearing on the state of matters in their respective 
neighbourhoods, from Lord Napier and Ettrick, Thirlestane Castle ; the Rev. 
Dr Eussell, Yarrow Manse ; J. W. Dennistoun, Esq., the Hangingshaw ; the 
Eev. Mr Falconer, Ettrick Manse ; and Mr James Mathison, Bowhill. 

Selkirk (500 to 600 feet above the sea), Bowhill (592), and Hangingshaw 
(600), all in the lower part of our two valleys, elevated considerably above 
the rivers, and surrounded with wood, may be regarded as subject nearly to 
the same weather conditions. Yarrow Manse (660) is nine miles above Sel- 
kirk, and on tho banks of the river, without sheltering wood ; while Thirles- 
tane Castle (woods ranging from 750 to 950), and Ettrick Manse (780) are 
respectively 17J and 19 miles above Selkirk, the former surrounded by thick 
plantations, the latter more exposed. There is thus considerable variety, 
both of elevation and exposure, in the places embraced in this report. My 
queries were the same to each correspondent, and the results may be sum- 
marised as follows. 

1. Forest Trees. — Uninjured throughout the county. 

2. Shrubs and Shrubby Trees. — At Selkirk Manse, none killed, al- 
though the whole young wood, the growth of 1879, was destroyed. Some 
of the larger and older hollies at Bowhill and Hangingshaw killed. Mr 
Dennistoun remarks that those " which suffered most had an immense crop 
of berries last year" (1879). - Common £ ay and. Portugal Laurels; at Selkirk 
and Hangingshaw, much injured, some killed. At Bowhill, suffered little. 
Tew : tips of more exposed branches browned : none killed. Laurestinus, 
Aucuba, Escallonia, Herberts Darwinii : killed- "With these exceptions shrubs 
generally withstood the frost. The Deodars on Howebottom, much exposed, 
escaped Tinscathed. 

At Yarrow, Thirlestane, and Ettrick, no injury was done to Solli/, or Yetv ; 
and Laurels were not much more injured than by an ordinary winter. Dr 
Russell writes "The holly shrubs, and hedges at Yarrow Manse, though 
near and almost on a level with the river, were not in the least injured by the 
frost." Contrast this with the vigorous holly hedge at Roxburgh Manse 
(200 feet above the sea) cut down to the ground. 

In all parts of the country Rhododendrons, both Ponticum and Sybrid, 
stood the winter well ; but the flower-buds were killed, so that Rhododen- 
dron blossom was a rarity in 1880. 

3. Whin and Broom. — In the lower districts greatly injured ; a large pro- 
portion of the bushes killed. Less hurt in the upper part of the country. 
Dr. Russell and Mr Falconer report the Broom unusually rich in blossom in 
the summer of 1880. 

4. Garden Vegetables. — Brocoli, Brussels Sprouts, Winter Cabbage, &c., 
suffered a good deal, but were not wholly destroyed as in the previous winter. 
In the Manse Garden here there was an excellent crop of these vegetables in 
spring ; and in almost all varieties of Garden Vegetables grown by me the 



On the Effects of the Winter of 1879-80. 351 

season of 1880 was, I thiak, the most productive I have known for twenty 
years. In the district generally, there was a good supply of vegetables. 
Fortunately, in December, 1879, snow lay deep on the ground during the pre- 
valence of the severe frost, and protected the humbler growths of the garden. 

5. Fruit Trees. — Apples, Tears, and Plums, a failure. Small fruit, a fair 
or abundant crop in all the gardens reported on, except in Ettrick, where 
Lord Napier and Mr Falconer speak of a deficiency in Black Currants, a fruit 
which ordinarily grows there in great perfection. 

6. Floweeino Trees. — Owing probably more to the unripened state of 
their young wood than to the severity of the frost, these seem to have suffered 
severely. AU the reports except one speak of scanty blossom on Horse Chest- 
nut, Laburnum, &c., in the summer of 1880, The Hawthorn, indeed, maybe 
said not to have blossomed at aU. Such hardy natives as the Hazel and the 
Sloe produced no fruit. The only exception to the somewhat dismal tale 
comes from Ettrick, Mr Falconer reporting, "Manse Chestnuts were most 
luxuriant in flower." 

This last remark recalls the observation already made as to the decrease of 
injury in proportion to the increase of elevation. The reports from Yarrow, 
Thirlestane, and Ettrick testify to less injury from the December frost than 
was experienced in this lower region of the county ; and I have no doubt the 
whole county will compare favourably with what is recorded of less hilly 
districts nearer the sea level. Unfortunately I have been unable to obtain an 
accurate record of the temperature in Ettrick. My informants say they do 
believe the thermometer was lower than 5° below zero on the 'coldest night. 



Frost of 1819 at Ashiesteel. By Miss Etjssell. 

The severe frost of November or December, 1879, at Ashiesteel, as in other 
places, did most mischief among large old shrubs, &c. The way in which 
young shoots escaped is surprising. Although the greater part of the more 
modem Eoses had to be cut down nearly to the ground, a Gloire de Dijon, 
which had been so cut down a year before on account of the wood being old 
and not growing, had three or more strong green shoots of which even the 
leaves were not frosted. 

(It may be remarked that if the frost did not cut down Tea Eoses so often 
as it does, they would have to be cut down otherwise ; for their strong growths, 
like those of the Briar, begin to go back after a few seasons. In fact, being 
felled occasionally is nearly the only pruning a strong-growing Tea Eose 
should have). 

A young Apricot, which was not thriving, was killed dead on a south wall. 
Another, and two Peach Trees, on the same wall little hurt. The Chimonan' 
thus fragans had the shoots blackened at the ends. Of several shrubby 
Althaeas — shrubby Mallows or hardy Hibiscuses— which had been lately 
planted, three survived the winter without being cut over, but two were late 
of coming into leaf, and it is doubtful how they and some other things may 
stand the ensuing winter, for the shoots could not be ripened. This shrub 



352 Motto of a Silver Coin, by James Hardy. 

does very well on walls about Edinburgh.. A shrubby Hypericum is now 
growing strongly from the root. 

Two young plants of Spiraea Lindleyana, planted among grass, coming up 
from the roots. The Spirma ariaefolia is perfectly hardy, also an old-fash- 
ioned pink Spircea still remaining as a hedge where there was an old vegetable 
garden in the east end of the haugh. This last is a valuable shrub for damp 
ground. The White Broom much injured, if not killed. Portugal Laurels, 
some of which were going back from other frosts, or merely from age, are 
very much injured A very large old one, of which the original stem must 
be something like four feet round, and which has long had dead wood about 
it, is not so leafless as the others, from being sheltered. Some young Ehodo- 
dendrons near the lower lodge are quite or nearly lolled, though of the early 
crimson class ; some of different kinds near the upper lodge are not touched. 

The only things to be much regretted are the injury to two very large 
Hollies near the house, which have been aU but killed, and are much dis- 
figured. They have been in the habit of bearing enormous crops of red and 
yellow berries respectively ; whether this was the cause or the indication of 
a weakened state. Xone of the Hollies without berries seem to have been 
frosted at aU. And that done to the old fruit-trees on the lawn, of which the 
Pear-tree and one of the Apples look half dead ; they were much covered with 
lichen, and were certainly very old ; but it is difficult to believe they have 
been really killed by frost. The sweet-scented garden Clematis fiammula is 
dead in several places ; the C. Vitalba, or Traveller's Joy, not injured ; this 
latter is supposed to be a native of England. A young plant of a hardy 
American Magnolia, on a wall, is perfectly uninjured. The Fuchsia Mic- 
cartoni is in aU respects a hardy perennial at Ashiesteel, dying down each 
season. The height of Ashiesteel, from 450 to 600 feet above the sea. 
October, 1880. 



Motto of a Silver Coin of the Emperor Charles V., found 

at Kelso. By James Haedt. 
In Vol. Vm. of the Club's ''Proceedings," p. 548, is a notice 
of a Spanish silver coin of the age of Charles V., and his mother 
Joanna, found at Kelso in 1879. The central device on the 
reverse consisted of two crowned pillars placed amidst the waves 
of the sea, but two of the letters of the legend being rubbed 
could not be accurately deciphered. The true reading is PLVS 
VLTR. The two pillars represent the PiUars of Hercules, the 
utmost gateway of the world, according to the ancient acceptance. 
The original phrase was NE PLVS VLTEA, '' No more beyond," 
but when Columbus had revealed a new continent, the two graven 
pillars looking out upon the deep were still retained, but a word 
was struck out of the motto, which then became PLVS VLTEA, 
" More beyond," 



353 

Scraps relating to Natural History in North Northumber- 
land. By Charles Murray Adamson, Esq., Newcastle. 

CoLiAs Edusa. — Being more interested in Birds than Insects, I 
will merely make some remarks about Butterflies, and be done 
with, the subject. In 1877, we were as usual at Holy Island in 
August and September. The Butterflies we met with were, first 
in importance, Coltas Edusa, the others the Meadow Brown, Com- 
mon Blue, Tortoise-shell, Painted Lady, the Small White, and the 
Grayling. With respect to the last, being not so well up in the 
subject as I ought to have been, I thought it was the Wall ; but 
having brought one home, Mr. Hancock on seeing it pronounced 
it the Grayling. This shows how cautious one should be in posi- 
tively stating a circumstance, and consequently how often mis- 
takes arise and occur in writing about species met with. About 
Col'ias iEdusa, which was not uncommon in some places that year, 
I and one of my children saw one in our own garden at North 
Jesmond on the 17th June, 1877, the first we ever saw on the 
wing. On the 29th August, at Holy Island, we saw one. At the 
time we saw it, Ethel and I were looking for a Green Sandpiper. 
I tried to catch the butterfly, she taking hold of my gun, and 
lending me her hat, mine being a very soft one, but I failed to 
do so, it flew so quickly when chased. It was within a yard of 
me twice, when it settled on a Hawkweed flower, nearly the colour 
of itself, on the side of a sand hill. On September 3rd we also 
saw another, and on the 11th, two were caught and two others 
seen by my elder son, who has since sent me a large collection of 
butterflies from the Karen Hills and other parts of Burmah. On 
the 16th, a sunny day, but with a cold N.W. wind, twelve were 
caught, and on that day they were actually common. Of those 
caught, nine were males and three females. I copy from my 
notes : — " They were very difficult to run down. The first was 
caught after a very long chase ; but afterwards, by allowing them 
to settle, which they often did on the Hawkweed and Lady's 
Finger, they were more easily captured. Mary caught by far the 
greatest number. We had neither nets nor boxes, but we found 
amongst us two pins on which we stuck the butterflies sideways, 
and in this manner they received very little damage." On the 
I7th, on another part of the Island, one was seen, but there might 
have been plenty of them, as we did not look for them. On the 
18tii, one was caught by Mary; and, on the 26th, one was caught 



854 Scraps relating to Natural History, By C. M. Adamson. 

on the Heugh, and others were seen flying along the road as we 
were leaving the Island to come home. Now, from the numbers 
there were that year, any one would naturally expect the insect 
would firmly establish itself, and that in future years it would 
be met with ; but such has evidently not been the case, as I have 
not seen or heard of one since. What is the cause ? Perhaps 
some persons might say we caught them all. Such a notion is 
absurd, as it was no easy matter to catch them, for they fly very 
fast when going with the wiad, as they seem always to do, and 
running amongst the sand hills is pretty hard work. Sometimes 
one had to be chased a great distance before being run down, and 
many that were run after escaped easily. One singular circum- 
stance with respect to the genus " Oolias" is that a species closely 
allied to Edusa, inhabits Lapland and another Greenland, showing 
that temperature does not affect them ; and, if this is so, why is 
Edusa so erratic in its habits ? How can these irregularities of 
occurrence be accounted for ? Probably one insect-eating bird, 
or a mouse, would destroy at a meal more than an entomologist 
would in a season. 

Before noticing anything about individual species of Birds, I 
will say something of Holy Island, and the Slakes about it, which 
are undoubtedly great resting places at the different seasons for 
many species passing on migration, as well as feeding places for 
some species during winter. Sometimes for days you may wander 
over the Slakes without getting a shot at any bird worth shooting 
at either for food or from which to get instruction, the greater 
portion of the ground on which the birds congregate being so 
flat and without a vestige of shelter, they cannot be approached. 
Following them under these circtimstances tries any one but a 
naturalist, and often tries even his patience. It is no place gene- 
rally for ordinary sportsmen whose only wish is to get many shots 
and fiU a large bag ; but, at the same time, I may add it takes 
about as much skiQ and patience to stalk a Curlew as it probably 
often does to kill a stag. The persons who can take delight in 
such a place are those, and they only who know what birds to 
look for, and who can understand the tactics requisite to get near 
what they are looking for when they come across them. 

The naturalist looking for rare birds generally likes to be alone, 
or with one friend on whom he can rely, so as to be able to drive 
birds if necessary, and who understands as well as himself 9,bout 



Scraps relating to Natural History, by C. M. Adamson. 855 

approaching the birds, taking into consideration the state of the 
wind and tide and other circumstances. One who shoots at what- 
ever conies in his way, useful and useless, is no company for him. 

I have a tind of affection for the place, as on it I have spent 
so much time pleasantly, and have also derived so much, to me, 
most interesting information from those of its productions I have 
been so fortunate as to meet with in my frequent rambles. I 
may state that I cannot be too thankful for all my life having 
taken great interest in Nature's works : the study of these, at 
any rate, seems to harmlessly occupy one's spare time, which 
unfortunately, unless one has similar tastes, is too frequently 
very ill spent ; and I here add my sincere thanks to Mr Grossman, 
the lord of the manor, for his kindness in having given me per- 
mission to follow my pursuits during the last few years over his 
lands — an indulgence, I believe, not usually given, as he has a 
great dislike to aU kinds of birds being persecuted and destroyed. 

Eichaedson's Aectic Gull. — Birds of the year, as well as 
mature birds, in about equal numbers, arrive on the coast and 
are about Holy Island from the third week in August, and the 
species seems to keep passing for about a month. The numbers 
coming seem regulated by the quantity of Terns they meet 
with, on whose industry they rely. I have observed them for 
many years at this time. I once shot one feeding on the refuse 
from the fishing boats on the shore in the harbour. I think these 
birds acquire their mature plumage in the autumn of the next 
year after they are hatched, as I shot one as it flew over the sand 
hills in August, 1 878, a very interesting and pretty bird. Although 
it has many of the barred feathers (those first acquired) remain- 
ing, it is a very light coloured bird, being white from the chin 
to the tail, excepting the few barred feathers which remain. It 
is the only bird in a similar state of plumage I have seen. During 
a heavy squall with rain in the end of August, I could not help 
admiring the flight of this Gull as it chased some Terns. It was 
blowing so hard, and the rain was so heavy, I was glad to take 
shelter within the look-out on the Heugh, and just peep over to 
watch some friends coming over from the Law in a boat. One 
would have thought it a time for even this bird to take shelter. 
Not so, however ; he was as importunate for food as if it was a 
fine day ; the wind and rain apparently had not the least effect on 
his buoyant flight, and he seemed to be playing with the gale, 
turning sideways to it with the greatest ease, and turning with 

Is 



356 Scraps relating to Natural History, by C. M. Adamson. 

apparently the least exertion to Mmself, tiU he had obliged the 
Terns to give up their food, when he as usual left them to go in 
search for more or go without, he not caring so long as he got 
what he required from them. Some years they are much less 
common than others. In 1876, I only saw one fly near us when 
we were in a boat going to draw fishing lines, which flew towards 
the boat ; and it was pretty to see it as it examined a bladder 
floating to show where a line was. It seemed not to understand 
it, looking attentively at it, and turning its head sideways, so as 
to see it more distinctly as it passed fearlessly on. During the 
last days of August, 1880, we walked from Holy Island to Bam- 
borough, when we saw many of these birds flying along the coast 
backwards and forwards, and occasionally chasing the Terns as 
usual. None seemed to settle on the water, but it was amusing 
to see them in pursuit of the Terns ; in fact it reminded me of 
hawking with trained hawks, as they seemed to act in concert, or 
of coursing a hare with a couple of greyhounds. Many times 
they hunted in couples, two singling out a Tern from a flock, pro- 
bably the one which had the prize sought for ; but I could not 
give an opinion whether the two Gulls acted in concert — one to 
help the other — or that they bullied the Tern each on his own 
account, but between the two the poor Tern had apparently no 
chance till he had given up the coveted morsel, when it was left 
alone. Can any one tell us why this bird does not accompany 
the Terns on its northern migration in spring ? I never knew 
one having been procured at that season. 

Storm Petrel. — On the 10th Sept., 1876, the Storm Petrel in 
my collection was found dead by my daughter Mary on Goswick 
Sands. It had been washed up by the tide, and was as wet as it 
could be and mixed with sand. It looked like a House Martin, 
from the white mark on its back ; but so soon as I saw what it 
was I took it to the land, and in the first fresh water I found I 
washed it thoroughly, and let it dry in the wind as we went home. 
By the time we got there it was perfectly dry and as clean as ever 
it was. It was moulting some of its body feathers, was lean, but 
the cause of its death I know not. Who knows any thing about 
these birds' migrations, I wonder ? 

Common Godwit. — During the latter part of the month of 
August, in 1880, in my rambles on the slakes, I saw, as is usual 
at this time of the year, some large flocks of these birds which 
were unapproachable. I picked up several red feathers, and also 



Scraps relating to Natural History, by C. M. Adamson. 357 

some dark tail feathers of the mature birds, cast during the regu- 
lar autumnal moult from summer to winter plumage ; this proved 
some old birds were about this year at any rate. I may add there 
was at the time a continuance of south-easterly winds, which may 
have detained these old birds on their migration this year. A 
friend of mine went out with a small gun in his punt, and he shot 
several young birds ; the next day I accompanied him as a spec- 
tator to see if I could observe any red birds, but the shore is so 
wonderfully flat there are few places you can take even a punt 
near where such birds ordinarily freq[uent, and although we saw 
some Godwits in the distance, only two young birds came within 
shot, flying over the punt. Being very anxious to meet with a 
bird in. its red plumage, and being satisfied some were about by 
the feathers I had found, on the 30th August I called at the 
watcher's house and told him I was going to try to shoot a red 
Godwit. I then walked to the Sandriggs, which are very far out, 
about high tide, and the tides being poor there was little danger 
of my being overtaken. I saw many large flocks which flew out 
of sight. One flock of about twenty birds I saw coming towards me, 
and I lay flat down on the sand. I shot at the flock, which came 
high, from the north to the west of me, with a now old-fashioned 
Eley's wire green cartridge No. 3 shot. One bird came flop down 
dead, another came sloping down, and on its reaching the ground 
it immediately tried to rise again, when I saw it was winged. I 
considered it my bird. It ran like a greyhound, I after it, but 
it had the advantage of one hundred yards start. It ran towards 
a deep gut running north ; I stopped and shot at it, as I saw if it 
took to the water the wind and tide would take it away, and I 
should lose it, but being out of breath, and the bird being at a 
great distance, I could not stop it, and it took to the water like a 
little duck. When I got to the water's edge I could easily have 
killed it, but I at once saw if I killed it any further attempt to 
get it was hopeless, as a strong S,E. wind was blowing, which 
made the water rough, and I could not see its depth, the tide 
running out fast, and it was a place where there are dangerous 
quicksands, and I was obliged to give it up as a lost bird. On 
seeing how matters were, I left it to look after the other one, and 
to my delight, on picking it up, I saw its breast was red. He 
came down with such a flop his beak was broken by the fall. 
Well, I wrapped him up carefully and put him safely in my bag. 
Having done this, I retraced my steps to see if I could now 



358 Scrajps relating to Natural History , by C. M. Adamson. 

see anytMag of my other friend, or, as he would probably con- 
sider me, bis enemy ; as the water was rough, I thought if he 
could, on my departure, he would come ashore ; but I could see 
nothing of it, though I searched attentively, and I concluded it 
must have been carried out to sea. However, as I could not cross 
the gut where I was, I went to the ford at some distance further 
south, and came back on the opposite side of the gut, all the way 
looking for it in case it had got across. By the time I got to the 
other side the tide had run out considerably, and the shore was 
stony, and if it had got there and had crouched on my getting 
near it, I could not have seen it, the extent of shore being now 
so great, and therefore I was obliged to wend my way back with- 
out it. However I was content with the one I had, and «n pass- 
ing the watcher's house I had the satisfaction of showing him 
the bird I in the morning told him I was going to try to get. 
Though I was almost certain the other bird had been carried out 
to sea by the wind and tide, I followed the same route next day, 
but saw no Godwits. The following day also I went the same 
journey, still thinking I might find the bird if it had come ashore. 
I followed the high water mark, thinking it would, if alive, be 
driven up by the rising tide. After a long search, on returning 
to the island, but at a distance from where the bird was shot, I 
saw a bird running at the edge of the water quite out of shot, 
which attempted to rise from the shallow water, but fell again 
into it. I now saw the bird was mine, as the water was quite 
shallow and the wind was blowing strong on shore. It again 
took the water, but I was quickly within shot of it and got it 
easily, as so soon as it was killed the wind brought it ashore. 
Now as to the birds and their states of plumage. The first is in 
a curious state. Both have moulted considerably towards their 
winter plumage. I think both are males, but the paler bird I 
could^not make out the sex of, as it was much injured by the 
shot, and was hit in the back ; but it is strange there should be 
so much dijfference in their style of moulting. The dark bird 
would seem to have commenced to moult previous to its having 
lost its summer condition, as all the renewed back feathers and 
scapulars much resemble the bird's spotted summer plumage, 
and the feathers renewed on the breast amongst the red feathers 
have all come bright buff (they looked when the bird was first 
killed almost orange colour), but I have little hesitation in saying 
that before this bird had completed its moult all these renewed 



Scraps relating to Natural History, by C. M. Adamson. 859 

feathers would have assimilated with its pale winter plumage, the 
bird's summer condition having entirely left it before that time. 
All the summer tertials are cast, and those renewed are plain, as 
are all the wing coverts, which are all new feathers, and which 
have no spots on them. It is quite clear that this bird had been 
moidting its back feathers for a length of time, as most of the 
renewed feathers had come like those of summer, but were not in 
the least worn, and evidently had been replaced since the bird 
acquired its breeding plumage in spring. On the breast it had 
a few white feathers much worn, which showed conspicuously 
a-inongst the red plumage acquired in spring, and also amongst 
the buff feathers now coming ; these I think undoubtedly were 
feathers the bird had acquired early the preceding autumn, and 
having lost their vitality before the bird acquired its summer 
condition, they remained white aU through the summer. They 
would undoubtedly have been shortly cast, and if the bird had 
entirely lost its summer condition, which it most probably would 
have done, before those feathers which would replace them had 
come, the new feathers would again come white. If they were 
cast previous to the bird's having entirely lost its summer condition 
they would begin to come buff, but probably would be white 
before they acquired the full size. This bird has not yet cast its 
top tail feathers, they being dark feathers of the mature bird 
which it got last autumn, but two light reddish-coloured spots or 
bars appear on these feathers evidently having changed colour 
during the summer by fading to a oertailn extent, and the faded 
part forming the bar or spot having acquired the red tint of 
summer, I think, showing conclusively that the feathers some 
months after having come to the full size do change colour, as 
these mature birds only cast their tail feathers in autumn and 
when those renewed show no trace of red. Some new tail feathers 
are coming with the usual plain dark outside edge of the tail of the 
mature bird, which it always gets on moulting. The other bird 
had nearly lost its summer plumage, but the winter plumage 
acquired by it is quite pale as in ordinary cases. Evidently this 
bird had lost its summer condition previous to commencing to 
moidt, but why the two birds differ so much in appearance I 
cannot explain further. In this bird the tail is changed and is 
plain, and all the renewed feathers on the back, breast, and wing 
coverts are those of the ordinary winter plumage, i.e., plain, and 
without spots. In both birds the wings are in similar condition, 



860 Scraps relating to Natural History, by C. M. Adamson. 

the primaries in each up to about the third from the end being 
cast and renewed, those next the three outside in both being short, 
and the three outside still remaining to be changed. The two 
Godwits were the only birds I shot in three days, but I was amply 
satisfied with them. It is possible the paler bird may be a female, 
but the red feathers on the breast remaining uncast are entirely 
red, and not like the plumage we see the females in before de- 
parting to breed in April and May. I may add, these birds I 
think help to prove my theory, which is that the colour of the 
feathers acquired when the individual bird moults, or its feathers 
other ways change colour, entirely depends on the condition of 
the individual at the time it acquires the new feathers, or the 
change in colour of its feathers takes place ; this condition alter- 
ing ordinarily, first when the bird begins to acquire its winter 
plumage from the young or first plumage it ever had, and also 
when it acquires its summer plumage from the winter plumage, 
and which would be the final change, except annual seasonal 
changes in those kinds which acquire their breeding plumage the 
spring after being hatched. In those kinds of birds which do 
not acquire their breeding or summer plumage the spring after 
they are hatched for want of their required age, the condition to 
make the feathers come in summer plumage is not acquired, and 
the consequence is some of these kinds of birds merely acquire a 
winter plumage the following year, or it may be a similar plum- 
age for a year or two more, till the bird, according to its genus, 
or species, arrives at suflB.cient maturity when the condition would 
render its assuming its breeding plumage a certainty. Why one 
genus or species of birds requires a longer time to arrive at 
maturity than another is a problem I leave to others more learned 
in such matters than I am to solve. I stuffed these, to me, most 
interesting birds. 

Spotted Eedshaitk. — The only time I have ever shot one of 
these birds was as follows : indeed there are not more than about 
half a dozen recorded occurrences of their appearance in the North 
of England, and all these are, like my bird, birds of the year, 
killed in August, and most probably migrating southwards from 
Lapland to Africa or the south of Europe to spend the winter. 
The reason of the rarity of this bird's appearance (and some other 
allied species) in England no doubt is, that we are too far west, 
and consequently out of their regular line of migration. These 
species are common, being found probably throughout Europe 



Scraps relating to Natural History, by C. M. Adamson. 861 

and Asia, breeding in the latitude of Lapland in these two con- 
tinents, and migrating a long way south in the winter. Copied 
from my notes : — Aug. 20tli, 1878. Two birds flying high, over 
Holy Island came suddenly down and settled about 150 yards 
from where I was sitting. I heard from their note that they 
were unknown to me, the note more resembling a Green Sand- 
piper's ; two notes, not very loud, and not resembling those of 
the Common Eedshank. I allowed them to settle quietly, and 
then surveyed the ground to see what could be done. I saw, by 
creeping, I could get a very long shot. 1 started to the point, 
and on getting there, I saw they were in line, one in the shallow 
water the other on the edge. I fired a wire cartridge from my 
old gun, and contrary to my expectations, one only rose and went 
straight away ; the other jumped up, but fell struggling in the 
water. I ran as hard as I could, as I knew I had a prize, and 
having so often lost birds when wounded rising again, I was 
anxious to secure it. A single shot had, however, hit it in the 
head. On coming up, I confess I was puzzled. It looked like a 
small Whimbrel ; the dark crown of the head, and the spotted 
back, and the under mandible was not red but livid ; the legs 
were hid in the water. On lifting it from the surface, its long 
red legs revealed the secret, and no description I can give can 
convey the sensation I felt in having shot and secured a wild rare 
bird like this the fii-st time in my life. I am not prepared to say 
what the other bird was, but I think they were alike. Singularly 
enough, knowing it was the very time for the autumnal migration 
of this bird, on the evening before I told one of my children 
that it was the very place for one ; but to have met with one and 
secured it the following day, was surprising. It fell within a 
few yards of where I got the Wood Sandpiper on the 16th of 
August the previous year. 

Greenshank. — I have met with this fine species on three oc- 
casions only, in winter plumage, near Holy Island, viz., Nov. 
10th, 1853, the 14th Feb., 1845, and 14th Nov., 1845. I have 
seen it frequently and shot it in August and September, and these, 
invariably were young birds hatched the same year on their 
migration southwards to spend the winter. They are at all times 
wary birds, generally keeping in very open spaces where they 
can easily see their enemies, and in consequence fly away before 
you can approach them. I never heard of one on this coast in 
spring. On Aug. 25th, 1879, whilst prowling about looking for 



362 Scraps relating to Natural History y by C. M. Adamson. 

strange "birds at Holy Island, I looked carefully over a wall at the 
Lough side — as usual water-hens flapped away — and I thought 
there was nothing worth shooting, however I waited, and to my 
surprise, I saw a stately looking bird come from behind a hillock. 
I gazed at it with astonishment — it evidently did not see me ; 
and before I had time to consider, another followed, and I 
waited till they got near each other and fired. The one I shot, 
the other seemed to take no notice of what had happened but 
seemed to walk leisurely on» and even when I got within a f ^w 
yards of them, I almost wondered it did not fly away, and was 
prepared to shoot it if it did. I thought it was astonished that its 
companion did not fly away, and was unwilling to leave it. 
However on getting very near the reason was apparent ; on one 
side the primaries drooped a very little ; but it never attempted 
to open its wings, merely walking on as I approached. On taking 
hold of it, however, I found it was severely wounded, but it was 
not knocked over as I should have thought it would have been. 
As a penalty for having shot the birds I set them up — they are 
as usual birds hatched the same year and only a few weeks old. 

Wood Saotdpiper. — I met with this rare bird in the North of 
England at Holy Island on the 16th August, 1877. It is, as 
usual, a young bird a. few weeks old, most probably migrating 
from the north of Europe southwards, to spend the winter perhaps 
in Africa. When I was carrying this bird tiU the blood ceased 
to flow to keep it clean, I met with a seaside gunner and shewed 
it to him, asking him if he had ever seen one like it. His imme- 
diate answer was, " There are plenty of them about in winter." 
Can anything point out more completely the little reliance that 
can be placed upon what you are told than this, which is only a 
sample of what one constantly meets with : this being a bird whose 
visits are most exceptional here, and which are almost entirely 
confined to young birds in early autumn ! 

Green Sandpiper. — In August, 1877, during very high floods 
in the Tweed district, several Green Sandpipers remained on the 
flooded grass land only about Holy Island for some days . I think 
they would have dispersed inland in ordinary seasons, but were 
detained in consequence of bends in the rivers on which they 
usually like to remain being covered with water. So soon as the 
floods abated they left entirely. I did not succeed in getting one 
of them, as they always rose from such places, as they could see 
me at a distance, and before I knew whare they were, I shot 



Scraps relating to Natural History, by C. M. Adamson. 363 

one in winter plumage whicli I now have, on the 10th Peb., 1854. 
I saw it on two occasions previously, when looking for wild ducks 
from Ewart Park, at the Glen side, when it rose out of shot ; but 
having observed the particular places it rose from, on that morn- 
ing I went quietly alone, and only looked over the place where I 
expected to find it and thus secured it. It fell on the opposite 
side of the river and when I waded across and pushed it up, it 
piped its peculiar note when in my hand. 

Sandeeling. — August, 1878. — Sanderlings were very abundant 
this year at Holy Island. On the 16th August, I saw a flock of 
at least fifty, all apparently young birds, of which I shot two. 
A few days after, the young birds were very numerous, but the 
old birds had passed on. I shot several young birds, and could 
have knied any number, but it was quite plain to see that these 
flocks were entirely composed of birds of the year, by their purer 
colour, either when rising or flying. August, 1879. — Sander- 
lings appeared as usual, but fewer old birds, by the time they 
passed on. The young came in greater quantities than the year 
before, usually in flocks by themselves. Though you can hardly 
call them wild, they are what I should call very shifty, and often 
when they rise fly great distances, too far to follow, so that you 
may see them and think they are easily got, and be disappointed. 
On the 28th of the month my young friend, George Noble, now 
Lieut. 1 3th Hussars, came over for a day or two. We went on 
to the sands and shortly after saw a flock of birds, perhaps 20, 
at some distance flying about, amongst which was a white one. 
They settled and we agreed to walk up to them for both to shoot 
at the white bird when they rose, approaching the flock in differ- 
ent directions in case they might fly round on rising too far off. 
We both shot at the white bird as they rose, one fell dead, an old 
Sanderling, the white bird separated from the others being 
wounded and flew to Noble's side and soon settled again, we went 
to it and he shot it as it rose, which it did with difficulty. It is a 
very singular bird, it was very fat and I had great difficulty in 
keeping it clean particularly in skinning it and setting it up, how- 
ever with care I got it done. The crown of the head is cream 
colored shading to white, the back pale buff with rather a darker 
V-shaped mark on the shoulders, the rest aU white, except the 
outer sides of the primaries which are rich cream colour — the 
beak and legs were olive. It is a large bird and is in perfect 
plumage— probably a young bird of the year as aU the feathers 

It 



864 Scraps relating to Natural History, by C. M. Adamson. 

seem quite fresh and not worn as they -would have been if an old 
bird at this season,but it shows no distinguishing marks as to be 
certain of its age. I am not aware of any other instance of this 
arctic bird having been anywhere met with in such a singular 
state of plumage. Though occasionally Sanderlings may be 
found on the Northumberland coast during winter, there can be 
no doubt but that the great body of them spend the winter 
much further southward. I have seen a chance mature bird 
on this coast killed in the end of September with nearly all the 
feathers on the back and the tertials changed to those of winter, 
that is grey. The young birds which either remain on our coasts, 
or those that perhaps arrive later, gradually begin to acquire the 
winter feathers on their backs in September, and as in the other 
allied kinds, acquire the grey backs by the end of the year, but 
then generally retain most of the tertials of the young bird. 
Should there be a patch of small stones or gravel or any great 
extent of sands, you will often find birds like the present kind 
upon it ; whether they get food there or they are there to escape 
detection I do not know, but I rather suspect for the latter reason, 
as when on such places they are often motionless, and perhaps you 
do not observe them until they rise. Their food consists of Sand- 
hoppers and I have also found very small mussels and other 
shells in their gizzards ; these they get from the wet sand parti- 
cularly when moved by the wind and tide. When flying in flocks 
they are constantly uttering their peculiar note resembling the 
word " chip", and as they fly in very compact flocks sometimes 
several may be kiUed should they wheel when near you. I think 
the time has come for naturalists and those who will take the 
trouble to think, to be able to see matters in their true light, and 
to give up the stupid idea so many persons will adhere to, which 
is because a bird like the present which is on our shore till June 
on its way to breed in the arctic regions, and is occasionally back 
again by the end of July — that it must in consequence breed on 
our shores. So long ago as August, 1862, 1 wrote in the "Field" 
of having met with a young bird in August with some of its nest 
down not being worn off the tips of its back feathers, and sing- 
ularly enough Capt. Fielden during Nares' expedition mentions on 
the 8th August in Eobeson's Channel having met with the young 
birds just able to fly retaining some of the down on their feathers. 
It is wonderful how soon such like birds leave the district where 
they are bred and also how quickly their fuU powers of flight 



Ornithological Notes, by Robert Gray, F.R.S.E. 365 

are given them, wliicli is as soon as ever the flight feathers have 
come to their full length. 



Ornithological Notes. By Robert Gray, F.R.S.E. 

The following notes upon various birds occuring in Hadding- 
tonshire, Mid-Lothian, and a portion of the surrounding counties, 
have been made since the date of my last report in January, 1879 : 

PESEQunra Falcon {Falco peregrinus). — There are still several 
eyries of this Falcon in Berwickshire, East Lothian, and Fif eshire. 
In one of these young birds are taken yearly for training purposes, 
and I have had repeated opportunities of examining adult birds, 
male and female, killed at other stations. A fine specimen — a 
female — was shot at North Berwick on the 18th October, 1879, 
and an equally handsome bird was killed in Fif eshire a few weeks 
ago. 

Red-footed Falcon {Falco rufipes). — A female specimen of 
this rare bird was shot at Kinghorn in Fif eshire on 21st Septem- 
ber, 1880. I examined it before it was skinned, and have the 
sternum now in my possession. 

Barn Owl {Strix flammea). — This species, which breeds regu- 
larly in the outskirts of this city, and frequents several of the 
church towers, has been much commoner in the Lothians during 
the last twelve months than in bypast years, while the 

Tawny Owl {Syrnium stridula) has not been so numerous, 
except in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, 

Q-reat Q-ret Shrike {Lanius excuUtor). — Has been met with 
repeatedly since November in Mid-Lothian and adjoining counties. 
One was shot within four miles of Edinburgh in the last week of 
January, 1881. 

Turtle Dove (Columha Turtur). — A male Turtle Dove was shot 
near Ratho on the 2nd June, 1879, and sent to Mr. Hope, Edin- 
burgh, for preservation. 

Grey Plover {Squataroh cinerea). — This species visits Porto- 
bello sands in October. I examined three which were shot there 
on the 23rd and 30th, and a fourth which was shot at Leith on 
the 30th October, 1879. 

Oyster Catcher (S<zmatopus ostralegusj. — This bird appears 



S6Q Ornithological Notes, by Kobert Gray, F.R.S.E. 

to retain the nuptial plumage until late in the season. Two 
specimens in full summer dress, wMcli I had an opportunity of 
seeing, were shot at North Berwick on the 18th October, 1879. 
I have repeatedly observed the same fact in specimens of the 
Oyster Catcher shot in other parts of Scotland as late as November. 

PiNK-POOTED Goose (Anser hrachyrynchus). — I can about calcu- 
late with certainty on seeing this species every winter in the Firth 
of Forth. I examined three specimens that were obtained from 
this district in December last. 

Bernicle Goose {Anser leucopsis). — Of late years the Bernicle 
Goose has been observed, with some regularity, to visit the Firth 
in winter. Several specimens, in very fine plumage, were pro- 
cured during the same month in which the preceding species 
occurred. 

Shelldrake ( Tadorna vulpanser) appeared to be very common 
in various parts of the Firth of Forth at the same time. About 
twenty very fine and heavy birds, richly coloured, came under 
my observation in the winter of 1879-80 : they were all taken in 
the estuary. The same remarks apply to the winter of 1880-81. 

Shoveller {Anas dypeata). — A nest of this duck, with eight 
eggs, was taken by Mr A. 0. Stark on 15th May, 1880, on the 
banks of a loch in Fifeshire. There were eight or ten pairs of 
Shovellers seen on the occasion and during subsequent visits. 

Pochard {Fuligula ferind). — The same gentleman also took a 
nest of the Common Pochard or Dun Bird, about the close of the 
month of May, on the banks of the same loch. He had seen the 
birds paired some weeks previously. Mr Stark adds to this in- 
formation his opinion that several pairs of Pochard breed annually 
on the banks of the loch referred to. 

Goosander {Mergus merganser) has been very common during 
the past winter in various localities. I saw several specimens 
that had been shot on the Yarrow and sent to Edinburgh for 
preservation. A very handsome young male bird from Dunbar, 
now in my own collection, was shot on the 21st January, 1880. 

Eed-throated Diver {Colymbus Beptentrionalis). — I examined 
a fine specimen of this diver which was shot at North Berwick 
on 18th October: it shewed marked traces of the gular patch 
yet remaining. Another specimen shot at the same place on 16th 
March was in full summer plumage ; while a third, killed on the 
same day at North Berwick, had not changed a feather from its 
winter colouring. 



Ornithological Notes, by Robert Gray, F.R.S.E. 867 

Black-teeoated DrvER {Colymbus a/rcticus). — Has occurred re- 
peatedly during tlie past winter in the Forth from Leith to Dun- 
bar. A very small specimen came under my observation : it was 
shot in the last week of February and shewed considerable traces 
of the summer plumage appearing on the back. 

Solan Goose (Sola Bassana.) — I observed on the Bass Eock 
in 1879 several young birds in the down as late as the 13th 
September. These were probably the offspring of birds that had 
been robbed of their eggs earlier in the season. 

Common Tern (Sterna Mrundo). ) ^ „, , , , ,„w 

Arctic Teen {kma arctica). \ ^^ ^^^^ ^^g^^«*' '^^79, I 
observed at the entrance to Dunbar harbour a very large and 
noisy flock of Terns including both these species. There were 
several hundred of birds in the flock, and they clustered together 
like a swarm of bees on one of the outlying rocks near the battery, 
making all the while so great an outcry as to attract the attention 
of a number of fishermen on the pier. 

Little Gull {Larus minutus). — A male Little Gull was shot 
near North Berwick on 15th August, 1879, and sent for preser- 
vation to Mr. Hope, George Street, in whose hands I saw it. 

Eednecked Grebe {Fodicepsrulricollis). — This species has been 
rather common in the Firth of Forth during the past winter 
(1880-1881). I have seen and examined a number of specimens. 
One of them was killed on the Lammermoors during a snow storm 
by a shepherd who knocked it down with a stick. Several were 
obtained near Leith pier. 

Common Sktta (Lestris cataractes) — I examined a specimen of 
this Skua which was shot at Cramond on 29th December, 1880. 
It had gone up the Firth in pursuit of a flock of Gulls and located 
itself in the neighbourhood of Cramond island where Gulls rest 
in great flocks at low tide on the sands. 

PoMAEiNE Skua [Zestris pomarinus). — I examined between 30 
and 40 specimens of this Skua that were shot in East Lothian, 
chiefly in the neighbourhood of North Berwick. The birds made 
their appearance about the middle of October, 1879. Very large 
flocks appeared off Dunbar and were so tame as to perch in 
crowds on the masonry of the pier. They would not leave on 
being shot at, which shewed they had either come shorewards 
through fatigue and stress of weathe:^, or been quite unaccustomed 
to the presence of man. Numbers were killed along the coast 



368 Lepidoptera captured by Simpson Buglass. 

between Queensferry and Berwiek-on-Tweed. One of those I 
examined had devoured part of a Kittiwake — pieces of the skin 
and neck feathers being found in its stomach. 

Butfon's Skua {Lestris Buffonii), — A male bird of this species 
■was shot at Drem in East Lothian on 17th October, 1879 ; another, 
also a male, was shot at Queensferry on the 14th of the same 
month. 

Q-EEATER Shearwater [Pufinus major). — A very fine dark 
coloured specimen of this Shearwater, probably a young bird, 
was shot at North Berwick on 25th October, 1879. 



List of Lepidoptera captured in 1879 and 1880. By Simp- 
son Buglass, Ayton. 

NoLA Cristdxalis. Ayton Castle Garden. 
Ellopia Fasciaria. Fir Woods, Ayton. 
Emmellesia Alchemellata. Ayton woods. 
Eupithecia Pimpinellata. Ayton woods. 

Larioiata. Fir woods, Ayton Castle. 

Indigata. Ayton woods. 

Vtjlgata. Ayton. 

Abstnthiata. Sea banks, Burnmouth. 

MiNUTATA. Coldingham Moors, 

AssiMiLATA. Ayton Castle Garden. 
LoBOPHORA LoBULATA. Eyo-bauks. 
NoTODbNTA DROMEDARms. Bred from Caterpillar I got feeding 

on Alder, Ale-water dean. 
Cymatophora Duplaris. Ayton woods. 
Apamea Fibrosa. Sea banks. 
Agrotis Valligera. Ayton woods. 

„ Pyrophila. Sea banks. 
Anchocelis Ltjnosa. Ayton woods. 

Cerastis Spadicea. It is plentiful. It has always been confoun- 
ded with C. Vaccinnii. 
Euperia Fulvago. Sea banks, Burnmouth. 
Hadena Dentina. Ayton Castle Garden. 
Pltjsia Inteerogationies. Captured in my own garden. 



869 

On the Occurrence of Certain Insects in 1880. By James 
Hardy. 

The year 1880 offered some remarkable instances of tlie 
prevalence of certain insects in excessive numbers, of wliicli I 
have collected a few examples within the district, to place among 
the periodical events of the seasons, which from time to time 
have been commemorated in the '' Proceedings" of the Club. 

Aphides. In the early part of the summer, towards the end 
of June, Aphides swarmed on the terminal shoots of leaves of 
gooseberries and black currants. These were ApUs Grossularice, 
a green coloured species, which was acquiring wings about July 
13th. There was an additional species {Aphis Ribis) on the 
leaves of the black currant, which caused the bushes to become 
defoliated. To keep down the gooseberry species, the tufts of 
terminal leaves on which it clustered, required to be pinched off • 
On July 13 the white-throats, as well as a pair of house-sparrows, 
were very actively engaged feeding on these Aphids. The crop 
of black currant berries was a failure. These Aphids were gen- 
erally prevalent. About the same period the young shoots of 
hawthorn were much kept back by crowds of the slate coloured 
Aphis Crataegi, as well as by mildew, that considerably im- 
paired the fine verdure of the hedgerows, which the previous 
winter's frost had also helped to blight. Eoses also became very 
unsightly by the attacks of Aphis Roses, and there might be other 
species present. The double-red Lychms diurna, a showy and 
long flowering borderer, completely lost its beauty, till July rains 
washed a portion of its enemies off, being overloaded with Aphis 
Lychnidis. Sieracium aurantiacum, a plant not easily made to 
auccumb, was greatly oppressed with Aphis Hieracii. At Chirn- 
side I observed Phyllaphis Fagi on beech fences ; but not else- 
where ; neither it, nor the blanks occasioned by its presence, 
could be detected at Morpeth. In autumn the leaves of limes at 
Tyninghame were much besmeared with honey-dew. The insects 
however — which being spotted winged are rather pretty, were 
then in a quiescent state. 

There is a puzzling species of Aphis which roUs the margins 
of the leaves of the smooth-f oliaged variety of Eieracium vulgatum, 
where it grows in crevices among the cliffs of Silurian rocks 
between Eedheugh and Dowlaw. The winged state has not yet 
teen observed. Mr. Buckton says it is a Siphomphora, but pro- 



370 On the occurrence of certain Insects, by James Hardy. 

baMy not 8. Hieracii, wbicli is not known to roll tbe edges of tbe 
leaves. It is very small, and green-coloured, and lives within 
tbe involute portion of tlie sides of tlie leaves on wbich. it operates. 
Wben both, edges are affected the leaf, when the two rolls meet, 
is like a pod. 

Chermes or Adelges Ahietis infested the terminal buds of the 
spruce-fir in an extreme degree last season, even in high exposed 
woods at 600 feet of elevation. I have seen scraggy ill-thriven 
trees almost killed with the pseudo-cones of this species; and 
some remarkable deformations of leading shoots when the gall 
had been apical. The trees affected by it appeared to be spotted 
with frost-bite, or to be sprinkled with some acid poison. On 
February 21st and 22nd, 1881, some of the females of the autumn 
brood were alive, and considerably grown — of a plum-coloured 
brown — on the bark of the shoots at the base of next year's 
buds. At that period Dr. Stuart found at Whitehall a little 
colony on the leaves of a twig of spruce, which were enclosed in 
a glazed sealed-up envelope, much darker hued than the exposed 
females. These were probably males that had not attained their 
developement when winter surprised them. This species does 
not increase solely by eggs, for the researches of Eatzeburg, 
{Forst-Insecten, Vol. III.) shew that the female can produce 
living young as well as eggs, before the winged state is attained. 
At the period referred to, the Chermes Laricis was in a very dwarf 
condition, and was concealed in the fissures of the bark of the 
larch twigs, and specked them like grains of gunpowder. In 
spring they crawl up, and attack the tufts of foliage issuing from 
the buds, shortly after it acquires prominence ; and when the 
buds are restrained by the frosts from pushing out their needles, 
they occasion great damage by absorbing the sap. When the 
trees are closely planted they aid greatly in destroying the vitality 
of the lateral branches. Larch trees in this condition have 
seldom more than a few live boughs, near the summit of the 
long lean poles that form their stem. 

Plum Scale. Dr. Stuart, 12th Feb., 1880, sent me from his 
garden at Chirnside, an assemblage of shining brown Scale 
insects, clustered round some knots on a branch of a Victoria 
plum tree. They agree to the characters assigned to Lecanium 
PersiccB (v Amygdali.) Some of the Scales have a small perfor- 
ation, whence a parasite had issued. Another Brown Scale 
found at Alnwick on a branch of black currant is mentioned 
in Club's Proc. viii. p. 403. 



On the Occurrence of certain Insects, by James Hardy. 371 

Oaterpillae, op the Apricot Stem and Branches. — Being at 
Tyninghame Gardens on Sept. Gtli, 1880, Mr. Brotherston 
directed my attention to the state of tlie Apricots. He stated that 
they were dying out on walls in a great number of gardens, and 
that this is the case at Tyninghame. A C